Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile

The Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, also referred to by some media as the Third Sudanese Civil War,[15] is an ongoing armed conflict in the Sudanese southern states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile between the Sudanese Army (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), a northern affiliate of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) in South Sudan. After some years of relative calm following the 2005 agreement which ended the second Sudanese civil war between the Sudanese government and SPLM rebels, fighting broke out again in the lead-up to South Sudan independence on 9 July 2011, starting in South Kordofan on 5 June and spreading to the neighboring Blue Nile state in September. SPLM-N, splitting from newly-independent SPLM, took up arms against the inclusion of the two southern states in Sudan with no popular consultation and against the lack of democratic elections.[16] The conflict is intertwined with the War in Darfur, since in November 2011 SPLM-N established a loose alliance with Darfuri rebels, called Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF).[17]

As of October 2014, some two million people have been affected by the conflict, with more than 500,000 having been displaced and about 250,000 of them fleeing to South Sudan and Ethiopia.[18][19] In January 2015, fighting intensified as Omar al-Bashir's government tried to regain control of rebel-held territory ahead of April 2015 general elections.[20][21]

Map of Sudan (New)
Map of Sudan (after 2011)

Background

Although South Kordofan and Blue Nile are north of the international border separating Sudan and South Sudan, many of their residents (particularly in the Nuba Mountains) identify with the South. Many residents fought on the side of southern rebels during the long civil war.[22]

South Kordofan and Blue Nile were not allowed to participate in the January 2011 referendum to create South Sudan, and the "popular consultation" process they were promised also failed to take place.[23]

According to satellite imagery, during early Spring 2011, Sudan elevated dirt roads needed for tank transportation in the areas they are not traditionally elevated,[24][25] and in March 2011 it started deploying police and military installations in the area.[26]

May 2011 Abyei conflict

In May 2011, ahead of South Sudan's scheduled independence, tensions rose around the status of the Abyei Area, an oil-rich region that was statutorily part of both South Kordofan and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states. As South Kordofan was slated to remain with the North while Northern Bahr el Ghazal was seceding together with the rest of what was then Southern Sudan Autonomous Region, the status of Abyei was unclear, and both Khartoum and Juba claimed the area as their own.

On 19 May 2011, militants reportedly affiliated with the Sudan People's Liberation Army attacked a convoy of mixed Sudanese Army and UNMIS vehicles 10 km north of Abyei town as they withdrew from the area's administrative centre,[27] drawing sharp condemnation from both the Sudanese government and the United Nations.[28]

At least 15 Sudanese tanks entered Abyei town on 20 May, beginning large-scale fighting in Abyei. By 22 May, the Sudanese military had seized control of the town, and most of Abyei's residents had fled south toward Bahr el Ghazal. Both the Sudanese government and the government of Southern Sudan accused one another of violating the terms of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement.[29]

In June 2011, an African Union panel headed by former South African president Thabo Mbeki tried to de-escalate the situation through North-South talks in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa.[30] On 20 June, the parties agreed to demilitarize the contested area of Abyei, and UN peacekeepers were deployed as part of United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei on 27 June.[31] The agreement details the mechanism by which the Abyei administration council to replace the one dissolved by president Omer Hassan al-Bashir in May 2011. Its chief shall be picked by the SPLM but must be approved by the Northern National Congress Party (NCP). The deputy however, would be nominated by the NCP and endorsed by SPLM. Three of the five heads of the departments of the administrative council would be nominated by the SPLM and the remaining two by the NCP. A police service would be established for the region, with the size and composition determined by a joint committee co-chaired by northern and southern officials. The US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon welcomed the accord but said the real test would be how both sides would implement the deal.[32]

On 21 June, a statement was attributed to the NCP's official in charge of Abyei file, Didiri Mohamed Ahmed, as saying that there was an understanding reached at the Addis Ababa meeting between the two parties that South Sudan would concede future ownership of Abyei to the North. However, the spokesman of SPLA, Philip Aguer, told the press that the statement from the NCP senior official was incorrect.[33]

Conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile

2011

June

On 5 June 2011, armed conflict broke out between the government of Sudan and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (northern sector) in broader South Kordofan state, ahead of the scheduled independence of the South on 9 July.[34][35] The Northern army said that SPLA launched an attack on a police station and stole weapons prompting a response. The SPLA claimed that the Northern army attempted to disarm their units by force.[30] That day JEM rebels claimed to have destroyed an army camp in the area of Jama, South Kordofan, killing 38 soldiers and wounding other 27.[36]

On 14 June, the UN accused the Sudanese government of carrying out an "intensive bombing campaign" near the north-south border which has led to "huge suffering" for civilians in South Kordofan. Some 140,000 people have fled the fighting. Aid agency offices have been looted, churches have been ransacked and buildings destroyed. Aid workers say that ethnic Nubans are being targeted by the northern military and Arab militias. This was denied by Rabbie Abdelattif Ebaid, an adviser to Sudan's information minister, who said that only rebel fighters were being targeted.[22]

On 15 June, US President Barack Obama called for a ceasefire urging both the North and South to "live up to their responsibilities" to prevent a return to civil war. The head of the worldwide Anglican church, Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams said: "The humanitarian challenge is already great, and the risk of another Darfur situation, with civilian populations at the mercy of government-supported terror, is a real one".[35]

On 19 June, Sudanese president Omer Hassan al-Bashir accused the SPLM-N of "betrayal" in South Kordofan. "If they want war...we will show them practically like what happened in Abyei and South Kordofan" Bashir said. "It is better that they [SPLM-N] come to us in good terms and we will be better than them," he added. The Northern Army said that it would continue its military campaign in South Kordofan, which included aerial bombardment, until it crushes the rebellion led by former deputy governor and leading SPLM-N figure Abdelaziz al-Hilu. Fighting intensified around the state capital of Kadugli.[30]

July–August

On 6 July JEM field commander announced that his forces were able to defeat an army battalion in a field near Heglieg, comprising fifty four members, arranged a trap for the army battalion, which was composed of nine Land Cruiser cars. The head of the battalion was killed, along with two other soldiers.[37]

On 11 July, clashes were reported in Fula, South Kordofan.Sudanese Federal National Front claimed that their forces killed 20 government troops, and destroyed four of the seven Landcruisers, that carried the government troops. Their spokesman said that they also seized fire arms and ammunition. The remainder of the government troops fled.[38]

Fighting continued after South Sudan gained independence on 9 July, though the Sudanese government insisted that order had been restored in South Kordofan proper.

A UN report leaked on 18 July documented alleged war crimes in South Kordofan, blaming both sides but reserving many of its heaviest accusations for the Sudanese government. The following day, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Valerie Amos called for an independent investigation into atrocities possibly committed during the conflict. Amos said the government of Sudan should lift its restrictions on access to the region.[39] The alleged human rights abuses include "forced disappearances, targeting of UN staff and summary executions."[40]

Joint SPLM-N and JEM forces defeated government forces from 10–17 July in the Nuba Mountains. An army garrison in Al-Tais was captured by rebels. By the end, 150 government soldiers and 1 rebel were killed, considerable numbers of weaponry including light and heavy machine guns and artilleries, RBJ, AK47 and anti air craft missiles were captured by rebels. Also 3 rebels were captured.[41]

However, a JEM leader among the militants captured was later sentenced to death by hanging, state-run media reported on 27 August.[42] Around the same time, the Sudan Tribune reported that the SPLM-N, the JEM, and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) had formed a tentative alliance to resist the federal government in Khartoum.[43]

September–December

On 1 September, SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan claimed the military was deliberately destroying crops and farms belonging to the Nuba people in an attempt to starve the state into submission.[44] Meanwhile, state-run media claimed SPLM-N guerrillas killed 17 civilians, including children, and wounded 14 in the Kalugi region of South Kordofan the same day.[45]

On 7 September, clashes between Abdel Wahid's Sudan Liberation Army and Sudanese army were reported in Jebel Marra, rebels claimed to have killed 40 government soldiers and captured six of their vehicles. Three rebels were killed and another four were wounded.[46]

A spokesman for the Sudanese military said that SPLM-N militants attacked army positions in Ad-Damazin, the capital of Blue Nile state, late on 1 September. Governor Malik Agar disputed this account, saying the army attacked Blue Nile state institutions first, including his official residence.[47] The military quickly took control of Ad-Damazin, and Khartoum sacked Agar and replaced him with a military governor. Agar and his allies regrouped in southern Blue Nile. On 2 September, the federal government declared a state of emergency in the state. The Sudanese Air Force reportedly carried out strike missions, bombing SPLM-N villages and towns.[48] The SPLM-N claimed four civilians were killed in an aerial bombing of Kormok.[49]

By 22 September, the SPLM-N claimed victory in several battlefields (in the areas of Ibri, locality of Dlami; Angrto, locality of Talodi and Abolhassan, in the locality of Cdarno) killing 25 soldiers and militias belonging to the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and captured several soldiers and weapons. Some degree of notoriety was accorded to the SPLM-N's use of Rick Derringer's "Rock 'n' Roll Hoochie Koo" as something of a battle anthem during the 2011 violence.[50]

The SPLM-N's Darfuri allies, the JEM and the SLM, issued a joint statement on 4 September condemning the Sudanese military's use of force against the SPLM-N in Blue Nile, calling it a plot to spread "chaos and killing" across the country. They also called on the United Nations Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Blue Nile, Darfur, and South Kordofan.[51]

SAF in North Kordufan
Helicopters, Antonov An-26s, MiG-29s and other aircraft at El Obeid Airbase where the SAF are believed to be attacking from.

