Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

Subtropical climates are often characterized by warm to hot summers and cool to mild winters with infrequent frost. Most subtropical climates fall into two basic types: humid subtropical, where rainfall is often concentrated in the warmest months (for example Brisbane, Queensland or Jacksonville, Florida), and dry summer climate or (Mediterranean), where seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the cooler months (for example Naples, Italy or Los Angeles, California).

Subtropical climates can occur at high elevations within the tropics, such as in the southern end of the Mexican Plateau and in Vietnam and Taiwan. Six climate classifications use the term to help define the various temperature and precipitation regimes for the planet Earth.

A great portion of the world's deserts are located within the subtropics, due to the development of the subtropical ridge. Within savanna regimes in the subtropics, a wet season is seen annually during the summer, which is when most of the yearly rainfall falls. Within Mediterranean climate regimes, the wet season occurs during the winter. Areas bordering warm oceans are prone to locally heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones, which can contribute a significant percentage of the annual rainfall. Plants such as palms, citrus, mango, pistachio, lychee, and avocado are grown within the subtropics.

World map indicating tropics and subtropics
The subtropics and tropics
Subtropical
Areas of the world with subtropical climates according to Köppen climate classification

Definition

The tropics have been historically defined as lying between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn, located at latitudes 23.45° north and south, respectively.[1] According to the American Meteorological Society, the poleward fringe of the subtropics is located at latitudes approximately 35° north and south, respectively.[2]

Temperatures

Libya 4985 Tadrart Acacus Luca Galuzzi 2007
Tadrart Acacus desert, part of the Sahara, in western Libya.

Several methods have been used to define the subtropical climate. In the Trewartha climate classification, a subtropical region should have at least eight months with a mean temperature greater than 10 °C (50.0 °F) and at least one month with a mean temperature under 18 °C (64.4 °F).[3] German climatologists Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen defined Warm temperate zones as plain and hilly lands having an average temperature of the coldest month between 2 °C (35.6 °F) and 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6 °C (42.8 °F) and 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the Southern Hemisphere, excluding oceanic and continental climates. According to the Troll-Paffen climate classification, there generally exists one large subtropical zone named the warm-temperate subtropical zone,[4] which is subdivided into seven smaller areas.[5]

According to the E. Neef climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into two parts: Rainy winters of the west sides and Eastern subtropical climate.[6] According to the Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification, the subtropical zone is divided into three parts: high-continental, continental, and maritime.[7] According to the Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, subtropical is one of six climate zones in the world.[8]

Rainfall

Earth Global Circulation
Hadley cells located on the Earth's atmospheric circulation.

Heating of the earth near the equator leads to large amounts of upward motion and convection along the monsoon trough or intertropical convergence zone. The upper-level divergence over the near-equatorial trough leads to air rising and moving away from the equator aloft. As the air moves towards the mid-latitudes, it cools and sinks, which leads to subsidence near the 30th parallel of both hemispheres. This circulation is known as the Hadley cell and leads to the formation of the subtropical ridge.[9] Many of the world's deserts are caused by these climatological high-pressure areas,[10] located within the subtropics. This regime is known as an arid subtropical climate, which is generally located in areas adjacent to powerful cold ocean currents. Examples of this climate are the coastal areas of southern Africa (Namibia, South Africa), the south of the Canary Islands and the coasts of Peru and Chile.[11]

The humid subtropical climate is often located on the western side of the subtropical high. Here, unstable tropical airmasses in summer bring convective overturning and frequent tropical downpours, and summer is normally the season of peak annual rainfall. In the winter (dry season) the monsoon retreats, and the drier trade winds bring more stable airmass and often dry weather, and frequent sunny skies. Areas that have this type of subtropical climate include Australia, Southeast Asia, parts of South America, and the deep south of the United States.[12][13][14] In areas bounded by warm ocean like the southeastern United States and East Asia, tropical cyclones can contribute significantly to local rainfall within the subtropics.[15] Japan receives over half of its rainfall from typhoons.[16]

