The Suda or Souda (/ˈsuːdə/; Medieval Greek: Σοῦδα, romanized: Soûda; Latin: Suidae Lexicon)[1] is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας). It is an encyclopedic lexicon, written in Greek, with 30,000 entries, many drawing from ancient sources that have since been lost, and often derived from medieval Christian compilers. The derivation is probably[2] from the Byzantine Greek word souda, meaning "fortress" or "stronghold", with the alternate name, Suidas, stemming from an error made by Eustathius, who mistook the title for the author's name.

First page of an early printed edition of the Suda

Content and sources

pecus est Suidas, sed pecus aurei velleris [Suidas is cattle, but cattle with a golden fleece]
— Lipsius

The Suda is somewhere between a grammatical dictionary and an encyclopedia in the modern sense. It explains the source, derivation, and meaning of words according to the philology of its period, using such earlier authorities as Harpocration and Helladios.[3][4] It is a rich source of ancient and Byzantine history and life, although not every article is of equal quality, and it is an "uncritical" compilation.[3]

Much of the work is probably interpolated,[3] and passages that refer to Michael Psellos (c. 1017–78) are deemed interpolations which were added in later copies.[3]

Biographical notices

This lexicon contains numerous biographical notices on political, ecclesiastical, and literary figures of the Byzantine Empire to the tenth century, those biographical entries being condensations from the works of Hesychius of Miletus, as the author himself avers. Other sources were the encyclopedia of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (912–59) for the figures in ancient history, excerpts of John of Antioch (fifth century) for Roman history, the chronicle of Hamartolus (Georgios Monachos, 9th century) for the Byzantine age.[4][3][6] The biographies of Diogenes Laërtius, and the works of Athenaeus and Philostratus. Other principal sources include a lexicon by "Eudemus," perhaps derived from the work On Rhetorical Language by Eudemus of Argos.[7]

Lost scholia

The lexicon copiously draws from scholia to the classics (Homer, Aristophanes, Thucydides, Sophocles, etc.), and for later writers, Polybius, Josephus, the Chronicon Paschale, George Syncellus, George Hamartolus, and so on.[3][4] The Suda quotes or paraphrases these sources at length. Since many of the originals are lost, The Suda serves an invaluable repository of literary history, and this preservation of the "literary history" is more vital than the lexicographical compilation itself, by some estimation.[4]


The lexicon is arranged alphabetically with some slight deviations from common vowel order and place in the Greek alphabet[3] (including at each case the homophonous digraphs, e.g. αι, ει, οι, that had been previously, earlier in the history of Greek, distinct diphthongs or vowels) according to a system (formerly common in many languages) called antistoichia (ἀντιστοιχία); namely the letters follow phonetically in order of sound, in the pronunciation of the tenth century which is similar to that of Modern Greek. The order is:

α, β, γ, δ, αι, ε, ζ, ει, η, ι, θ, κ, λ, μ, ν, ξ, ο, ω, π, ρ, σ, τ, οι, υ, φ, χ, ψ[8]

In addition, double letters are treated as single for the purposes of collation (as gemination had ceased to be distinctive). The system is not difficult to learn and remember, but some editors—for example, Immanuel Bekker – rearranged the Suda alphabetically.


Little is known about the author, named "Suidas" in its prefatory note.[3] He probably lived in the second half of the 10th century, because the death of emperor John I Tzimiskes and his succession by Basil II and Constantine VIII are mentioned in the entry under "Adam" which is appended with a brief chronology of the world.[3] At any rate, the work must have appeared by before the 12th century, since it is frequently quoted from and alluded to by Eustathius who lived from about 1115 AD to about 1195 or 1196.[3]

The work deals with biblical as well as pagan subjects, from which it is inferred that the writer was a Christian.[3]

The standard printed edition was compiled by Danish classical scholar Ada Adler in the first half of the twentieth century. A modern translation, the Suda On Line, was completed on 21 July 2014.[9]

The Suda has a near-contemporaneous Islamic parallel, the Kitab al-Fehrest of Ibn al-Nadim. Compare also the Latin Speculum Maius, authored in the 13th century by Vincent of Beauvais.


