Sudanian Savanna

The Sudanian Savanna is a broad belt of tropical savanna that runs east and west across the African continent, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the western lowlands in the east. The Sahel, a belt of drier grasslands and acacia savannas, lies to the north, between the Sudanian Savanna and the Sahara Desert. To the south the forest-savanna mosaic is a transition zone between the Sudanian Savanna and the Guinean moist forests and Congolian forests that lie nearer the equator.

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West Sudanian Savanna (green) in West Africa
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Sudanian Savanna vegetation in Burkina Faso
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Sudanian savanna with bunchgrass tufts of Andropogon gayanus, Pama reserve, Burkina Faso.

Ecoregion

The World Wide Fund for Nature divides the Sudanian Savanna into two ecoregions, separated by the Cameroon Highlands. The West Sudanian Savanna runs from the Atlantic Ocean to eastern Nigeria,[1] and the East Sudanian Savanna runs from the Cameroon Highlands east to the western lowlands of Ethiopia.[2]

Physiographic province

The Sudanian Savanna is one of the three distinct physiographic provinces of the larger African Massive division. Physiography divides this province into three distinct physiographic sections, the Niger Basin, the Lake Chad Basin, and the Middle Nile Basin.[2]

Vegetation

The Sudanian Savanna is characterized by the coexistence of trees and grasses. Dominant tree species are often belonging to the Combretaceae and Caesalpinioideae, some Acacia species are also important. The dominant grass species are usually Andropogoneae, especially the genera Andropogon and Hyparrhenia, on shallow soils also Loudetia and Aristida. Much of the Sudanian Savanna region is used in the form of parklands, where useful trees, such as shea, baobab, locust-bean tree and others are spared from cutting, while sorghum, maize, millet or other crops are cultivated beneath.[3]

Land use

The Sudanian savanna is used by both pastoralists and farmers. Cattle are predominantly the livestock kept, but in some areas, sheep and goats are also kept. The main crops grown are sorghum and millet which are suited to the low levels of rainfall. With increasing levels of drought since the 1970s, pastoralists have needed to move southwards to search for grazing areas and have come into conflict with more settled agriculturalists.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "West Sudanian savanna". World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  2. ^ a b "East Sudanian savanna". World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  3. ^ Alain Atangana; Damase Khasa; Scott Chang; Ann Degrande (2013). Tropical Agroforestry. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 11. ISBN 978-94-007-7723-1.
  4. ^ Jayalaxshmi Mistry; Andrea Beradi (2014). World Savannas: Ecology and Human Use. Routledge. pp. 124–127. ISBN 978-1-317-88013-4.
Acridocarpus monodii

Acridocarpus monodii is a species of plant in the Malpighiaceae family. It is endemic to central Mali, where it is limited to the Bandiagara Escarpment region, in the ecotone of the West Sudanian Savanna and Sahelian Acacia Savanna.

The plants have been collected at the villages of Douentza, Kikara and Djime north of the sandstone escarpment, southwards to the village of Yabatalou where it occurs at highest density. It is associated with underground water sources, especially at the base of the cliffs, and flowers and fruits throughout the dry winter season.

It is deemed a vicariant species of A. chevalieri, which has been collected from the Manding Hills, Mali.

Afrotropical realm

The Afrotropical realm is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms. It includes Africa south of the Sahara Desert, the southern and eastern fringes of the Arabian Peninsula, the island of Madagascar, southern Iran and extreme southwestern Pakistan, and the islands of the western Indian Ocean. It was formerly known as the Ethiopian Zone or Ethiopian Region.

Badinko Faunal Reserve

The Badinko Faunal Reserve (French: Réserve du Badinko) is on the West African savanna in southwestern Mali. It is part of the UNESCO Bouce Du Baoule Biosphere Reserve, along with Boucle du Baoulé National Park, which is immediately to the northeast of Badinko. The reserve is about 140 km northwest of the capital city of Bamako. It is in Kita Cercle of Kayes Region.

The area is heavily disturbed by human pressures, particularly pastoral grazing, hunting and woodcutting; few large mammals remain. The vegetation is West Sudanian Savanna, with some dense woodlands along the Baoule River. Established in 1951, the reserve's boundaries redefined periodically thereafter to accommodate human settlement. This site is 1377 km².