The Sudanese military claimed on 10 September to have broken an SPLM-N "siege" of Qiessan, near the Ethiopian border, and evacuated its wounded from the town, though it was unclear whether they took control of Qiessan outright or just escaped from the area. Both Agar and Yahia Mohamed Kheir, the military governor appointed by Bashir, claimed control of 80 percent of Blue Nile state. Meanwhile, the Sudanese government said 5,000 people had fled their homes in Blue Nile as a result of the fighting, and Information Minister Sana Hamad al-Awad claimed it had proof the South Sudanese government was paying the salaries of SPLM-N fighters across the border.[52]

By 3 October, SPLM-N forces clashed with Sudanese army in South Kordofan killing 47 army members, including three well-known militia leaders and cinjuring 23 more.[53]

On 9 October, SPLM-N rebels ambushed government soldiers in Khor Adrak in Blue Nile, killing 30 of them and destroying three army vehicles and capturing another one.[54]

The Sudanese military seized control of Kurmuk, the former stronghold of the SPLM-N in Blue Nile state, on 2 November. President Omar al-Bashir visited the town four days later to declare it "liberated". He also threatened South Sudan with war, accusing it of supporting the SPLM-N in its anti-government activities.[55][56]

2011 SPLM-N South Kordofan Frontlines Map
SPLM-N control in South Kordofan in October 2011.
* Grey - SPLM-N-controlled territory
* Red - Sudan Government controlled territory
* White - South Sudan territory

On 10 November, it was reported that the Sudanese government bombed Yida camp in South Sudan's Unity state soon after 12:00 GMT the same day. Two Antonov makeshift bombers were seen leaving the area. They were said to have dropped five bombs, four detonating. The local official Miabek Lang said at least 12 people had been killed and 20 wounded during the strike. The Sudanese government has denied the claims.[57]

Darfuri factions and the SPLM-N in Blue Nile and South Kordofan states announced the formation of an alliance called the Sudanese Revolutionary Front on 12 November. The stated goal of the coalition is to overthrow the Bashir government and install a democratic system in Sudan.[17]

On 23 November, SLA-AW forces clashed with SAF forces in North Darfur's Kabkabiya region and taking over 10 Land Cruisers loaded with guns in addition to capturing three soldiers, one of the rank of a sergeant. 35 army soldiers were killed in the clashes. Rebels claimed the victory on the battlefield.[58]

The Sudanese Armed forces said they managed on 5 of December to defeat the rebels of the SPLA in South Kordofan's region of Lake Alubaid, where the armed forces seized the head of division nine in all its three camps.The Sudan People's Liberation Movement however strongly denied this happening, and asserted in return that it had destroyed a whole unit of militias affiliated to the National Congress Party and its armed forces near the city Toroj, killing 60 of the Sudanese army and militia and destroying 3 armored vehicles.They also stated that they took over armored vehicles and artillery guns with a number of ammunition and fuel.[59]

On 9 December, SAF and SPLM-N rebels claimed victory (both) in South Kordofan battle. Rebels claimed to have killed 40 Abu Tira soldiers (pro-government), including the head of the team. They also said that three Land Cruiser cars loaded with guns were destroyed; three artilleries and tens of light weapons, including RBG 7 and BKM machine guns were taken over. They also claimed to have dispersed militias of the National Congress Party (NCP) under the head of Kafi Tayar who attacked Dalkoma, ten kilometers south of Kadugli, resulting in the death of nine.[60]

SPLM-N fighters in South Kordofan reported turning back Sudanese army elements attempting to dislodge them from positions in Warni on 10 December, as well as the capture of the localities of Abu al-Hassan and al-Rashad three days earlier. The battles left 19 dead, a spokesman for the rebel group claimed.[61]

By 12 December, fighting had shifted to Taruje, near the international border with South Sudan. In a related skirmish, South Sudanese and Sudanese regular divisions clashed at Jau, a disputed town on the border, in what a Sudanese army spokesman described as a victory for Khartoum's soldiers.[61]

On 21 and 22 December, students began protesting at the University of Khartoum and the Red Sea University in a flare-up of anti-government protests that began in January. A number of Darfuri students at the Red Sea University threatened to leave in protest after several student leaders were arrested late on 21 December, and by 25 December, they had declared their allegiance to the Sudan Revolutionary Front and were calling for the overthrow of the Sudanese government.[62] Several students at the University of Khartoum, including at least one Darfuri student association head, were taken into custody by security troops on 22 December after a multiethnic protest against the Merowe Dam in solidarity with the Manasir facing displacement as a result of its construction.[63] The students in Khartoum also began agitating for the government's ouster on 24 December, following the clashes and arrests on campus two days earlier.[64]

On 25 December, Justice and Equality Movement leader Khalil Ibrahim was intercepted and killed along with 30 of his fighters in North Kordofan, west of Wad Banda. Sudanese state media reported Ibrahim was defeated in fighting with the army. JEM confirmed Ibrahim's death, but said he had been killed by an airstrike, not in combat with Sudanese ground troops. Ibrahim's death came one day after JEM fighters struck three villages in the state.[65]

2012

January–April

SPLM-N
SPLM-N fighters in 2012

By early January, reports of malnutrition and hunger increased in the conflict-afflicted zones. According to the United Nations, close to 417,000 people had been displaced, including 80,000 who fled to South Sudan.[66]

By 20 January, heavy clashes broke out in Blue Nile state between SAF and SPLM-N. Rebels claimed to have destroyed an army helicopter that was trying to rescue some troops. In the clashes 26 soldiers and 7 rebels were killed. Also 6 rebels were wounded.[67]

In the 1 February, clashes between Justice and Equality Movement soldiers and a group of armed Arab citizens in East Darfur left 3 rebels killed, the attacks occurred as a response to repeated violations by JEM in the area.[68]

On 22 February, SLM-MM forces killed 12 government soldiers and took control of the Alawna area, in Dar El Salaam locality, south of El Fasher, in North Darfur.The SLM-MM also said they destroyed one vehicle and stole another belonging to government forces and said one of their soldiers was wounded in the fighting.[69]

On 26 February, rebels from the recently formed Sudan Revolutionary Front claimed to have killed up to 130 Sudanese soldiers in an attack on a Sudanese army garrison around Lake Obyad, near the border with South Sudan.[70]

South Sudan accused the north of bombing two Southern oil wells using its air force on 1 March, destroying both structures, allegations the north denied. The incident raised fears that war could break out between the two countries.[71]

During this, in the 6 of this month, JEM rebels and Sudanese army clashed in North Darfur. The JEM claimed to beat and killed soldiers, and destroyed vehicles and weapons belonging to government troops.[72]

On 26 March, the Sudanese air force bombed areas of Unity state in South Sudan, and sent army and militia forces across the border. South Sudanese forces counter-attacked and seized control of the Heglig oil fields as South Sudan's President Salva Kiir warned of war.[73]

On March 30, more fighting was reported in the border area between the Sudanese Army and rebels.[74]

On 1 April, the SRF claimed to have the control of Heglig, were they killed hundreds of government soldiers, forced others to flee and seized many of their weapons and armoured vehicles. Also SLM-AW claimed to have beaten government soldiers in Darfur, were they destroyed eight vehicles and seized one loaded with weapons.[75]

On 12 and 13 April, the rebels claimed to had killed 79 government troops and captured another nine in two ambushes in the mountainous terrain, about 35 kilometres south of the Blue Nile state capital of Ed Damazin. For their part they stated three of their fighters were killed and seven wounded in the fighting. The government had no comment on the claim. The previous week the rebels also stated that they killed 13 soldiers for the loss of one rebel in an ambush 20 kilometres (12 miles) south of Ed Damazin. The government denied those losses.[76]

On 15 April, government troops took control of Mugum, a stronghold of the pro-southern rebels, in the Blue Nile state, near South Sudan's border. The government news service claimed, per an "informed" military source, that 25 rebels were killed.[77] On the 9 of May, SRF withdrew from Gereida after taken the control of the city some days before, were SLM-AW claimed to have killed 17 soldiers, destroyed a tank and six trucks along with the army's weapon stores.[78]

July–September

On 3 July, fighting between the Sudanese Armed Forces and an Arab rebel movement broke out in West Darfur, rebels destroyed 10 government cars and captured 25 soldiers, also 6 rebels were killed, 4 injured and 2 captured.[79]

On 6 July, a state official of Sudan was killed among 7 others in an attack on a government convoy. Ibrahim Balandiya, South Kordofan's parliament speaker, was attacked between two villages in the region. He is the most senior official to be killed during the whole conflict, according to state news agencies. Sudan blamed SPLM-N for the attack which also killed another state official.[80] The other official was Faisal Bashir, the head of South Kordofan's strategic planning committee, according to SUNA.[81]

On 24 July, Sudan army says that they killed 50 JEM rebels and destroyed several vehicles, but this was denied by the rebels [82]

On 23 July, Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) clashed with government forces and militia in Kirkdy, South Kordofan and in Alhtbaun, North Kordofan. Rebels say that they killed or wounded dozens of government troops since the clashes started and they took control of two tanks and 20 vehicles.[83]

On 25 July, clashes between SPLM-N and SAF resulted with 46 army soldiers killed, 32 wounded and 5 rebels killed. Rebels won the battle and took control of the area, Al Sanot County in South Kordofan.[84]

On 29 July, rebels announced the destruction of a camp belonging to the Armed Forces in El-Meiram area, South Kordofan.The SRF killed seven and injured three others of the government troops, including the camp commander, ranked captain. Also, they seized one vehicle and destroyed another. In addition, they seized large quantities of weapons and ammunition. Also 1 rebels was killed and another was injured.[85]