The Mediterranean climate is a subtropical climate with a wet season in winter and a dry season in the summer. Regions with this type of climate include western Mexico.[17] the Desert Southwest of the United States,[18] Within the Mediterranean climate regime, the west coast of the United States and the Mediterranean coastline of Italy, Greece, and Turkey experience a wet season in the winter months.[19] Similarly, the wet season in the Negev desert of Israel extends from October through May.[20] At the boundary between the Mediterranean and monsoon climates in North America lies the Sonoran desert, which receives the two rainy seasons associated with each climate regime.[21]

Flora

These climates do not routinely see hard frosts or snow, which allows plants such as palms and citrus to flourish.[22][23] As one moves toward the tropical side the slight winter cool season disappears, while at the poleward threshold of the subtropics the winters become cooler. Some crops which have been traditionally farmed in tropical climates, such as mango, litchi, and avocado, are cultivated in the subtropics. Pest control of the crops is less difficult than within the tropics, due to the cooler winters.[24]

Tree ferns (pteridophytes) are grown within subtropical areas, primarily within the subtropics and within topography within the tropics. Dracaena and yucca can grow within the subtropics. Trees within the Taxaceae family grow within subtropical climate regimes. Apple, pear and pomegranates grow well within the subtropics.[25]

Varieties

Humid variation

Wetland Hong Kong
Wetland Park in Hong Kong.

The humid subtropical climate is a subtropical climate type characterized by hot, humid summers with frequent tropical downpours of short duration and warm, and frequently dry winters. In summer, the subtropical high pressure cells bring a sultry flow of tropical air with high dew points, and daily thundershowers are typical, though brief. Normally, rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months of the year. At times, the average annual precipitation may be more evenly distributed throughout the year, or a spring maximum is present. With decreasing latitude most humid subtropical climates typically have drier winters and wetter summers.

Humid subtropical climates lie on the lower east side of continents, roughly between latitudes 25° and 35° degrees away from the equator. In the United States, the humid subtropical zone is normally considered the region from central Florida north to northeastern North Carolina.

Hong Kong
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
25
 
 
19
14
 
 
52
 
 
19
14
 
 
71
 
 
22
17
 
 
189
 
 
25
21
 
 
330
 
 
28
24
 
 
388
 
 
30
26
 
 
374
 
 
31
27
 
 
445
 
 
31
26
 
 
288
 
 
30
26
 
 
152
 
 
28
23
 
 
35
 
 
24
19
 
 
35
 
 
20
16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1
 
 
65
57
 
 
2
 
 
65
58
 
 
2.8
 
 
71
62
 
 
7.4
 
 
77
69
 
 
13
 
 
83
75
 
 
15
 
 
87
79
 
 
15
 
 
88
80
 
 
18
 
 
88
80
 
 
11
 
 
86
78
 
 
6
 
 
82
74
 
 
1.4
 
 
75
67
 
 
1.4
 
 
69
60
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
São Paulo
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
239
 
 
27
19
 
 
217
 
 
28
19
 
 
160
 
 
27
18
 
 
76
 
 
25
16
 
 
74
 
 
23
14
 
 
56
 
 
22
12
 
 
44
 
 
22
12
 
 
39
 
 
23
13
 
 
81
 
 
24
14
 
 
124
 
 
25
15
 
 
146
 
 
26
17
 
 
201
 
 
26
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
9.4
 
 
81
66
 
 
8.5
 
 
82
66
 
 
6.3
 
 
81
65
 
 
3
 
 
77
61
 
 
2.9
 
 
73
57
 
 
2.2
 
 
71
54
 
 
1.7
 
 
71
53
 
 
1.5
 
 
74
55
 
 
3.2
 
 
75
57
 
 
4.9
 
 
77
60
 
 
5.7
 
 
79
62
 
 
7.9
 
 
79
64
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Orlando
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.4
 
 
71
49
 
 
2.4
 
 
74
52
 
 
3.8
 
 
78
56
 
 
2.6
 
 
83
60
 
 
3.5
 
 
88
66
 
 
7.6
 
 
91
72
 
 
7.3
 
 
92
74
 
 
7.1
 
 
92
74
 
 
6.1
 
 
90
73
 
 
3.3
 
 
85
66
 
 
2.2
 
 
78
59
 
 
2.6
 
 
73
52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Metric conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
60
 