  • Suidas (1834). Gaisford, Thomas; Küster, Ludolf (eds.). Lexicon: post Ludolphum Kusterum ad codices manuscriptos. A - Theta. 1. Typographeo Academico. volume 2 (K - Psi), volume 3 (Rerum et nominum, Glossarum, Scriptorum)
  • Adler, Ada (1928-38) Suidae Lexicon. Reprinted 1967-71, Stuttgart.


  1. ^ Gaisford Thomas; Küster, Ludolf, edd., (1834), Suidae Lexicon, 3 vols.
  2. ^ Bertrand Hemmerdinger, "Suidas, et non la Souda," Bollettino dei classici, 3rd ser. 19 (1998), pp. 31f., defends the name Suidas (Σουΐδας), arguing that the form Σουΐδα/Σοῦδα is a Doric genitive.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Chisholm (1911).
  4. ^ a b c d Herbermann (1913).
  5. ^ Krumbacher, Karl (1897), Byzantinische Literatur, p. 566, cited by Herbermann (1913)
  6. ^ Karl Krumbacher concluded the two main biographical sources were "Constantine VII for ancient history, Hamartolus (Georgios Monarchos) for the Byzantine age".[5]
  7. ^ Krumbacher, Karl, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, pp. 268f.
  8. ^ Gaisford, Thomas, ed., (1853) (Suidae lexicon: Graecè et Latinè, Volume 1, Part 1, page XXXIX (in Greek and Latin)
  9. ^ "The History of the Suda On Line". Retrieved 10 July 2015. A translation of the last of the Suda’s 31000+ entries was submitted to the database on July 21, 2014 and vetted the next day.
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Sūïdas". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  •  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Suidas" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  • Dickey, Eleanor. Ancient Greek Scholarship: a guide to finding, reading, and understanding scholia, commentaries, lexica, and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780195312935.
  • Mahoney, Anne. "Tachypaedia Byzantina: The Suda On Line as Collaborative Encyclopedia," Digital Humanities Quarterly 3.1 (2009).

External links

Akari Suda

Akari Suda (須田 亜香里, Suda Akari, born 31 October 1991 in Aichi Prefecture) is a Japanese tarento and a member of the Japanese idol girl group SKE48 represented by Twin Planet. She is a member of SKE48's Team E.

Copa Sudamericana

The CONMEBOL Sudamericana, named as Copa Sudamericana (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkopa suðameɾiˈkana]; Portuguese: Copa Sul-Americana [ˈkɔpɐ ˈsuw ɐmeɾiˈkɐnɐ]) is an annual international club football competition organized by the CONMEBOL since 2002. It is the second-most prestigious club competition in South American football. CONCACAF clubs were invited between 2004 and 2008. The CONMEBOL Sudamericana began in 2002, replacing the separate competitions Copa Merconorte and Copa Mercosur (that before replaced Copa CONMEBOL) by a single competition. Since its introduction, the competition has been a pure elimination tournament with the number of rounds and teams varying from year to year.

The CONMEBOL Sudamericana is considered a merger of defunct tournaments such as the Copa CONMEBOL, Copa Mercosur and Copa Merconorte. The winner of the Copa Sudamericana becomes eligible to play in the Recopa Sudamericana. They gain entry onto the next edition of the Copa Libertadores, South America's premier club competition, and also contest the Suruga Bank Championship.

The reigning champion of the competition is Brazilian club Athletico Paranaense, who defeated Colombian club Junior in the most recent final.

Argentine clubs have accumulated the most victories with eight while containing the largest number of different winning teams, with a total of six clubs having won the title. The cup has been won by 15 different clubs. Argentine clubs Boca Juniors and Independiente are the most successful clubs in the cup's history, having won the tournament twice, with Boca Juniors being the only one to achieve it back-to-back, in 2004 and 2005.