On 3 June, SRF forces claimed to have defeated government in Fataha in Al Lait Jar al Naby locality in North Darfur,capturing 18 of their vehicles. Sudanese authorities claimed to killed 40 rebels, destroying many trucks and losing some soldiers, but this was deniyed by the rebels.[86]

On 7 June,seven government troops were killed and six missing in Tabaldi in East Darfur after clashes with the Sudan Revolutionary Front.[87]

On 26 June, SRF forces attacked a government convoy in the village of Dugu Al Umda, close to Al Malam in South Darfur, killing up to 100 soldiers, capturing 60 vehicles and destroying 5. Also 3 rebels were injured.[88]

By 1 August, SPLM-N accused the government forces of killed, wounded and abducted dozens of people in South Kordofan. A number of villages in the El-Abbasiya Tagaley county, South Kordofan, were burned. Rebels who were protecting these villages clashed with government forces, killing 17 of them and wounding 27 others.[89]

An army vehicle traveling in the western part of South Kordofan was ambushed on the 21 of August, the Sudan Revolutionary Front has announced. The ambush on the road between Muglad and Babanusa left dead 11 army troops. The attack was carried by SLM-MM troops.[90]

On 22 August, clashes between SPLA-North and SAF were reported in the villages of El-Houta and El-Daein, in Rashad Locality South Kordofan. Sudanese Revolutionary Front allegedly killed 17 and injured another 24 soldiers of the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and pro-government militias also two Land Cruiser vehicles and a truck were destroyed during a battle. 1 SRF soldier was killed and another2 were injured during the battle.[91]

In the 25 of August, Sudanese army claimed to have killed 17 rebels and wounding dozens in South Kordofan, and they retaken the control of Al Murib.Their spokesman added that 1 of his soldiers was killed and another nine were injured.On the other hand, SRF announced killing 61 SAF and pro-government militias' soldiers, and injuring dozens.Rebel troops also seized large quantities of weapons and ammunition. They also onfirmed the loss of five SPLA-N soldiers and injuring seven other soldiers.[92]

On 6 September, the Sudanese army claimed to have killed 77 rebels . 45 of them were killed in Hajar Al-Doum, South Kordofan and the 32 others were killed in Al-Aradeep Al-Ashara, North Darfur, also they claimed to have destroyed 10 of the rebel armed vehicles.[93]

Heavy clashes were reported since the 7 of September in several areas. In El-Aradib El-Ashara area, which is under SRF control, government forces were able to evacuate 85 bodies and 25 injured soldiers in large trucks. SRF confirmed they were in control of El-Aradib El-Ashara area as well as defeating government forces in Khazzan Tunjur area. Adam Saleh, official spokesperson of SLM-Minnawi, denied the Sudanese army's claim that 32 SRF soldiers were killed and ten of their cars were destroyed in East Jebel Marra. SRF in South Kordofan announced on September 8 that they managed to defeat government troops in the 'Kilo 50' area, between El-Dibab and El-Muglad. Clashes were also reported in the Nuba Mountains, where SRF (belonging to SPLM-N) announced defeating government troops and militias attempting to occupy the villages of Dloka and Daldako South and northeast of Kadugli city, also SLA troops killed 9 government soldiers and injuring 25 other government soldiers.[94]

On 20 September, heavy clashes between SLA-MM and SAF occurred in Kolghe, East Jebel Marra, North Darfur, where 80 government soldiers and 1 rebel were killed. Rebels also got 1 injured, but their forces seized 12 Land Cruisers loaded with different weapons and mortars, 12 rifles, 14 Dushkas and one vehicle holding two long-range Hauser missiles. Sudanese Air Forces destroyed two army vehicles carrying heavy weapons, which the SRF was trying to seize.[95]

On 25 September, SLM-MM forces killed dozens of government soldiers and pro-government militias and destroying 5 of their vehicles during the clashes, which took place in Hashaba area.[96]

Clashes took place between Tabit and Shangil Tobai, East Jebel Marra, North Darfur, on 27 September where joint troops of SLM-Minnawi, Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and SLM-Abdel Wahid fought together and killed and injured dozens, they also completely destroyed 180 vehicles belonging to the SAF and to pro-government militias. Rebels captured these area.[97] According to the SAF, 70 rebels were killed and only 12 army soldiers were slain. On its turn, the SRF announced that as a result of last Thursday's battle, 84 government troops were killed and several got injured.In addition, they claimed to have seized 23 small vehicles carrying light and heavy munition, three trucks, fuel and four trucks loaded with munition and other supplies.[98]

October–December

Mustafa Tambor, spokesman of SLM-Abdul Wahid, announced the killing of 22 Sudanese government troops on Monday, 1 October. He said they attacked a government convoy traveling from Ribeige locality in North Kordofan to Al-Aiyd Jaranebi locality, in North Darfur. They also seized 16 of the vehicles and burned another nine.[99]

By 14 October, SRF killed 21 army soldiers and 7 pro-government militias in a battle against government forces in South Kordofan, on October 14. Government forces claimed to have captured 1 rebel.[100] By the same day, rebels announced that their troops managed to clear the area of Surkum, Blue Nile, and that the government troops suffered heavy losses during the battles. SRF troops seized two tanks and two Land Cruiser vehicles from the government. Also SRF troops killed seven government troops' elements in the battle, including a lieutenant in South Kordofan. Government claimed to have killed 12 rebels, injured another dozen and captured one who were attacking the village of Umm Dehelib, in Kalogi locality.[101]

By the 15th of this month, JEM and SAF forces clashed in the area of Umm Zeifah, South Kordofan, where dozens of government forces were killed, including the force commander. The rebels destroyed three army vehicles and seized two another two that were carrying large quantities ammunition and weapons.[102]

On 18 October, clashes were reported in the area of Abu Delek southeast of El-Fasher. 63 government troops were killed and dozens injured during the battle, SRF troops seized 19 Land Cruiser vehicles and destroyed eight other vehicles, as well as seizing several light and heavy machine guns and ammunition. 1 SRF soldier was killed and 3 others were injured. After the battle SRF troops were in full control of the area of Abu Delek.[103]

The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) announced killing 6 Sudanese military troops in South Kordofan on 22 October, a Sudanese soldier was also captured and rebels also seized weapons and ammunition from the army vehicles.[104]

The Sudan People Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) announced it killed 30 Sudanese government troops and injured another 25, in East El-Leri, South Kordofan on 31 October when the rebel group attacked and destroyed a camp of government troops and seized their guns and weapons. 1 SPLM-N soldier was killed during the battle and that another 4 got lightly wounded.[105]

The Sudan People Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) announced to have killed 70 Sudanese government troops and wounded another 150 on 2 November. In addition, six SPLM-N soldiers were killed and 16 got injured. The clashes occurred in Del Da'ako northeast of Kadugli, South Kordofan.[106]

By 7 November, SPLM-N forces claimed to have shot down an Antonov airplane after it carried out air bombings in South Kordofan. On the same day, SPLM-N ambushed and killed 10 Sudanese soldiers between Hajar-jawad and Angarko villages, on the Kadugli-Dilling highway.[107]

Clashes between troops of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) and the Sudanese army on November 9 in Wadi Murrah, near Tabet in North Darfur, reportedly killed and injured more than 100 elements of the Sudanese army.SLM-MM also captured 7 soldiers and six vehicles loaded with Katyusha rockets, three vehicles with anti-aircraft missiles and five loaded with food and medicine.4 rebels were killed and another 10 were injured.[108]

The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) reportedly destroyed a Sudanese army camp in Alhigairat, located west of the Kadugli airport, killing 23 soldiers from the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) on 14 November. Many other Sudanese soldiers got injured and another 11 were captured during the attack, 1 rebel was killed and another 11 got slightly injured. Rebels found six women and two children in the army camp, who were 'taken to safer area'. The SRF also seized one 12.7mm machine gun, one mortar 82mm, four mortars 60mm, four R.P.G-7s, four P.K.M machine guns and a large quantity of various ammunition and shells.[109]

The Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdelwahid (SLM-AW) announced killing 83 Sudanese soldiers in the area of Ed el-Nabq, in Kabkabiya locality, North Darfur on 23 November.Other 4 soldier were wounded. Rebels also seized 'heavy and light weapons, various types of ammunition and five Land Cruiser vehicles'.[110]

SPLA-N forces ambushed Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) patrolling troops on the road between Kaluba village and Alfaid village, west of Rhada city on November 24. 6 members of the SAF were killed.[111]

On 5 December, Sudanese army claimed victory over LJM rebels in the western gate of El-Fasher, killing 2 of them, capturing 3 rebels and 3 vehicles.[112]

On 10 December 2012, the Sudanese army, reinforced by a few paramilitaries of the Popular Defense Forces, attacked the Sudan People Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Daldoko, northeast of Kadugli, South Kordofan. The attack was made from two direction : a diversionary direct attack and a main flank maneuver. This latter forces was ambushed and repelled. According to the rebels, after a first T-55 tank was destroyed, the government soldiers fled, abandoning 4 other tanks.[113] On next day, the movement announced 27 government soldiers had been killed and 3 captured while 3 rebels had been killed and 11 wounded in the clashes. The rebel movement claimed to have seized seven tanks from the army, five of which in good condition, while the other two were destroyed. Besides, two "big cars" were reportedly confiscated, and three mounted Land Cruisers, one was in good condition and the other two were destroyed.[114] The capture of 4 T-55 and 1 BRDM-2 has been confirmed by an independent report. On 12 December, the Sudanese army lost at least another BRDM-2 and one BTR-80A in another combat.[113]

The SPLM-N claimed on 16 December that government forces attacked several localities in the Nuba Mountains. The rebels claimed to have killed 12 Sudanese soldiers and wounding another 16, also 3 rebels were injured in the clashes.[115]