 
22
10
 
 
60
 
 
23
11
 
 
96
 
 
26
13
 
 
65
 
 
28
16
 
 
88
 
 
31
19
 
 
193
 
 
33
22
 
 
185
 
 
33
23
 
 
181
 
 
33
23
 
 
154
 
 
32
23
 
 
84
 
 
29
19
 
 
55
 
 
26
15
 
 
66
 
 
23
11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Mediterranean climate

The Mediterranean climate regime resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, parts of coastal southwestern North America(including western parts of the Pacific northwest), parts of Western and South Australia, in southwestern South Africa and in parts of central Chile. The climate is characterized by hot dry summers and cooler winters with rainfall.[26] In Europe, the northernmost mediterranean climates are found along the French Riviera, located at 43° latitude. On the immediate Atlantic coastline, the mediterranean boundary goes between Porto and Vigo at around 41° latitude. Parts of southwestern Australia around Perth have a Mediterranean climate as does areas around coastal South Africa.

Los Angeles
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
79
 
 
20
9
 
 
97
 
 
20
10
 
 
62
 
 
21
11
 
 
23
 
 
23
12
 
 
6.6
 
 
24
14
 
 
2.3
 
 
26
16
 
 
0.3
 
 
28
18
 
 
1
 
 
29
18
 
 
6.1
 
 
28
17
 
 
17
 
 
26
15
 
 
26
 
 
23
11
 
 
59
 
 
20
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [1]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.1
 
 
68
48
 
 
3.8
 
 
69
49
 
 
2.4
 
 
70
51
 
 
0.9
 
 
73
53
 
 
0.3
 
 
74
57
 
 
0.1
 
 
78
60
 
 
0
 
 
83
64
 
 
0
 
 
84
64
 
 
0.2
 
 
83
63
 
 
0.7
 
 
78
59
 
 
1
 
 
73
52
 
 
2.3
 
 
68
47
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Victoria
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
94
 
 
7
3
 
 
72
 
 
9
4
 
 
47
 
 
11
5
 
 
29
 
 
13
6
 
 
26
 
 
16
8
 
 
21
 
 
18
10
 
 
14
 
 
20
11
 
 
20
 
 
20
12
 
 
27
 
 
19
11
 
 
51
 
 
14
8
 
 
99
 
 
9
5
 
 
109
 
 
7
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[27]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.7
 
 
45
37
 
 
2.8
 
 
47
39
 
 
1.8
 
 
51
40
 
 
1.1
 
 
56
43
 
 
1
 
 
61
47
 
 
0.8
 
 
64
50
 
 
0.6
 
 
68
52
 
 
0.8
 
 
68
53
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
51
 
 
2
 
 
57
46
 
 
3.9
 
 
49
41
 
 
4.3
 
 
45
38
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Cape Town
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
15
 
 
26
16
 
 
17
 
 
27
16
 
 
20
 
 
25
14
 
 
41
 
 
23
12
 
 
69
 
 
20
9
 
 
93
 
 
18
8
 
 
82
 
 
18
7
 
 
77
 
 
18
8
 
 
40
 
 
19
9
 
 
30
 
 
21
11
 
 
14
 
 
24
13
 
 
17
 
 
25
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: HKO
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.6
 
 
79
60
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
60
 
 
0.8
 
 
78
58
 
 
1.6
 
 
73
53
 
 
2.7
 
 
69
49
 
 
3.7
 
 
65
46
 
 
3.2
 
 
64
45
 
 
3
 
 
64
46
 
 
1.6
 
 
67
48
 
 
1.2
 
 
70
51
 
 
0.6
 
 
74
56
 
 
0.7
 
 
77
59
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Semi-desert/desert climate

SantaBarbara2
Mount Benacantil, Alicante, Spain.

Arid subtropical climates are characterized by an annual average temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F), the absence of regular rainfall and high humidity. [11]

Alicante
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
22
 
 
17
6
 
 
26
 
 
18
7
 
 
26
 
 
19
8
 
 
30
 
 
21
10
 
 
33
 
 
24
13
 
 
17
 
 
27
17
 
 
6
 
 
30
20
 
 
8
 
 
30
20
 
 
47
 
 
28
18
 
 
52
 
 
24
14
 
 
42
 
 
21
10
 
 
26
 
 
18
7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: AEdM
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.9
 