Goichi Suda

Goichi Suda (須田 剛一, Suda Gōichi, born January 2, 1968), commonly known by the nickname Suda51, is a Japanese video game designer, writer and director. He is the founder and CEO of Grasshopper Manufacture, which has produced some of his most recognized work including The Silver Case, Flower, Sun, and Rain, killer7, and the No More Heroes series. Suda is from Nagano Prefecture in Japan, moving to Tokyo at the age of 18 and eventually being hired as a designer at Human Entertainment after having a number of other jobs including as an undertaker. After leaving Human Entertainment, he founded Grasshopper Manufacture and worked on their debut title The Silver Case as writer, director and designer. The Silver Case helped establish both Suda and his company in Japan, but Suda and Grasshopper gained international attention with the release of killer7, Suda's first title to be released outside Japan.

Alongside his more recognizable work, both he and his studio have developed other video game projects in collaboration with outside studios, including original titles such as Guild01 and Fatal Frame: Mask of the Lunar Eclipse; and licensed projects related to anime series such as Blood+, Samurai Champloo and the Short Peace project. Since No More Heroes, Suda has taken a more managerial role within his company, although he continues contributing to several projects including Killer Is Dead. Suda's own work is characterized by a focus on themes of crime and the clash of people with different ideals. While his early works adopted a serious tone, his later projects incorporated elements of humor — Suda has stated that he enjoys alternating between dark and comedic projects. Aspects of his work have been influenced by film and literature, with one of his favorite authors being Franz Kafka.


Killer7 is a 2005 action-adventure video game for the GameCube and PlayStation 2, developed by Grasshopper Manufacture and published by Capcom. The game was written and directed by Goichi Suda, also known by the nickname Suda51, and produced by Hiroyuki Kobayashi.

The game follows an elite group of assassins called the "killer7". The assassins, physical manifestations of a man named Harman Smith, perform hits on behalf of the United States government. Through these missions, the killer7 uncover a deeper conspiracy regarding the role of Japan in U.S. politics and secrets about the nature of their organization. Killer7 features first-person shooter elements and a unique on rails control scheme, but the core adventure-style gameplay has been compared to Myst and Snatcher.

Killer7 was Suda51's first game released outside Japan. It received polarized reviews due to its unconventional control scheme, linear gameplay, and complex noir plot. While some reviewers appreciated the stripped-down controls and stylized arthouse approach, others panned it as confusing and restricting. However, the game's soundtrack, presentation, visual style and thought-provoking story received generally positive responses from critics and considered as the best aspects of the game and lead to several accolades and nominations. Killer7's cult appeal led to remakes of Suda51's older works, a remastered version of Killer7 for Microsoft Windows released in 2018, and the successful launch of No More Heroes.


Macaria or Makaria (Greek Μακαρία) is the name of two figures from ancient Greek religion and mythology. Although they are not said to be the same and are given different fathers, they are discussed together in a single entry both in the 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia the Suda and by Zenobius.

Masaki Suda

Taisho Sugo (菅生 大将, Sugō Taishō, born February 21, 1993), better known by his stage name Masaki Suda (菅田 将暉, Suda Masaki), is a Japanese actor and singer from Osaka Prefecture. He made his acting debut at the age of 16 in the television series Kamen Rider W as the right side of Kamen Rider W, Philip. He is the youngest to become leading actor in Kamen Rider series and at the age of 25, he has become one of the youngest actors to win Best Actor Award at Japan Academy Prize. Suda later debuted as singer in 2017 with his big hit song 「見たこともない景色」 (Mita koto mo nai keshiki).

Mohammed al-Tawudi ibn Suda

Mohammed ibn al-Talib al-Tawudi ibn Suda (1700–1795) was one of the most influential scholars of the 18th century in Morocco, both politically and intellectually. He is described by the Egyptian historian, Al-Jabarti, as the "crescent of the Maghrib". He went on the hajj in 1767-1768 and studied in Medina with Mohammed ibn Abdel Karim al-Samman (1718–1775), founder of the Sammaniyya branch of the Khalwatiyya and in Cairo with the Indian scholar Mohammed Murtada al-Zabidi (d. 1791). In Cairo he also taught the Muwatta of Malik ibn Anas at the Al-Azhar. Ibn Suda was appointed by the sultan in 1788 to reform the curriculum at the Qarawiyin University of Fez, where he was installed as mufti and shaykh al-jamaa. Ibn Suda is also well known as the author of a commentary on Sahih al-Bukhari. and as the teacher of Ahmed ibn Idris.