On 15 December, 8 Sudanese soldiers were killed and another 4 injured after a fighting in a dispute between them in the garrison of Mornei, located on the north side of the city.[116]

On 16 December, a wrongly Sudanese Air Force airstrike killed 27 of its own soldiers and left four army vehicles destroyed and dozens of soldiers injured in the area of Bir Jaber in East Jebel Marra.[117]

By 17 December, SLM-AW rebels attacked an army convoy in an area west of Kabkabiya, North Darfur, killing 18 of them. On a different event, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) claims to have captured the army Lieutenant Tahir Ahmed Ibrahim, from White Nile, and seized three vehicles mounted with heavy artillery and three dushkas, along with a large amount of fuel.[118]

On 18 December SLM-AW killed more than 20 Sudanese soldiers in an attack on an army base in Jebel Moon, locality of Seleia in West Darfur, also seized six military vehicles loaded with arms and ammunition. 2 rebels were killed in the attack.[119]

A fierce battle between the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan Revolutionary Forces (SRF) of Abdel Wahid left tens of combatants killed in West Jebel Marra area, Central Darfur,the battle on 23 December and finished the next day. According to the SRF the government lost over 90 people, while the rebels reported at least 7 fatal casualties and 10 wounded combatants. the SRF claimed to had captured the major SAF base in the central town of Golo, leaving the government with only two strongholds in Jebel Marra. The rebels, of SLM-AW faction, destroyed the entire base and captured 15 pick up trucks and weapons.[120]

On 28 of December, SLM-AW rebels captured two key garrison towns of the Sudan Armed Forces in Darfur, where 47 government soldiers and 2 rebels were killed. Also 4 rebels were injured.[121]

2013

January–April

On 7 January, heavy fighting between SAF and SLM-AW rebels in West Jebel Marra, Central Darfur left 70 soldiers and 5 rebels dead, other 7 rebels were injured. Rebels also destroyed 25 government Land Cruisers and seized another 11 vehicles loaded with weapons. Rebels claimed to be currently in full control of the Jildu garrison.[122]

But on 9 January, Sudanese army claimed to have the control of Jildu after killing 30 of the rebels.[123]

On 13 January, Sudanese army claimed to have clashed with SPLM-N rebels in the areas of El-Homra and El-Ehemer, South Kordofan, killing 50 of them, destroying 4 of their tanks and losing several soldiers. This was deniyed by the rebels, who claimed that 43 government troops were killed, hundreds were injured and two army tanks and two Land Cruisers were destroyed in the battles. They added the SAF killed 8 rebels, injured 21 and destroyed 2 of their tanks.[124]

By the same day SLJM rebels claimed to have killed more than 25 government troops and its militias in a combat in South Darfur. Also 3 rebels were killed the rebels had two of their vehicles destroyed but managed to seize several heavily armed Land Cruisers and ammunition belonging to the military. One army garrison was destroyed.[125]

On 19 January, Sudanese government forces attacked the SPLM-N in the village of Al-Shifir, South Kordofan, where 4 government soldiers and 2 rebels were killed, also 4 were injured.[126]

In the 6 of February, a battle near Golo, Central Darfur, left 52 Sudanese soldiers and 5 SLM-AW rebels killed. Rebels also captured 13 soldiers, seized 21 Land Cruisers and damaged three vehicles belonging to the army.[127]

In the next day, SLM-AW rebels seized a military bade near Golo, killing 123 Sudanese soldiers and capturing nine Land Cruisers mounted with Dushkas and three long-range missiles belonging to the army. Also rebels had 3 killed and others wounded.[128]

On 12 February, SLM-AW rebels clashed with SAF in the area of Carmel, east of Golo, where the rebels defeated the army, killing 39 Sudanese soldiers. They also captured two Land Cruisers loaded with weapons and destroyed five others, all of which belonged to the government.

On 14 February, SLM-MM and JEM rebels battle with government forces in the area of Umm Gunja in Bilel locality, near Nyala in South Darfur, killing 87 soldiers, capturing another 9 and capturing 11 of their vehicles.[129]

On 20 February, the Sudanese army claimed to liberate the area of Mapho in South Kordofan, killing 66 SPLM-N rebels and wounding another 70, destroying a tank, four Land Cruiser vehicles and two tractors, and suffering several casualties. This information was deniyed by the rebels.[130]

The next day, SPLM-N forces expelled government forces from the area of Mapho in Blue Nile state. Sudanese army admitted the rebel victory, and to have suffered big losses in the battle.[131]

On 25 February, SLM-Juba Unity rebels claimed to have killed 17 Sudanese soldiers in clashes on the area of Al Aradeeb Al Ashara, East Jebel Marra in North Darfur. The movement claimed destroying 9 cars and seizing 4 Land Cruiser vehicles mounted with Dushka's machine guns. In addition, the movement's leader stated five Sudanese soldiers were captured. Abdel Shafi said that 2 of the movement's men were killed during the battle and 3 men were injured.[132]

On 4 March, Sudanese army claimed victory onm JEM rebels in the Wad Bahr village in Wad Banda locality in North Kordofan after the rebels entered in the country from South Sudan, killing many of them. Rebels deniyed this, but they claimed to fight with SAF forces in the same area killing 100 soldiers and seizing 25 Land Cruisers, two Ural trucks, two commander tanks and score of weapons.[133]

A joint rebel offensive (JEM and SLM-MM) in the road connecting Tawila and El Fasher in the area of Kuim, North Darfur, killed 25 Sudanese soldiers, captured many soldiers and 2 armed vehicles and destroyed more.[134]

The rebel groups Sudan Liberation Movement for Justice (SLMJ of Karbino) and Sudan Liberation Movement- Unity (SLM-Unity of Abdullah Yahiya) claimed an attack on Abu Tira convoy in north of El Fasher in North Darfur, killing 7 of them and capturing 1 vehicle. 2 rebels were killed and another was injured.[135]

On 12 March, SPLM-N rebels and SAF forces clashed in the Blue Nile State. In the battle SAF claimed to have killed 40 rebels, destroyed a tank and two vehicles belonging to the rebels and confiscated quantities of heavy weapons and ammunition. Rebels claimed to have killed 16 soldiers, wounded another 26 and destroyed 7 of their vehicles.[136]

On 15 March, heavy clashes between SLM-MM rebels and government forces left hundreds of people killed. Rebels killed 260 government soldiers; 170 soldiers and 90 militias; captured 36 officers and seized 23 vehicles. According to rebels, 3 of their soldier were killed and 6 were injured. Rebels gained the control of Abga Radji Biaman area.[137] According to the Sudanese government 100 rebels were killed or injured in the battles and 14 of their vehicles were destroyed.[138]

On 6 April, clashes between SLM-MM and government forces in South Darfur left dozens killed on both sides.[139]

In the 7 of April, SLM-MM rebels seized Muhajeriya in East Darfur, killing up to 70 Sudanese soldiers and destroying 2 armed Land Cruisers.[140]

On 8 April, clashes between SLM-MM seized the village of Ishma at about 8 kilometers from Nyala in South Darfur, where 100 government soldiers and several rebels were killed. SAF forces also lost 4 heavily armed vehicles.[141]

In the same day, the rebel groups SLMJ and SLA-AW killed 18 Sudanese soldiers when they seized the Dobbo garrison in North Darfur. The rebel forces seized food, weapons and five Land Cruisers belonging to the SAF besides destroying a Renault truck and a Land Cruiser vehicle.[142]

On 14 April, SLM-MM rebels seized a military base in South Darfur located in a strategic region. 40 Sudanese soldiers were killed during the takeover.SLA-MM also seized two vehicles and a large number of weapons belonging to the Sudanese army.[143]

On the 16 April, 15 Sudanese soldiers and 4 SPLM-N rebels were killed when the rebels captured the Dandor garrison near Kadulgi, rebels also captured three trucks, three Korean-made jeeps mounted with Dushkas MG, in addition to mortars and several different types of ammunition.[144]

On 18 April, SLM-AW rebels captured two garrisons near Nyala in South Darfur, killing 17 Sudanese soldiers, captured many weapons and ammunition, and 10 Land Cruisers mounted with heavy artillery.[145]

On 22 April, SLM-MM rebels attacked the Nyala airport, and defeated government forces in Morla, killing 100 of them, capturing 10 vehicles and destroying another 13 and 1 tank.[146] But Sudanese army claimed to be in control of Morla, where they claimed to killed dozens of rebels. Rebels deniyed this and claimed that only 5 of their fighters were killed.[147]

May–June

On 8 May, rebel forces claimed to have killed 60 government soldier who were trying to racapture the city of Abu Karshola, South Kordofan. Also 9 soldier were captured and a MIG aircraft was shooting down.[148]

By 14 May, rebels killed 411 Sudanese soldiers who were trying again to recapture Abu Karshola, SRF forces destroyed 37 military vehicles. They also captured a tracked armoured vehicle and five large trucks, as well as 26 Land Cruisers loaded with weapons, ammunition, machine guns and other equipment. Also 44 soldiers were captured.[149] But some days later, rebels made a tactical withdrawal from the city.[150]

On 27 May, SPLM-N rebels and SAF forces both claimed victory over the Dandor garrison east of Kadugli, capital of South Kordofan. Rebels killed many Sudanese soldiers and destroyed a tank and two Land Cruiser vehicles loaded with weapons, for the loss of five SRF men killed in the battle. The Sudanese government claimed to have killed 70 rebels in the fighting.[151]