 
62
43
 
 
1
 
 
64
45
 
 
1
 
 
67
47
 
 
1.2
 
 
70
50
 
 
1.3
 
 
74
56
 
 
0.7
 
 
81
63
 
 
0.2
 
 
86
67
 
 
0.3
 
 
87
69
 
 
1.9
 
 
83
64
 
 
2
 
 
76
57
 
 
1.7
 
 
69
50
 
 
1
 
 
64
45
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Cairo
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5
 
 
19
9
 
 
3.8
 
 
20
10
 
 
3.8
 
 
24
12
 
 
1.1
 
 
28
15
 
 
0.5
 
 
32
18
 
 
0.1
 
 
34
20
 
 
0
 
 
35
22
 
 
0
 
 
34
22
 
 
0
 
 
33
21
 
 
0.7
 
 
29
17
 
 
3.8
 
 
25
14
 
 
5.9
 
 
20
10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
66
48
 
 
0.1
 
 
69
49
 
 
0.1
 
 
74
53
 
 
0
 
 
83
58
 
 
0
 
 
90
64
 
 
0
 
 
93
68
 
 
0
 
 
94
72
 
 
0
 
 
94
72
 
 
0
 
 
91
69
 
 
0
 
 
85
63
 
 
0.1
 
 
77
57
 
 
0.2
 
 
69
51
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Lima
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.9
 
 
26
19
 
 
0.3
 
 
27
19
 
 
4.9
 
 
26
19
 
 
0
 
 
24
18
 
 
0.1
 
 
22
16
 
 
0.3
 
 
20
15
 
 
0.3
 
 
19
15
 
 
0.3
 
 
18
15
 
 
5.4
 
 
19
15
 
 
0.2
 
 
20
15
 
 
0
 
 
22
16
 
 
0.3
 
 
24
18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0
 
 
78
66
 
 
0
 
 
80
67
 
 
0.2
 
 
79
67
 
 
0
 
 
76
64
 
 
0
 
 
71
61
 
 
0
 
 
67
60
 
 
0
 
 
66
59
 
 
0
 
 
65
58
 
 
0.2
 
 
66
58
 
 
0
 
 
68
59
 
 
0
 
 
71
62
 
 
0
 
 
75
64
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

See also

References

  1. ^ I. G. Sitnikov. "1" (PDF). Principal Weather Systems in Subtropical and Tropical Zones. 1. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems.
  2. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (25 April 2012). "Subtropics". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  3. ^ Belda et al. Climate classification revisited: from Köppen to Trewartha. In: Climate Research Vol. 59: 1–13, 2014.
  4. ^ Climatic map by Istituto Geografico De Agostini, according to Troll-Paffen climate classification Archived 4 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Die Klimaklassifikation nach Troll / Paffen – klimadiagramme.de
  6. ^ Die Klimaklassifikation nach E. Neef – klimadiagramme.de
  7. ^ Wilhelm Lauer & Peter Frankenberg climate classification
  8. ^ Die Klimatypen der Erde – Pädagogische Hochschule in Heidelberg
  9. ^ Dr. Owen E. Thompson (1996). Hadley Circulation Cell. Archived 5 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Channel Video Productions. Retrieved on 11 February 2007.
  10. ^ ThinkQuest team 26634 (1999). The Formation of Deserts. Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation. Retrieved on 16 February 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Tropical and subtropical desert climate".
  12. ^ Susan Woodward (2 February 2005). "Tropical Savannas". Radford University. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2008.
  13. ^ Randy Lascody (2008). The Florida Rain Machine. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 6 February 2009.
  14. ^ John J. Stransky (1 January 1960). "Site Treatments Have Little Effect During Wet Season in Texas". Tree Planters' Notes. 10 (2).
  15. ^ Geoffrey John Cary; David B. Lindenmayer; Stephen Dovers (2003). Australia Burning: Fire Ecology, Policy and Management Issues. Csiro Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-643-06926-8.
  16. ^ Whipple, Addison (1982). Storm. Alexandria, VA: Time Life Books. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8094-4312-3.
  17. ^ Remote Sensing for Migratory Creatures (2002). Phenology and Creature Migration: Dry season and wet season in West Mexico. Arizona Remote Sensing Center. Retrieved on 6 February 2009.
  18. ^ J. Horel (2006). Normal Monthly Precipitation, Inches. Archived 13 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine University of Utah. Retrieved on 19 March 2008.
  19. ^ D. Bozkurt, O.L. Sen and M. Karaca (2008). Wet season evaluation of RegCM3 performance for Eastern Mediterranean. EGU General Assembly. Retrieved on 6 February 2009.
  20. ^ Ron Kahana; Baruch Ziv; Yehouda Enzel & Uri Dayan (2002). "Synoptic Climatology of Major Floods in the Negev Desert, Israel" (PDF). International Journal of Climatology. 22 (7): 869. Bibcode:2002IJCli..22..867K. doi:10.1002/joc.766. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011.
  21. ^ Michael J. Plagens (2009). What and Where is the Sonoran Desert? Arizonensis. Retrieved on 7 February 2009.
  22. ^ Walter Tennyson Swingle (1904). The Date Palm and its Utilization in the Southwestern States. United States Government Printing Office. p. 11.
  23. ^ Wilson Popenoe (1920). "Manual of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Excluding the Banana, Coconut, Pineapple, Citrus Fruits, Olive, and Fig". Nature. 108 (2715): 7. Bibcode:1921Natur.108Q.334.. doi:10.1038/108334a0. hdl:2027/hvd.32044106386147. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  24. ^ Galán Saúco, V. Robinson, J. C., Tomer, E., Daniells, J. (2010). "S18.001: Current Situation and Challenges of Cultivating Banana and other Tropical Fruits in the Subtropics" (PDF). 28th International Horticultural Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ R. K. Kholi; D. R. Batish & H. B. SIngh. "Forests and Forest Plants Volume II – Important Tree Species" (PDF). Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  26. ^ Michael Ritter (24 December 2008). "Mediterranean or Dry Summer Subtropical Climate". University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
  27. ^ "Victoria Gonzales HTS, British Columbia". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000 (in English and French). Environment Canada. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
Aganainae