No More Heroes (video game)

No More Heroes is an action-adventure hack and slash video game for the Wii. It was developed by Grasshopper Manufacture and published by Marvelous Entertainment, Ubisoft, and Rising Star Games. The game was directed, designed, and written by Goichi Suda, also known by his nickname Suda51. The game follows Travis Touchdown, a fan of video games and anime who wins a beam katana in an auction, from which he inadvertently becomes involved in the United Assassins Association and forced to kill assassins higher in rank to prevent other assassins from targeting him.

A port of the game, titled No More Heroes: Heroes' Paradise, was released for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 with additional content in Japan. Unlike the original, the international version of the game was published by Konami, and only the PlayStation 3 version of the game was localized in English. A sequel, No More Heroes 2: Desperate Struggle, was released for the Wii in 2010. A spin-off title, Travis Strikes Again: No More Heroes, was released for the Nintendo Switch on January 18, 2019. The next mainline title, No More Heroes III was announced at E3 2019 to be released in 2020 exclusively for the Nintendo Switch.Goichi Suda is apparently in talks with Marvelous Entertainment about bringing No More Heroes and No More Heroes 2: Desperate Struggle to the Nintendo Switch, but there has not been any official confirmation just yet.


Perperene (Ancient Greek: Περπερηνὴ) or Perperena (Περπερήνα) was a city of ancient Mysia on the south-east of Adramyttium, in the neighbourhood of which there were copper mines and good vineyards. It was said by some to be the place in which Thucydides had died. Stephanus of Byzantium calls the town Parparum or Parparon (Παρπάρων), but he writes that some called the place Perine. Ptolemy calls it Perpere or Permere. According to the Suda, Hellanicus of Lesbos, a 5th-century BC Greek logographer, died at Perperene at age 85. At a later date it was given the name Theodosiopolis or Theodosioupolis (Θεοδοσιούπολις).It is located near Aşagı Beyköy, on the Kozak plateau near Bergama in the Izmir province of Turkey in western Anatolia.


Philocles (Greek: Φιλοκλῆς), was an Athenian tragic poet during the 5th century BC. Through his mother, Philopatho (Greek: Φιλοπαθώ), he had three famous uncles: Aeschylus, the famous poet, Cynaegirus, hero of the battle of Marathon, and Ameinias, hero of the battle of Salamis. The Suda claims that Philocles was the father of the tragic playwright Morsimus, who was in turn the father of the tragedian Astydamas

Souda Bay

Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour near the town of Souda on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete. The bay is about 15 km long and only two to four km wide, and a deep natural harbour. It is formed between the Akrotiri peninsula and Cape Drapano, and runs west to east. The bay is overlooked on both sides by hills, with a relatively low and narrow isthmus in the west near Chania.

Near the mouth of Souda bay, between the Akrotiri and the town of Kalives, there is a group of small islands with Venetian fortifications. The largest island is Souda Island, giving its name to the bay.

Souda Bay is now a popular tourist destination although there are no formal public beaches designed in the area, due to the presence of the Crete Naval Base, a major naval installation of the Hellenic Navy and NATO in the eastern Mediterranean. Villages such as Megala Chorafia and Kalives afford fine views of the bay, and house-building, particularly for foreigners and tourist companies, is spreading along the bay.

Suda River

The Suda (Russian: Суда) is a river in Babayevsky, Kaduysky, and Cherepovetsky Districts of Vologda Oblast in Russia. It flows into the Rybinsk Reservoir of the Volga River. It is 184 kilometres (114 mi) long, with a drainage basin of 13,500 square kilometres (5,200 sq mi) and an average discharge of 134 cubic metres per second (4,700 cu ft/s). Its main tributaries are the Shogda, the Andoga, the Kolp, the Voron and the Petukh rivers.