Bantia Botanical Garden

The Bantia Botanical Garden is a botanical garden in Burkina Faso, consisting of an area of Sudanian Savanna, protected from human impact and fire and enriched by local plant species. It was founded in the year 2001.Situated c. 10 km south of the city Fada N’Gourma at the road towards Pama, it has an area of approximately 10 ha. Paths lead to the different habitats and to a central rest area. Furthermore, the garden includes a small museum and a guest house consisting of several rondavels.

The garden is home to 116 species of trees and 110 species of herbs.

Chad Basin National Park

The Chad Basin National Park is a national park in northeastern Nigeria, in the Chad Basin, with a total area of about 2,258 km2.

The park is fragmented, with three sectors.

The Chingurmi-Duguma sector is in Borno State, in a Sudanian Savanna ecological zone.

The Bade-Nguru Wetlands and Bulatura sectors are in Yobe State in the Sahel ecological zone.

Chilades eleusis

Chilades eleusis, the sky-blue Cupid, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Senegal, the Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso, northern Ghana, northern Nigeria, Niger, northern Cameroon, Chad, Sudan and Egypt. The habitat consists of dry habitats, Sudanian Savanna and the Sahel.

Adults feed from low-growing flowers.

The larvae feed on Acacia species.

East Sudanian Savanna

The East Sudanian Savanna is a hot, dry, tropical savanna ecoregion of Central and East Africa.

Ethiopian hare

The Ethiopian hare (Lepus fagani) is a species of mammal in the family Leporidae. It was first described in 1903, by the British mammalogist Oldfield Thomas. The dorsal pelage is brownish buff, and is finely grizzled with black. The ventral pelage is fluffy and white in colour. Endemic to Africa, it is found in the Afromontane Biozone of Ethiopia, and in the borders of the Sudanian Savanna Biozone. It is rated as a data deficient species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Euchrysops nilotica

Euchrysops nilotica, the desert blue or milky bean Cupid, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Senegal, the Gambia, Burkina Faso, northern Nigeria, Niger, northern Cameroon, southern Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia and northern Kenya. The habitat consists of arid Sudanian Savanna and the Sahel.

Geography of Mali

Mali is a landlocked nation in West Africa, located southwest of Algeria, extending south-west from the southern Sahara Desert through the Sahel to the Sudanian savanna zone. Mali's size is 1,240,192 square kilometers.

Desert or semi-desert covers about 65 percent of Mali's total area (1,240,192 square kilometers). The Niger River creates a large and fertile inland delta as it arcs northeast through Mali from Guinea before turning south and eventually emptying into the Gulf of Guinea.The territory encompasses three natural zones: the southern cultivated Sudanese zone, central semi-desert Sahelian zone, and northern desert Saharan zone. The terrain is primarily savanna in the south and flat to rolling plains or high plateau (200–500 meters in elevation) in the north. There are rugged hills in the northeast, with elevations of up to 1,000 meters.

The Niger (with 1,693 kilometers in Mali) and Senegal are Mali’s two largest rivers. The Niger is generally described as Mali’s lifeblood, a source of food, drinking water, irrigation, and transportation.The country's lowest point is on the Senegal River (23 m) and its highest point is Hombori Tondo (1155 m).

Guinean forest-savanna mosaic

The Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is an ecoregion of West Africa, a band of interlaced forest, savanna, and grassland running east to west and dividing the tropical moist forests near the coast from the West Sudanian savanna of the interior.

Kamuku National Park

The Kamuku National Park is a Nigerian national park in Kaduna State, Nigeria, with a total area of about 1,120 km2 (430 sq mi).

The park has a typical Sudanian Savanna ecology.

List of terrestrial ecoregions (WWF)

This is a list of terrestrial ecoregions as compiled by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The WWF identifies terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions.

The terrestrial scheme divides the Earth's land surface into 8 terrestrial ecozones, containing 867 smaller ecoregions. Each ecoregion is classified into one of 14 major habitat types, or biomes.