The Aganainae are a small subfamily of moths in the family Erebidae. The adults and caterpillars of this subfamily are typically large and brightly colored, like the related tiger moths. Many of the caterpillars feed on poisonous host plants and acquire toxic cardenolides that make them unpleasant to predators. Like the closely related litter moths, the adults have long, upturned labial palps, and the caterpillars have fully or mostly developed prolegs on the abdomen. The Aganainae are distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the Old World.

Aristideae

The Aristideae is the sole tribe of grasses in the monotypic subfamily Aristidoideae of the true grass family Poaceae. Its members are herbaceous annuals or perennials found in the tropics, subtropics and temperate zones. The tribe has over 300 species in three genera: The subfamily is a member of the PACMAD clade of grasses, the evolutionary group in which C4 photosynthesis independently evolved a number of times.

Aristida

Sartidia

Stipagrostis

Asclepiadoideae

According to APG II, the Asclepiadaceae, commonly known as milkweed family, is a former plant family now treated as a subfamily (subfamily Asclepiadoideae) in the Apocynaceae (Bruyns 2000).

They form a group of perennial herbs, twining shrubs, lianas or rarely trees but notably also contain a significant number of leafless stem succulents. The name comes from the type genus Asclepias (milkweeds).

There are 348 genera, with about 2,900 species. They are mainly located in the tropics to subtropics, especially in Africa and South America.

The florally advanced tribe Stapeliae within this family contains the relatively familiar stem succulent genera such as Huernia, Stapelia and Hoodia. They are remarkable for the complex mechanisms they have developed for pollination, which independently parallel the unrelated Orchidaceae, especially in the grouping of their pollen into pollinia. The fragrance from the flowers, often called "carrion", attracts flies. The flies pollinate the flowers.

Many new hybrids have been formed due to the unique fertilization method of the flowers.

Begoniaceae

Begoniaceae is a family of flowering plants with two genera and about 1825 species occurring in the subtropics and tropics of both the New World and Old World. All but one of the species are in the genus Begonia. The only other genus in the family, Hillebrandia, is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and has a single species. Phylogenetic work supports Hillebrandia as the sister taxon to the rest of the family. The genus Symbegonia was reduced to a section of Begonia in 2003, as molecular phylogenies had shown it to be derived from within that genus. Members of the genus Begonia are well-known and popular houseplants.