The source of the Suda is the confluence of the Koloshma and the Nozhema Rivers in the northwest of Babayevsky District of Vologda Oblast, close to the border with Leningrad Oblast. The river flows in the general direction southeast. Almost the whole valley of the Suda is populated. The selo of Borisovo-Sudskoye, located in the upper course of the river, is named after the Suda. Between 1927 and 1959 it was an administrative center of Borisovo-Sudsky District of Leningrad Oblast and of Vologda Oblast. The historic Khvalevskoye Manor is located in the selo of Borisovo-Sudskoye on a 30-meter high banks of the Suda river.

In the lower course, between the mouths of the Kolp (left) and the Andoga (right) the Suda runs close to the urban-type settlement of Kaduy, the center of Kaduysky District, located on the left bank. The mouth of the Suda is located in the settlement of Suda, and the lower course is essentially a bay of the Rybinsk Reservoir.

The river basin of the Suda comprises vast area in the west of Vologda Oblast, in particular, almost all of Babayevsky District, almost all of Kaduysky District, large areas in Belozersky and Cherepovetsky District of Vologda Oblast and in Boksitogorsky District of Leningrad Oblast, as well as minor areas in Vytegorsky and Ustyuzhensky Districts of Vologda Oblast and Tikhvinsky and Podporozhsky Districts of Leningrad Oblast. There are many lakes in the river basin of the Suda, mostly of glacial origin. The biggest of the lakes is Lake Andozero in Belozersky District.

The lower course of the Suda (22 kilometres (14 mi)) is listed in the State Water Register of Russia as navigable, however, there is no passenger navigation.

Russian Caviar House, Russia's largest producer of black caviar, uses live fish wells on the Suda, in which the water remains warm all year round due to clean water from the cooling system of the Cherepovets thermal power plant.

Suda Station

Suda Station (隅田駅, Suda-eki) is a train station in Hashimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan.


Termera (Ancient Greek: Τερμερα or τὰ Τέρμερα), also known as Termerum or Termeron (Τερμερον), was a maritime town of ancient Caria on the south coast of the peninsula of Halicarnassus, near Cape Termerium. Stephanus of Byzantium erroneously assigns the town to Lycia. It was a polis (city-state) and a member of the Delian League. Under the Romans this Dorian town was a free city. According to the Suda the place gave rise to the proverbial expression Τερμέρια κακά, it being used as a prison by the rulers of Caria. In Greek mythology, it was founded by Termerus, after whom it was named.

Its site is located near Asarlık, Asiatic Turkey.

The Silver Case

The Silver Case is an adventure visual novel video game developed by Grasshopper Manufacture and published by ASCII Entertainment for the PlayStation in 1999. It was directed, designed and co-written by Goichi Suda. A remastered version was released digitally by Grasshopper Manufacture worldwide for Microsoft Windows and macOS in 2016, while a port for the PlayStation 4 was released by NIS America in 2017; a Japanese release of the PlayStation 4 version was released in March 2018 by Nippon Ichi Software. A Linux port was released in August 2017. A port for the Nintendo DS was also in development, but never released due to Suda's dissatisfaction with the final product.

The setting is contemporary Japan, and takes place in a universe which would be used by Suda in later works. Within a city called the 24 Districts, a series of bizarre murders occurs, prompting the 24 Districts Police Department to send two detectives from their Heinous Crimes Unit to solve the case. The killings are soon linked to Kamui Uehara, a notorious serial killer who supposedly died several years before. The gameplay revolves around text-based situations, point-and-click mechanics, and interactive question and answer segments.

The Silver Case was the debut title of Grasshopper Manufacture, beginning development with the studio's formation in 1998. As they had limited staff and resources, Suda devised the window-based story-telling to make best use of their assets. The story, written by Suda, Masahi Ooka and Sako Kato revolved around themes of crime and the clashing of people on different sides: its themes would become a recurring feature in later titles developed by Suda. The character designs were done by Takashi Miyamoto, while the music was composed by Masafumi Takada.

Prior to its remaster, the game did not see a release outside Japan, despite Suda wanting a Western release: this was attributed by Suda and others to concerns over properly translating and localizing the game's dialogue and text-based puzzles. The localization was handled by Active Gaming Media in collaboration with Grasshopper Manufacture. The original version was positively reviewed in Japan, while the remaster received generally mixed opinions from journalists. A sequel for mobiles was released in 2005, receiving a remake following the success of the remaster's release.