On 31 May, rebels attacked again Abu Karshola, downing a chopper (the 6 soldiers inside were killed) and killing 30 and capturing 3 Sudanese soldiers.The SRF also captured a Land Cruiser with ten 120mm mortars and destroyed another five similar vehicles loaded with weapons.[152]

On 4 June SLM-MM killed 46 Sudanese soldiers in a battle in the Tor Taan region in South Darfur. Rebels also captured 24 vehicles in good condition and various types of ammunition and rocket launchers. This is in addition to the 80 fuel tankers the SLA-MM claim to have captured in the previous days.[153]

On 9 June, a new rebel attack on Abu Karshola killed 14 Sudanese soldiers and captured another 5.[154]

On 10 June, SLM-AW rebels clashed with SAF forces in south of the Thur area, Central Darfur, killing 29 soldiers, seizing seven fuel tankers with a capacity of 250 barrels and destroying one military truck and two Land Cruisers.[155]

On 11 June, SPLM-N troops started attacking near and inside the South Kordofan capital, Kadugli, making heavy casualties to the government forces.[156] In the 14 of June 9 SAF soldiers were killed and a MIG aircraft was destroyed.[157]

On 19 June, SPLM-N rebels killed 5 Sudanese soldiers and injured another 8 in the upper Nile.[158]

By 26 June, SLM-MM rebels killed 7 Sudanese soldiers in a battle in North Darfur. They also captured 4 armed vehicles.[159]

July–December

2 July - Forces of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) reportedly clashed with Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) contingents on Tuesday, 53 kilometres from the town of Dilling In South Kordofan.[160]

4 July - The spokesman for the Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) claims his forces have "defeated and captured" Ambir army base in Rashad locality, South Kordofan on Thursday. Arnu Ngutulu Lodi told Radio Dabanga that 24 members of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) were killed in the battle, and "several were wounded". The SPLA-N claims to have lost two men and 13 have minor injuries.[161]

9 July - The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) claims to have destroyed two separate Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) patrols in the Nuba Mountains area of South Kordofan, killing 26 government troops, for the loss of "one dead and three slightly wounded".[162]

16 July - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) claims to have killed seven government troops and captured two officers in a clash in Rashad locality in South Kordofan on Monday.[163]

28 July - Reports of ongoing clashes in South Kordofan between formations of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and contingents of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), apparently spearheaded by the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), have continued to reach Radio Dabanga all weekend. JEM deputy head, Mohamed Al Beel Issa Zayyed, claimed that the SRF has "killed more than 52 regular troops and pro-government militiamen, including leading figures Amir Al Mujehedin Aburahman Abu Fursha as well as Rahman Jigir.[164]

19 August - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) claim to have killed 15 "Sudanese army and government militiamen" on Monday, after attacking a military convoy near to Kass in South Darfur.[165]

25 August - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) claim to have killed 22 pro-government militiamen, injured others, and destroyed their camps in the Dukan and Al Humbo areas of Geissan locality in Sudan's Blue Nile state.[166]

31 August 2013, an SPLM-N spokesman announced a one-month unilateral cessation of hostilities due to the widespread floods in the region.[167]

1 September - Sudanese rebel forces claim to have killed 10 and injured more than 30 troops of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and pro-government militias in action on Saturday in Bau locality, Blue Nile state.[168]

13 October - The Sudanese Liberation Movement for Justice (LMJ-Karbino) claim to have killed 19 members of the Sudanese Armed Forces and pro-government militias, injured others, and captured two, in the area of Um Sa'ouna, north of Ed Daein, capital of East Darfur.[169]

22 October - Defectors from the Tijani Sese-led Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM), claim to have killed ten government troops during a battle with the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) in the area of Amarjadeed, East Jebel Marra.[170]

27 October - The Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudan Liberation Army led by Abdel Wahid (SLA-AW) have reportedly clashed in Mellit in North Darfur. A total of 18 people from both sides were killed, the rebels spokesman claims. In a statement issued on Saturday, the spokesperson for the SLM-AW, Abdelrahim Nimr, reported that the movement took control of Mellit town on Friday. According to Nimr, 16 militiamen were killed and a number of vehicles loaded with weapons and ammunition seized. Two of the movement's troops were killed.[171]

28 October - The Liberation and Justice Movement, led by Ali Karbino (LJM-K), announced that they captured three Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) troops during the clashes in Amarjadeed, north of Manawashi in South Darfur.[172]

31 October - Troops of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) attacked the headquarters of the Central Reserve Forces (also known as Abu Tira) in the locality of Mershing, South Darfur. Witnesses say that three Abu Tira troops were killed and four others injured, including a civilian. The SRF said it lost one troop and three others were injured, while it "killed 37 government troops and militiamen".[173]

3 November - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) announced that their troops launched an attack on a Sudanese Armed Forces battalion in the area of Nimra, East Jebel Marra, combined force of LJM-K troops and forces of Minni Minawi's Sudan Liberation Army (SLA-MM) and the Sudan Liberation Army-Abdel Wahid (SLM-AW) attacked a battalion consisting of 75 vehicles and four tanks, dozens of Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) troops and government militias were killed and 10 SAF vehicles destroyed.[174]

12 November - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) claims to have launched an attack on a battalion of Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and militias in the area of Deleima in South Kordofan. According to Zayed, the joint rebel forces killed more than 60 SAF and militia troops, including the battalion commander.[175]

17 November - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF - an alliance of Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile rebel groups) announced that its troops entered the town of Abu Zabad, 150 km southwest of El Obeid, the capital of North Kordofan.[176]

17 November 2013, JEM guerrillas launched an attack on the town of Abu Zabad, the attack was repulsed.JEM's second deputy general commander Mohamed Rahouma was killed in the skirmish.[4]

On 20 November 2013, Sudanese troops recaptured the Kaling area of South Kordofan from SRF rebels, who relocated to the Rashad district.[4]

21 November - The Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) forces of the rebel alliance Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) have allegedly regained control of Kalinji village in the Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan.[177]

1 December - The Sudan Revolutionary Front claims to have killed more than 100 Sudanese army and militia troops in an attack on three military convoys south of Abu Zabad, near the border between North and South Kordofan.[178]

3 December - Forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) claim to have destroyed a Sudanese army camp in Fayu, west of Dalami in the Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan state, causing heavy casualties to the Sudanese army.[179]

10 December - The Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) have clashed in Blue Nile State, southwest of Damazin, the capital of the state. The rebels reported at least one casualty from their side, while they claim that the army lost at least ten soldiers.[180]

13 December - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) attacked the Sudanese army at about 6 am on Friday morning in the area of Abata, 20 km north-east of Zalingei, the capital of Central Darfur. At least 19 soldiers were either killed or injured, according to an eyewitness.[181]

17 December - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) shelled military targets inside Kadugli on Wednesday, according to the spokesperson for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N).[182]

20 December - Forces of the Sudan Liberation Movement led by Abdel Wahid announced the destruction of the Duma military base north of the city of Nyala, in South Darfur's Mershing locality, Sudan Revolutionary Front, killed 27 government troops and captured six vehicles loaded with guns.[183]

24 December - Darfur armed rebel movements announced the killing of 18 Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and militia troops on Tuesday in an attack on the Katila garrison in South Darfur.[184]

27 December - The Sudan People's Liberation Army-North (SPLA-N) in Blue Nile state claims to have destroyed patrolling forces of the Sudanese army in Bowrgo area, 30 km south of Damazin, force commander Maaz Ahmed Bagir Najib of the 4th Division in Damazin was killed.[185]

30 December - The Sudan Liberation Movement, led by Abdel Wahid El Nur (SLM-AW), announced that its forces attacked the Disa military garrison in North Darfur, killing 23 army and militia troops, and seized three army vehicles loaded with a variety of arms. Three SLM troops were killed and two others wounded.[186]

2014

January–June

5 January - Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) forces reportedly attacked a Sudanese army battalion in Wadi Eweiji, north of Kutum, North Darfur, killing 41 Sudanese army and militia troops.[187] Dozens of army and militia troops were reportedly killed on Saturday by rebel forces in the area of Trogi, south of Kadugli, the capital of South Kordofan.,[188] 314 government forces were killed, including a colonel and a captain.[189]

7 January - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) announced the killing of nine Sudanese military police troops this morning in an attack on a military convoy near Nierteti in Central Darfur.[190]

8 January - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) announced that the combined forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) and the Sudan Liberation Movement, led by Abdel Wahid El Nur, on Wednesday destroyed the military garrison of Dalami, Habila locality, in South Kordofan.[191]

On 9 January, clashes have erupted between the Sudanese army and rebels in the southern town of Dallami in South Kordofan State, the military spokesman says.[2]

13 January - The Liberation Movement for Justice (LMJ) presided by Taher Hajar (militarily led by Ali Karbino) announced it attacked this afternoon (Monday) the Sunta military garrison in South Darfur. More than 13 Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and militia troops were allegedly killed.[192]

17 January - The Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) claimed the killing of 74 Sudanese army and militia troops in a battle in the area of Malkan, Blue Nile state, on Friday. Both the army and the rebels continue to claim they are in control of Malkan.[193]

22 January - The Liberation Movement for Justice (LMJ), led by Ali Karbino, announced that its forces took control of the Kalaimendo garrison in North Darfur, The rebels claim to have killed 20 government troops.[194]

On 26 January, Sudanese Air Force have launched air strikes against a key rebel-held town Kauda in South Kordofan, but there were no reports of casualties.[195]

26 January - The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) reported that its troops attacked a military convoy in South Darfur, rebels claimed that nine government and militia troops were killed.[196]

On 12 February, in an explosion landmine killed five people and thirteen wounded in the South Kurdufan in north of Sudan. Sudanese media almost never give casualty reports from Kurdufan or Blue Nile, where government troops and rebels of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement - North (SPLM-N) have been fighting since 2011.[197]