Cambisol

A Cambisol in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) is a soil with a beginning of soil formation. The horizon differentiation is weak. This is evident from weak, mostly brownish discolouration and/or structure formation in the soil profile.

Cambisols are developed in medium and fine-textured materials derived from a wide range of rocks, mostly in alluvial, colluvial and aeolian deposits.

Most of these soils make good agricultural land and are intensively used. Cambisols in temperate climates are among the most productive soils on earth.

Cambisols cover an estimated 15 million square kilometres worldwide. They are well represented in temperate and boreal regions that were under the influence of glaciation during the Pleistocene, partly because the soil's parent material is still young, but also because soil formation is comparatively slow in the cool, northern regions. Cambisols are less common in the tropics and subtropics. But they are common in areas with active erosion where they may occur in association with mature tropical soils.

Combretaceae

The Combretaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Myrtales. The family includes about 530 species of trees, shrubs, and lianas in ca 10 genera. The family includes the leadwood tree, Combretum imberbe. Three genera, Conocarpus, Laguncularia, and Lumnitzera, grow in mangrove habitats (mangals). The Combretaceae are widespread in the subtropics and tropics. Some members of this family produce useful construction timber, such as idigbo from Terminalia ivorensis. The commonly cultivated Quisqualis indica is now placed in the genus Combretum.

Epipaschiinae

The Epipaschiinae are a subfamily of snout moths (family Pyralidae). Almost 600 species are known today, which are found mainly in the tropics and subtropics. Some occur in temperate regions, but the subfamily is apparently completely absent from Europe, at least as native species. A few Epipaschiinae are crop pests that may occasionally become economically significant.

Gesneriaceae

Gesneriaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 152 genera and ca. 3,540 species in the Old World and New World tropics and subtropics, with a very small number extending to temperate areas. Many species have colorful and showy flowers and are cultivated as ornamental plants.

Gorgonian

Gorgonians are sessile colonial cnidarians found throughout the oceans of the world, especially in the tropics and subtropics. The name "Gorgonacea" is no longer considered valid and Alcyonacea is now the accepted name for the order. Gorgonians are also known as sea fans and sea whips and are similar to the sea pen, a soft coral. Individual tiny polyps form colonies that are normally erect, flattened, branching, and reminiscent of a fan. Others may be whiplike, bushy, or even encrusting. A colony can be several feet high and across but only a few inches thick. They may be brightly coloured, often purple, red, or yellow. Photosynthetic gorgonians can be successfully kept in captive reef aquariums.

Gorgonians are classified in the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, alongside the orders Alcyonacea (soft corals) and Pennatulacea (sea pens). There are about 500 different species of gorgonians found in the oceans of the world, but they are particularly abundant in the shallow waters of the western Atlantic, including Florida, Bermuda, and the West Indies.

Hadrianus (genus)

Hadrianus is an extinct genus of tortoise belonging to the Testudinidae found in the United States and Spain and believed to be the oldest true tortoise known. The genus is thought to be closely related to the genus Manouria. The genus may have evolved in the subtropics of Asia and subsequently migrated to North America and Europe.

Hardwood

Hardwood is wood from dicot trees. These are usually found in broad-leaved temperate and tropical forests. In temperate and boreal latitudes they are mostly deciduous, but in tropics and subtropics mostly evergreen. Hardwood contrasts with softwood (which is from gymnosperm trees).

Malpighiaceae

Malpighiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. It comprises about 73 genera and 1315 species, all of which are native to the tropics and subtropics. About 80% of the genera and 90% of the species occur in the New World (the Caribbean and the southernmost United States to Argentina) and the rest in the Old World (Africa, Madagascar, and Indomalaya to New Caledonia and the Philippines).

One useful species in the family is Malpighia emarginata, often called acerola. The fruit is consumed in areas where the plant is native. The plant is cultivated elsewhere for the fruit, which is rich in vitamin C.

Another member of the family, caapi or yagé (Banisteriopsis caapi), is used in the entheogenic brew known as ayahuasca.

One feature found in several members of this family, and rarely in others, is providing pollinators with rewards other than pollen or nectar; this is commonly in the form of nutrient oils (resins are offered by Clusiaceae).

Malvales

The Malvales are an order of flowering plants. As circumscribed by APG II-system, the order includes about 6000 species within 9 families. The order is placed in the eurosids II, which are part of the eudicots.