Viki, Estonia

Viki is a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, on the western part of Saaremaa Island, Estonia.Before the administrative reform in 2017, the village was in Kihelkonna Parish.Composer and organist Peeter Süda (1883–1920) was born in Tammiku farmstead in Viki village.

Wilderness (2017 film)

Wilderness: Part One & Part Two (Japanese: あゝ、荒野, Hepburn: Aa, Koya, lit: "Ah, Wilderness") is a 2017 Japanese two-part drama film based on arthouse screenwriter Shūji Terayama's one and only full length novel, Aa Koya, published in 1966. Directed by Yoshiyuki Kishi, it stars Masaki Suda and Yang Ik-june. It made its world premiere in A Window on Asian Cinema at the 22nd Busan International Film Festival in 2017.


Worawongsathirat (Thai: วรวงศาธิราช) was a usurper in the Ayutthaya Kingdom, ruling for only 42 days in 1548 before being assassinated. Siamese chronicles relate that Worawongsathirat attainted the crown — his kingship is not accepted by most traditional historians.

His birth-name was "Bun Si" (or Bun Sri) (Thai: บุญศรี), and he was a Brahmin. Upon entering service to the crown as keeper of Ho Phra Thep Bidon (หอพระเทพบิดร), a cloister on the palace grounds (with duties such as organising various rites and ceremonies,) Bun Si was then styled Phan But Si Thep (พันบุตรศรีเทพ). He was later promoted to the rank of Khun and styled Khun Chinnarat (ขุนชินราช); this was perhaps even as he was having an adulterous affair with Si Suda Chan (or Sri Sudachan ศรีสุดาจันทร์), a first-class concubine of King Chairachathirat.

Si Suda Chan was not a real name of a person, it was the title of one of the four first-class concubines, which were Insuren, Si Suda Chan, Inthrathewi and Si Chula Lak. The real name of King Chairachathirat's consort was not mentioned in the history.

King Chairachathirat died in 1546, possibly poisoned by her hand. Their young son, Phra Kaewfa, ascended the throne as King Yodfa with his mother as regent. (Whether Si Suda Chan and Khun Chinnarat had their affair before or after the ascension of Yotfa is subject to debate. Jeremias van Vliet's memories told that they met after the coronation of Yotfa which contrasted to those of Fernão Mendes Pinto.)

In 1548, Yotfa was killed and Si Suda Chan, still acting as a regent, put Khun Chinnarat on the throne styled "Khun Worawongsathirat". Traditional historians criticise this usurpation as a great violation of morality. Some modern historians, however, take an alternative view. In this interpretation, Si Suda Chan, being of the deposed House of Uthong, intended to restore it to the Ayutthayan throne; and that Bun Si was also of the Uthong clan. Thus Worawongsethirat's reign could be called a restoration of the Uthong clan to Ayutthayan authority, at the expense of the House of Suphannaphum and other noble clans.

Those of the Suphannaphum clan responded by forming alliances with the Sukhothai clan led by Khun Phirenthorathep and Si Thammasok, and of the Nakhon Si Thammarat clan led by Khun Intharathep. Their plot to overthrow Worawongsathirat involved the discovery of a white elephant (pachyderm) in Lop Buri in 1548. White elephants are considered sacred and symbols of royal power; all those discovered are normally presented to the king. The king was told that mahouts were unable to tame the elephant, so the king was invited to go tame it, himself. On setting out by royal barge along Pla Mo Canal (Thai: คลองปลาหมอ), beside Sa Bua Canal (Thai: คลองสระบัว) (historian Jeremias van Vliet says it was on the side nearer the Palace Gate) Worawongsathirat was killed by gunshot. His head and that of his paramour were then displayed on spikes, and their bodies left to vultures.

Those executing the coup, Khun Piren and his fellow retired officers, gave the throne to Prince Tien, who was proclaimed Maha Chakkrapat, or "Great Emperor".


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