26 February - The Sudan Liberation Movement, led by Minni Minawi (SLM-MM) announced that on Wednesday they killed 20 militiamen in a battle with Rapid Support Forces in South Darfur.[198]

2 March - Joint rebel forces killed 83 army and militia troops in attacks on the military garrisons of Alliet Jarelnabi and Haskanita, North Darfur.[199]

5 March - Darfur rebel forces announced full control of three localities in North Darfur, Alliet, El Taweisha, and Kalamindo. The total of government troops killed in the battle of El Taweisha is 48.[200]

13 March - The Darfur rebel forces announced taking control of Mellit in North Darfur,[201] The joint Darfur rebel forces claimed that a total of 97 forces died, but only 78 according to the Government.[202]

On 13 March, Sudanese authorities sentenced SPLM-N commanders Malik Agar and Yassir Arman as well as 15 fighters to death.[203]

16 March - In the area of Kulkul, north of El Fasher, the capital of North Darfur, 83 Sudanese army and militia troops were killed, and dozens of others injured during an attack by the "Darfur joint resistance forces".[204]

17 March - The "Darfur joint resistance forces" claim to have killed 44 government and militia troops in East Jebel Marra.[205]

On 16 April 2014, Sudanese armed forces official al-Sawarmi Khalid stated that in the aftermath of the second phase of the Operation Decisive Summer the eastern areas of South Kordofan have been completely clear out of militants.[206]

28 April - The Sudan Liberation Movement, under the leadership of Abdel Wahid El Nur (SLM-AW), announced that they attacked the military garrison of Rokoro in Central Darfur, 27 Sudanese army and militia troops were killed.[207]

1 May - The Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) announced that they killed 22 Sudanese army and militia troops in South Kordofan.[208]

1 May - The Sudan Liberation Movement, led by Abdel Wahid El Nur (SLM-AW) has announced that it destroyed the military base of Turo, near Golo, west of Jebel Marra, 15 army and militia troops were killed, and others injured.[209]

16 May - The forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) claimed on Thursday to have destroyed two Sudanese military convoys which tried to occupy areas in Abu Jubeiha and Talodi localities in South Kordofan state. They have killed at least 65 soldiers, the SPLM-N spokesman stated, and have lost 11 troops.[210]

19 May - The Justice and Equality Movement faction led by Bakhit Dabjo (JEM-Sudan) announced the killing of 30 army and militia troops in the area of Galab in North Darfur.[211]

On 6 June, Sudanese army spokesman al-Sawarmi Khaled Saad said that the troops captured a rebel position in South Kordofan. At noon today our armed forces liberated Al-Atmur region, which is a military base where the (SPLM-N) rebels stocked heavy weapons, including cannons and multiple rocket launchers.[212] 6 June - The spokesman for the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), Colonel El Sawarmi Khalid Saad, announced that the army and the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) liberated an area near Kadugli, the capital of South Kordofan.[213]

9 June - The Sudanese People's Liberation Army – North (SPLA-N) and government forces claim to have inflicted 'heavy casualties' on each other's forces in South Kordofan and Nuba Mountains. According to rebels, they lost 3 men.[214]

On 17 June 2014, U.S. ambassador in the United Nations Samantha Power condemned Sudan's use of barrel bombs and accused Sudan of purposely bombing hospitals and civilian facilities in the South Kordofan and Blue Nile states.[215]

On 29 June, Sudanese troops and rebels engaged in heavy fighting near the city of Kadugli the state capital of South Kordofan.[216]

29 June - The Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) announced that it killed 15 army and militia troops, and wounded others in El Atmor, South Kordofan.[217]

July–December

24 November 2014, SPLM rebels claimed to have launched two attacks on government positions in the Blue Nile region. The claims were disputed by Sudanese officials, who stated that the Sudanese army clashed with rebels in the towns of Yabous and Shali.[218]

On 1 December 2014, SPLM militants clashed with government forces in the Alahimr area of South Kordofan, both sides accused each other of starting the offensive in the area.[219]

On 3 December 2014, the Sudanese army claimed to have killed 50 rebels during clashes in the villages of Balanja and al-Atmour in South Kordofan.[220]

On 8 December 2014, clashes between militants and government forces clashed in South Kordofan.[221]

On 9 December 2014, Sudanese authorities declared that ceasefire negotiations with the rebels have ended without a positive result.The reason behind the failure was the demand by rebels to conduct joint negotiations with the rebels in Darfur. A week earlier a big number of opposition parties signed a unity agreement with SPLM-N in order to support it in the negotiations. [221]

On 12 December 2014, SPLA-N insurgents captured the al-Daldako and Ruseiris and Jabal Nimir areas of South Kordofan. Guerrillas seized three cannons, a tank and three military vehicles, inflicting heavy casualties to the Sudanese troops. The Sudanese government responded by resuming the Operation Decisive Summer in the above-mentioned areas as well as Darfur.[222]

On 24 December 2014, SPLA-N guerrillas killed 25 SAF troops during fighting in the vicinity of Dalouka also seizing weaponry in an abandoned military camp located in Tourlake.[223]

On 27 December 2014, a SPLA-N press release stated that a Sudanese air force Antonov aircraft had crashed in the Al-Shai'r area of South Kordofan, rebels claimed that six SAF soldiers perished in the incident.[224]

2015

On 1 January 2015, a video interview with SPLM-N commander Koko Idriss was released, Idriss claimed that during the past 3 weeks SPLM-N clashed with government troops in Balinga, Daldako, al-Atmoor and al-Ruseiris, Gardoud with the later falling under Sudanese control. The video displayed 44 Dushka cannons,13 Land Cruiser vehicles, 2 oil tankers, and a T 55 tank allegedly captured by the rebels. Idriss further stated that 3 SPLM-N fighters were killed and 15 wounded during the clashes also accusing Sudan of employing child soldiers. The video also contained accusations of heavy Sudanese aerial bombings on residential areas of the region.[225]

On 2 January 2015, SPLM-N pledged to destroy its stockpiles of anti-personnel landmines. Rebels also announced that 20 government soldiers will be released from captivity in response to talks with the Sa'ihoon group.[226]

On 11 January 2015, SPLM-N repulsed simultaneous SAF attacks on Dalouka, al-Qnezih, Medem Khor Damar and Teludi. A total of 13 government soldiers were killed in action while SPLM-N suffered 2 dead and 2 injured.[227]

On 15 January 2015, SPLM-N claimed to have inflicted over 100 casualties to the Sudanese army, while at the same time capturing the Blinga camp along with various military equipment. SPLM-N estimated its own casualties at 1 killed and 14 wounded. At the same time a Sudanese spokesman issued a conflicting report declaring that SAF repulsed rebel attack on the al-Qneziah, Dalouka and Blinga areas, dealing heavy losses to the attackers.[228]

On 16 January 2015, SPLM-N recaptured the towns of Ankarto and Um Turq-Turq. On the same day Sudan's humanitarian commission released a statement claiming that a total of 145,000 people have been internally displaced due to the conflict.[229]

On 21 January 2015, SPLM-N announced the capture of the Talodi-Alnuba village following the fall of a government outpost in the area. According to a rebel spokesman military equipment was seized as Sudanese troops retreated to Talodi.[230]

On 23 January 2015, SAF bombed a Doctors Without Borders hospital in the rebel held village of Frandala, one patient and one DFB volunteer were wounded, the hospital also sustained major material damage. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs condemned the attack.[231]

On 26 January 2015, SPLM-N guerillas shot down a United Nations helicopter in an area east of Kadugli. The helicopter crew consisting solely of Bulgarian pilots managed to land the damaged vehicle, no casualties were reported. According to the UK based Sudan Social Development Organization, four people were wounded following indiscriminate shelling conducted by the Sudanese military, the incident occurred in the towns of Um Sirdiba and Alatmour.[232]

On 1 February 2015, SPLM-N released 6 Bulgarian pilots previously captured on 26 January 2015.[233]

On 8 February 2015, three Sudanese Red Crescent Society aid workers were killed in Kurmuk, Blue Nile state, after unknown assailants targeted their vehicle.[234]

On 10 February 2015, a rebel ambush that took place outside Kurmuk, lead to the death of 4 government troops. On the same day Sudanese troops engaged guerrillas in the Angasama hills locale, four soldiers were killed and five were captured, as the rebels seized a number of assault rifles and vehicles.[235]

On 24 February 2015, SPLM-N insurgents overrun the Kahliat garrison, located 5 kilometers west of Kadugli, 10 soldiers were killed and 2 rebels were injured in the aftermath of the skirmish.[236]

On 22 March 2015, a rebel raid on the Bau garrison in Blue Nile led to the deaths of 8 soldiers and the injury of 4 insurgents, the attackers seized large amounts of weaponry and ammunition.[237]

On 28 March 2015, SPLM-N announced the capture of the strategically located Habeela town, 54 soldiers were allegedly killed and five military vehicles captured. A government spokesman claimed that the town remained outside rebel control, further accusing the rebels of torching and destroying civilian houses and market facilities.[238]

On 11 April 2015, rebels carried out an ambush on SAF soldiers in the areas of Al-Dabkar and Al Abbasiya-Taqali, killing 13 SAF personnel.[239]

2016

On June 18, 2016, the Sudanese President, Omar al-Bashir, declared a 4-month long ceasefire. Army spokesman Ahmed Khalifa al-Shami stated that the ceasefire was intended "to give the armed groups a chance to join the peace process and to surrender their arms.[240]

The ceasefire was later extended in October to the end of the year [241] and then on December 31, it was extended again by a whole month [242]