The plants are mostly shrubs and trees; most of its families have a cosmopolitan distribution in the tropics and subtropics, with limited expansion into temperate regions. An interesting distribution occurs in Madagascar, where three endemic families of Malvales (Sphaerosepalaceae, Sarcolaenaceae and Diegodendraceae) occur.

Many species of Malvaceae sensu lato are known for their wood, with that of Ochroma (balsa) being known for its lightness, and that of Tilia (lime, linden, or basswood) as a popular wood for carving. Fruit of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) are used as an ingredient for chocolate. Kola nuts (genus Cola) are notable for their high content of caffeine and, in past, were commonly used for preparing of various cola drinks. Other well-known members of Malvales in the APG II sense are daphnes, hibiscus, hollyhocks, okra, baobab trees, cotton, and kapok.

Nitisol

A Nitisol in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) is a deep, red, well-drained soil with a clay content of more than 30% and a blocky structure. Nitisols correlate with the Kandic Alfisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols of the USDA soil taxonomy.These soils are found in the tropics and subtropics; there are extensive areas of them in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon. Nitisols form from fine-textured material weathered from intermediate to basic parent rock and kaolinite, halloysite and iron oxides dominate their clay mineralogy.

The natural vegetation on nitisols includes tropical rain forest and savannah. Limitations frequently include low phosphorus availability and low base status, but once ameliorated, these deep, stable soils have high agricultural potential, and are often planted to crops.

Ophidiiformes

Ophidiiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes the cusk-eels (family Ophidiidae), pearlfishes (family Carapidae), viviparous brotulas (family Bythitidae), and others. Members of this order have small heads and long slender bodies. They have either smooth scales or no scales, a long dorsal fin and an anal fin that typically runs into the caudal fin. They mostly come from the tropics and subtropics, and live in both freshwater and marine habitats, including abyssal depths. They have adopted a range of feeding methods and lifestyles, including parasitism. The majority are egg-laying, but some are viviparous.

Pandanaceae

Pandanaceae is a family of flowering plants native to the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, from West Africa through the Pacific. It contains 982 known species in five genera, of which the type genus, Pandanus, is the most important, with species like Pandanus amaryllifolius and karuka (Pandanus julianettii) being important sources of food. It is an ancient family dating from the early to mid-Cretaceous.

Subtropics (journal)

Subtropics is an American literary journal based at the University of Florida in Gainesville.Works originally published in Subtropics have been subsequently selected for inclusion in the Best American Poetry, The Best American Short Stories, Best American Nonrequired Reading, New Stories from the Midwest, New Stories from the South, the O. Henry Prize anthology, and the Pushcart Prize anthology.

Notable writers who have contributed to this journal include Seth Abramson, Steve Almond, Chris Bachelder, John Barth, Harold Bloom, Peter Cameron, Anne Carson, Billy Collins, Martha Collins, Mark Doty, Lauren Groff, Allan Gurganus, Amy Hempel, Bob Hicok, Roy Kesey, J. M. G. Le Clézio, Les Murray, Edna O'Brien, Lucia Perillo, D. A. Powell, Padgett Powell, A. E. Stallings, Olga Slavnikova, Ben Sonnenberg, Peter Stamm, Terese Svoboda, and Paul Theroux.

Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small.

The temperate zones (latitudes from 35° to the polar circles at about 66.5°, north and south) are where the widest seasonal changes occur, with most climates found in it having somewhat balanced influence from both the tropics and the poles. The subtropics (latitudes from about 23.5° to 35°, north and south) have temperate climates that show further similarities with the tropics, usually having warmer summers and milder winters. The poleward outskirts of the temperate zones are where the coldest but yet temperate climates such as the boreal climate are found, with colder winters and milder summers, showing further similarities with the poles.

It is not only latitudinal positions that influence temperature changes: sea currents, air masses, continentality, maritimity, and altitude are also defining factors, with climates considered temperate being found even in tropical areas or milder climates in polar regions. Humidity and precipitation changes are also taken into account.

The Köppen climate classification defines a climate as "temperate" when the coldest month has a mean temperature above −3 °C (26.6 °F) but below 18 °C (64.4 °F).

Tropical wave

Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.

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