Additional ecoregions for Antarctic Realm are currently being incorporated (based on Terauds et al. 2012).

Antarctic Realm - Tundra Biome:

1 North-east Antarctic Peninsula;

2 South Orkney Islands;

3 North-west Antarctic Peninsula;

4 Central south Antarctic Peninsula;

5 Enderby Land;

6 Dronning Maud Land;

7 East Antarctica;

8 North Victoria Land;

9 South Victoria Land;

10 Transantarctic Mountains;

11 Ellsworth Mountains;

12 Marie Byrd Land;

13 Adelie Land;

14 Ellsworth Land;

15 South Antarctic Peninsula.

Terauds, A, SL Chown, F Morgan, HJ Peat, DJ Watts, H Keys, P Convey, DM Bergstrom. 2012. Conservation biogeography of the Antarctic. Diversity and Distributions 1–16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2012.00925.x

Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic

The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic is a forest and savanna ecoregion of central Africa, part of the belt of transitional forest-savanna mosaic that lie between Africa's equatorial forests and the tropical dry forests, savannas, and grasslands that lie to the north and south. The Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic lies between the equatorial Congolian forests to the south and the drier East Sudanian savanna to the north. It extends from the Cameroon Highlands in the west, across central Cameroon and the southern Central African Republic to southwestern South Sudan and northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is bounded on the east by flooded grasslands of the Sudd, the eastern block of the East Sudanian savanna, and the Albertine Rift montane forests.

Sahel

The Sahel () is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central latitudes of Northern Africa between the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. The name is derived from the Arabic word sāḥil (ساحل, Arabic pronunciation: [ˈsaːħil]) meaning "coast" or "shore" in a figurative sense (in reference to the southern edge of the vast Sahara), while the name in Swahili means "coastal [dweller]" in a literal sense.

The Sahel part of Africa includes (from west to east) parts of northern Senegal, southern Mauritania, central Mali, northern Burkina Faso, the extreme south of Algeria, Niger, the extreme north of Nigeria, central Chad, central and southern Sudan, the extreme north of South Sudan, Eritrea, Cameroon, Central African Republic and the extreme north of Ethiopia.Historically, the western part of the Sahel was sometimes known as the Sudan region. This belt was roughly located between the Sahara and the coastal areas of West Africa.

Stone partridge

The stone partridge (Ptilopachus petrosus) is a bird of the new world quail family. This largely brown bird, which commonly holds its tail raised, is found in scrubland and lightly wooded habitats, often near rocks, from Kenya and Ethiopia to Gambia (a large part if its range is in the Sudanian Savanna). As traditionally defined, it is the only member of Ptilopachus, but based on genetic evidence this genus also includes the Nahan's "francolin".

Subregion

A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location. Cardinal directions, such as south or southern, are commonly used to define a subregion.

Sudan (region)

The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān (بلاد السودان), or "the lands of the blacks", referring to West Africa and northern Central Africa. The Arabic name was translated as Negroland on older English maps.

Historically, the name was understood to denote the western part of the Sahel region. It thus roughly encompassed the geographical belt between the Sahara and the coastal West Africa. In modern usage, the phrase "The Sudan" is also used in a separate context to refer specifically to the present-day country of Sudan, the western part of which forms part of the larger region, and from which South Sudan gained its independence in 2011.

Wildlife of Guinea

The wildlife of Guinea is very diverse due to the wide variety of different habitats. The southern part of the country lies within Guinean Forests of West Africa Biodiversity Hotspot, while the north-east is characterized by dry savanna woodlands. Ecoregions of Guinea are Western Guinean lowland forest, Guinean montane forest, Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, West Sudanian Savanna, and Guinean mangroves.

Declining populations of large mammals are restricted to uninhabited distant parts of parks and reserves, because of the inappropriate nature conservation. A noteworthy NGO specialized to nature conservation is Guinean Park Foundation. Famous strongholds of Guinean wildlife are Pinselly Classified Forest, National Park of Upper Niger, Badiar National Park, Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve, Ziama Massif, and Diécké Classified Forest.

Regions of Africa
Central Africa
East Africa
North Africa
West Africa
Southern Africa
Macro-regions

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