2017

On January 16, 2017, Omar Al-Bashir extended the ceasefire by 6 months [241]

On February 21, 2017, Sudan attacked SPLM-N positions in the area of the town of Kadugli, violating the ceasefire.[243]

2019

On 11 April 2019, amid weeks of demonstrations and ongoing protests in the capital of Khartoum, Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir was removed from power in a coup d'état by the Sudanese Armed Forces after nearly 30 years in office.[244] Vice president and defense minister Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf dissolved the government of al-Bashir and formed a military council to run the country.[245]

On 17 April 2019, SPLM-N announced a suspension of hostilities in South Kordofan and Blue Nile state.[246] The leader of SPLM-N, Abdulaziz al-Hilu, said in a statement released by the armed group, “As a goodwill gesture … to give a chance for an immediate transfer of power to civilians, I, commander of SPLM-N announce the suspending of hostilities for three months in all areas under its control until July 31, 2019.”[247] I

Two weeks after the ouster of Sudan’s Omar Al Bashir, Uganda's foreign minister Okello Oryem, has announced that his country may offer Bashir refuge.[248]

Human rights

Ahmed Haron

Sometime during March an undated video emerged of the Governor of South Kordofan Ahmed Haroun telling Sudanese soldiers: "You must hand over the place clean. Rub it, crush it and sweep it. Don't bring them [Rebels] back alive. We have no space for them". An army commander standing near Haroun then says: "Don't bring them back, eat them alive" amid laughter by the group in the video. Haroun follows with "Don't create an administrative burden for us [by bringing back prisoners alive]".[249][250]

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay warned that the comments by the Governor could amount to "violations of human rights and international humanitarian law in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states". She followed with "Such comments are extremely worrying in this context and could amount to incitement.".[251]

The Sudanese Government has since claimed that Mr. Haroun, who has already been indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for his alleged role in the previous conflict in Darfur,[252] was simply trying to boost the soldiers' morale. Mr Haron however, has called the video a fabrication, accusing al-Jazeera of editing the video to distort what he had said and vowed to sue the news channel.[253]

Ms. Pillay said that witnesses who have visited the Nuba mountain region, mainly inhabited by the Nuba people and located in Southern Kordofan, have been reporting the burning of villages and killing of civilians in "an apparent scorched-earth policy." "We know very little about the scale of the military operation in Southern Kordofan, as we have been denied access to the area," she said. "But as far back as August last year, we found that human rights violations that could amount to crimes against humanity or war crimes have taken place in Southern Kordofan.".[254]

Emigration

Following what Yasir Arman, leader of SPLA-N[255] and the UN[251] have described as a "scorched earth policy" more than 105,000 Sudanese refugees from the states of Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile have sought refuge in South Sudan. An additional 30,000 refugees fled Blue Nile into nearby Ethiopia.[256]

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and its partners started providing basic assistance to more than 16,000 refugees who settled in Yida, South Sudan, after fleeing violence in the Nuba Mountains region, located in Sudan's Southern Kordofan state.[257] Another 2,300 refugees have so far moved southwards to safer sites in Nyeel and Pariang to another UNHCR camps. Meanwhile, in South Sudan's Upper Nile state, where an influx of refugees from Sudan's Blue Nile state is continuing, relocation from border zones has been ongoing. About 86,000 Sudanese refugees fleeing attacks in Blue Nile state have relocated to the safety of formal sites in Doro and Jammam, Ms. Fleming said.[256]

However, since the beginning of Sudanese border conflict in 2012 the UNHCR now considers the Yida refugee settlement as not safe for long-term stay due to its proximity to the volatile border zone. South Sudan authorities at central and local level are also urging refugee leaders to relocate, in line with the provisions of the 1969 OAU (now AU) Convention on Refugees. Article 2 stipulates that "for reasons of security, countries of asylum shall, as far as possible, settle refugees at a reasonable distance from the frontier of their country of origin".[257]

Attempts at resolution

August 2011 ceasefire

On 23 August 2011, President Omar al-Bashir announced a two-week unilateral ceasefire in the conflict while on a surprise visit to South Kordofan state. He said the government would continue to embargo foreign aid directed toward South Kordofan, and the only humanitarian access would be through the Sudanese Red Crescent. He said that after the two-week ceasefire, "the situation will be assessed on the ground".[258]

International reactions

Supranational organisations

  •  African Union – On 29 June, AU Commission Chairperson Jean Ping called on both sides in South Kordofan "to immediately cease hostilities, to allow the access of humanitarian aid and the return of displaced people" and hailed a ceasefire agreement as "decisive" and "a good omen".[259] The AU, led first by former South African President Thabo Mbeki and then by Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi, attempted to mediate a solution to growing tensions in Blue Nile, but it failed to prevent the spread of the conflict.[260]
  •  United Nations – The United Nations Security Council voted on 3 June to demand that Sudan and Southern Sudan withdraw troops from the Abyei Area.[261] Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon voiced support for efforts to end the conflict in late June 2011, saying on 29 June that Sudan and the SPLM-N must work quickly for a cessation of hostilities.[262] A United Nations Mission in the Sudan human rights investigation in June and early July, prior to the mission's disbandment, found that "condemnation is insufficient" for the atrocities it said had been committed by the Sudanese military during the fighting, including attacks on UNMIS offices and personnel, though it also criticised the SPLM for violations.[263] In August, the United States attempted to persuade the Security Council to pass a resolution condemning the violence, but it was blocked by Sudanese allies Russia and China.[264] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres responded to the outbreak of violence in Blue Nile in September by saying both sides must work to prevent "yet one more refugee crisis" in the region. Ban also expressed concern over the violence.[265]

Countries

  •  South Sudan – On 22 May, South Sudan denounced the seizure of Abyei as an "act of war".[266] Information Minister Barnaba Marial Benjamin denied claims by the Sudanese government that Juba was offering material support to SPLM-N fighters in the North on 31 August and asserted that the SPLM had severed all ties with the SPLM-N after independence.[267] He expressed concern at the violence in Blue Nile on 2 September and called on the Sudanese government to launch a full investigation and endeavour to prevent the violence from spreading.[268]
  •  United States – Having condemned the military takeover of Abyei on 21 March,[269] on 22 July, Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice accused the Sudanese military of perpetrating human rights violations in South Kordofan.[270] Princeton Lyman, the US special envoy to Sudan, said on 10 August that Washington was concerned that fighting could spread to and involve newly independent South Sudan.[271]
  •  France – On 22 May 2011, France condemned the military takeover and demanded a Sudanese withdrawal from Abyei.[272] France argued that Sudan's actions constituted a violation of 2005 peace agreement and of the Kadugli Accord signed in January, and that the conflict should be mediated by the African Union.
  •  Canada – On 23 May 2011, the Canada's Foreign Affairs Minister, John Baird, condemned the "recent upsurge of violence in Abyei". Canada called for an immediate withdrawal by both sides, respect for human rights and avoidance of further escalation. Baird added that he hoped "Northern and Southern Sudan" would both "embrace the opportunity afforded by the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel to resolve the status of Abyei and other outstanding issues".[273]
  •  United Kingdom – On 22 May 2011, Foreign Secretary William Hague condemned the violence, saying that the actions were "clear violations of the CPA and cannot be justified" and calling for "all sides to cease hostilities immediately. All unauthorised forces should be withdrawn from the entire area of Abyei in accordance with past agreements by the parties." [274]

NGOs

Groups such as Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have expressed concern about the humanitarian situation.

In May 2012, researchers from the Humanitarian Policy Group at the Overseas Development Institute highlighted that the situation in South Kordofan was approaching crisis levels and called for stronger leadership and engagement from humanitarian actors, as well as a redoubling of diplomatic efforts to restart political dialogue in the hope of securing a lasting and peaceful resolution.[275]

See also

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Notes

  1. ^ Does not represent the number of soldiers stationed in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Number also includes 85,000 reserve personnel.[7]

External links

AmeriCares

Americares is a non-profit disaster relief and global health organization providing immediate response to emergency medical needs and supporting long-term health care initiatives for people in the United States and around the world.

Since its founding in 1979, Americares has delivered more than $12 billion in medicines, medical supplies and humanitarian aid to 164 countries in response to natural disasters, civil conflicts and ongoing health crises in impoverished areas.Americares is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut. The organization has offices in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Sendai, Japan and Mumbai, India. Americares operates three warehouses, one each in the U.S., Europe and India.

BTR-80

The BTR-80 (Russian: бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "Armoured Transporter") is an 8×8 wheeled amphibious armoured personnel carrier (APC) designed in the USSR. It was adopted in 1986 and replaced the previous vehicles, the BTR-60 and BTR-70, in the Soviet Army. It was first deployed during the Soviet–Afghan War.

HJ-8

The HJ-8 or Hongjian-8 (Chinese: 红箭-8; pinyin: Hóng Jiàn-8; literally: 'Red Arrow-8') is a second generation tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided anti-tank missile system which was originally deployed by China's People's Liberation Army since the late 1980s.

Justice and Equality Movement

The Justice and Equality Movement (abbreviated JEM; Arabic: حركة العدل والمساواة‎, Ḥarakat al-ʿAdl wal-musāwāh ) is a Sudanese opposition group founded by Khalil Ibrahim, the group has been led since January 2012 by his brother Gibril Ibrahim, as Khalil was killed in December 2011. JEM's political agenda includes issues such as: radical and comprehensive constitutional reform to grant Sudan's regions a greater share of power in ruling the country (one point of this is a rotating presidency), the replacement of social injustice and political tyranny with justice and equality, and basic services for every Sudanese.

List of civil wars

The Latin term bellum civile was first used of the Roman civil wars that began in the last third of the second century BC.

The term civilis here had the very specific meaning of 'Roman citizen'.

The English term civil war was first used in 1651 to refer to the English Civil War.

Since the 17th century, the term has also been applied retroactively to other historical conflicts where at least one side claims to represent the country's civil society (rather than a feudal dynasty or an imperial power).The terms internecine war and domestic war are often used interchangeably with 'civil war', but 'internecine war' can be used in a wider meaning, referring to any conflict within a single state, regardless of the participation of civil forces. Thus, any war of succession is by definition an internecine war, but not necessarily a civil war.

In modern geopolitics since 1945, 'civil war' is also used in a loose sense to refer to any large scale military conflict within a single country (i.e. used as a strict synonym of the generic term 'internecine war'), creating terminological overlap with insurgencies or coups d'état.

M167 VADS

The M167 Vulcan Air Defense System (VADS) is a towed short-range United States Army anti-aircraft gun designed to protect forward area combat elements and rear area critical assets. It was also used to protect U.S. Air Force warplane airfields and U.S. Army helicopter airfields. The heart of the M167 was a variant of the M61 Vulcan 20×102 mm rapid-fire rotary cannon that fired explosive 20 mm rounds.

It was also effective against lightly armored ground targets. The M167 gun has now been withdrawn from service by U.S. military units, but it might still be used by other countries.

Protests in Sudan (2011–13)

Protests in Sudan began in January 2011 as part of the Arab Spring regional protest movement. Unlike in other Arab countries, popular uprisings in Sudan had succeeded in toppling the government prior to the Arab Spring in 1964 and 1985. Demonstrations in Sudan however were less common throughout the summer of 2011, during which South Sudan seceded from Sudan, but resumed in force later that year and again in June 2012, shortly after the government passed its much criticized austerity plan.

QLZ-87 grenade launcher

The QLZ-87 (also known as Type 87) 35 mm automatic grenade launcher (AGL) is an air-cooled, gas operated fully automatic weapon and is crew transportable (12~20 kg) with limited amounts of ammunition.The QLZ-87 is being complemented by the QLZ-04, which is fed from a belt and thus is better suited to be mounted on tripods and vehicles.

Sudan

Sudan or the Sudan ( (listen), also UK: ; Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea to the east, Ethiopia to the southeast, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It has a population of 39 million people (2016 estimate) and occupies a total area of 1,886,068 square kilometres (728,215 square miles), making it the third-largest country in Africa. Sudan's predominant religion is Islam, and its official languages are Arabic and English. The capital is Khartoum, located at the confluence of the Blue and White Nile. Since 2011, Sudan is the scene of ongoing military conflict in its regions South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Sudan's history goes back to the Pharaonic period, witnessing the kingdom of Kerma (c. 2500 BC–1500 BC), the subsequent rule of the Egyptian New Kingdom (c. 1500 BC–1070 BC) and the rise of the kingdom of Kush (c. 785 BC–350 AD), which would in turn control Egypt itself for nearly a century. After the fall of Kush the Nubians formed the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, with the latter two lasting until around 1500. Between the 14th and 15th centuries much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads. From the 16th–19th centuries, central and eastern Sudan were dominated by the Funj sultanate, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans the far north. This period saw extensive Islamization and Arabization.

From 1820 to 1874 the entirety of Sudan was conquered by the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman. This state was eventually destroyed in 1898 by the British, who would then govern Sudan together with Egypt.

The 20th century saw the growth of Sudanese nationalism and in 1953 Britain granted Sudan self-government. Independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Under Gaafar Nimeiry, Sudan instituted Islamic law in 1983. This exacerbated the rift between the Islamic north, the seat of the government and the Animists and Christians in the south. Differences in language, religion, and political power erupted in a civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF), and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction was the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), eventually concluding in the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In April 2019, following contentious protests that faced fierce resistance from the Omar al-Bashir regime, the Sudanese military, under the command of Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf, took control of the nation and established the Transitional Military Council. This move deposed al-Bashir and dissolved the constitution. A day after the establishment of the Transitional Military Council, Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf stepped down due to the continued protests against his decision not to extradite Bashir to the International Criminal Court.

Sudan Liberation Movement/Army

The Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (Arabic: حركة تحرير السودان‎ Ḥarakat Taḥrīr Al-Sūdān; abbreviated SLM, SLA, or SLM/A) is a Sudanese rebel group active in Darfur, Sudan. It was founded as the Darfur Liberation Front by members of three indigenous ethnic groups in Darfur: the Fur, the Zaghawa, and the Masalit, among whom were the leaders Abdul Wahid al Nur of the Fur and Minni Minnawi of the Zaghawa.

Sudan Revolutionary Front

The Sudan Revolutionary Front (Arabic: الجبهة الثورية السودان Al-Jabhat Al-Thawriyat Al-Sudan), or the Sudanese Revolutionary Front, is an alliance between Sudanese factions opposed to the government led by President Omar al-Bashir. It was declared on 12 November 2011, following several months of support by Darfuri rebel groups for the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North in the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Sudanese Civil War

The term Sudanese Civil War refers to at least three separate conflicts:

First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972)

Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005)

South Sudanese Civil War (2013–present)It could also refer to other internal conflicts in Sudan and South Sudan:

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present)

War in Darfur (2003–present)

Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present)

Ethnic violence in South Sudan (2011–present)

Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present)As well as conflicts between Sudan and South Sudan after the breakup:

Heglig Crisis (2012)

Sudanese nomadic conflicts

Sudanese nomadic conflicts are non-state conflicts between rival nomadic tribes taking place in the territory of Sudan and, since 2011, South Sudan. Conflict between nomadic tribes in Sudan is common, with fights breaking out over scarce resources, including grazing land, cattle and drinking water. Some of the tribes involved in these clashes have been the Messiria, Maalia, Rizeigat and Bani Hussein Arabic tribes inhabiting Darfur and West Kordofan, and the Dinka, Nuer and Murle African ethnic groups inhabiting South Sudan. Conflicts have been fueled by other major wars taking place in the same regions, in particular the Second Sudanese Civil War, the War in Darfur and the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

Over the years, clashes between rival ethnic militias have resulted in a large number of casualties and displaced hundreds of thousands of people. In recent years, particularly violent clashes broke out in 1993 between Jikany Nuer and Lou Nuer in Upper Nile, in 2009-2012 between Lou Nuer and Murle in Jonglei and in 2013-2014 between Maalia, Rizeigat, Messiria, Salamat and Bani Hussein in Darfur and West Kordofan.

Temporary protected status

Temporary protected status (also called "TPS") is a temporary status given to eligible nationals of designated countries who are present in the United States. The status, afforded to nationals from some countries affected by armed conflict or natural disaster, allows persons to live and work in the United States for limited times. Currently, persons from ten countries—Haiti, El Salvador, Syria, Nepal, Honduras, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, Nicaragua; and South Sudan—have temporary protected status. About 320,000 people have TPS as of 2017, the majority from El Salvador (195,000), Honduras (57,000), and Haiti (46,000).

Type 69 RPG

The Type 69 85mm rocket propelled grenade (RPG), made by Norinco, is a Chinese variant of the Soviet RPG-7. First introduced in 1972, the Type 69 is a common individual anti-tank weapon in service with the PLA. More advanced grenade rounds were developed in the 1980s and 1990s to meet the requirements of modern battlefields. Eventually, the aging Type 69 RPG family was replaced by modern anti-tank weapon systems developed by China such as Type 89 and Type 08.

War in Darfur

The War in Darfur, also nicknamed the Land Cruiser War, is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. The government responded to attacks by carrying out a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Darfur's non-Arabs. This resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of civilians and the indictment of Sudan's president, Omar al-Bashir, for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity by the International Criminal Court.One side of the conflict is mainly composed of the Sudanese military, police and the Janjaweed, a Sudanese militia group whose members are mostly recruited among Arabized indigenous Africans and a small number of Bedouin of the northern Rizeigat; the majority of other Arab groups in Darfur remained uninvolved.

The other side is made up of rebel groups, notably the SLM/A and the JEM, recruited primarily from the non-Arab Muslim Fur, Zaghawa, and Masalit ethnic groups. The African Union and the United Nations also have a joint peacekeeping mission in the region, named UNAMID. Although the Sudanese government publicly denies that it supported the Janjaweed, evidence supports claims that it provided financial assistance and weapons and coordinated joint attacks, many against civilians. Estimates of the number of human casualties range up to several hundred thousand dead, from either combat or starvation and disease. Mass displacements and coercive migrations forced millions into refugee camps or across the border, creating a humanitarian crisis. Former US Secretary of State Colin Powell described the situation as a genocide or acts of genocide.The Sudanese government and the JEM signed a ceasefire agreement in February 2010, with a tentative agreement to pursue peace. The JEM has the most to gain from the talks and could see semi-autonomy much like South Sudan. However, talks were disrupted by accusations that the Sudanese army launched raids and air strikes against a village, violating the Tolu agreement. The JEM, the largest rebel group in Darfur, vowed to boycott negotiations.

ZPU

The ZPU (Russian: зенитная пулемётная установка, meaning "anti-aircraft machine gun mount") is a family of towed anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet 14.5×114mm KPV heavy machine gun. It entered service with the Soviet Union in 1949 and is used by over 50 countries worldwide.

Quadruple (ZPU-4), double- (ZPU-2 and ZU-2) and single-barreled (ZPU-1) versions of the weapon exist.

ZU-23-2

The ZU-23-2, also known as ZU-23, is a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon. ZU stands for Zenitnaya Ustanovka (Russian: Зенитная Установка) – anti-aircraft mount. The GRAU index is 2A13.

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