Subsoil

Subsoil is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground. Like topsoil, it is composed of a variable mixture of small particles such as sand, silt and clay, but with a much lower percentage of organic matter and humus. Below the subsoil is the substratum, which can be residual bedrock, sediments, or aeolian deposits. As it is lacking in dark humus, subsoil is usually paler in color than the overlying topsoil. It may contain the deeper roots of some plants, such as trees, but a majority of plant roots lie within the topsoil.

Clay-based subsoil has been the primary source of material for adobe, cob, rammed earth, wattle and daub, and other earthen construction methods for millennia. Coarse sand, the other ingredient in most of these materials, is also found in subsoil.

Although by no means sterile, subsoil is relatively barren in terms of soil organisms compared to humus-rich topsoil.

Devon Culm Subsoil - geograph.org.uk - 344702
Subsoil layer

Sources

  • Håkansson, Inge; Reeder, Randall C. (March 1994). "Subsoil compaction by vehicles with high axle load—extent, persistence and crop response". Soil and Tillage Research. 29 (2–3): 277–304. doi:10.1016/0167-1987(94)90065-5. Retrieved October 11, 2012. (subscription required)
  • Adams, Fred; . Moore, B. L (January 1983). "Chemical Factors Affecting Root Growth in Subsoil Horizons of Coastal Plain Soils". Vol. 47 No. 1. Soil Science Society of America Journal. pp. 99–102. Retrieved October 11, 2012. (subscription required)

See also

Acrisol

An Acrisol is a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). It has a clay-rich subsoil and is associated with humid, tropical climates, such as those found in Brazil, and often supports forested areas. In the USDA soil taxonomy , Acrisols correspond to the Humult, Udult and Ustult suborders of the Ultisols and also to Oxisols with a kandic horizon and to some Alfisols. The Acrisols low fertility and toxic amounts of aluminium pose limitations to its agricultural use, favouring in many places its use for silviculture, low intensity pasture and protected areas. Crops that can be successfully cultivated, if climate allows, include tea, rubber tree, oil palm, coffee and sugar cane.

Alisol

An Alisol is a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB).

Alisols have an argic horizon, which has a high cation exchange capacity. In the subsoil, the base saturation is low.

There exist mixed forms, for example 'Stagnic Alisol', that are mainly Alisol, but also contain components that are found in Stagnosols.

Alisols occur in tropical and humid subtropical climates, but are also found in temperate regions. Compared to Lixisols, Acrisols and Ferralsols, Alisols have much higher-activity clays and are likely to be found on younger terrains or more geologically active regions such as Kyushu and Chugoku.

Aridisol

Aridisols (or desert soils) are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy. Aridisols (from the Latin aridus, for “dry”, and solum) form in an arid or semi-arid climate. Aridisols dominate the deserts and xeric shrublands, which occupy about one third of the Earth's land surface. Aridisols have a very low concentration of organic matter, reflecting the paucity of vegetative production on these dry soils.

Water deficiency is the major defining characteristic of Aridisols. Also required is sufficient age to exhibit subsoil weathering and development. Limited leaching in aridisols often results in one or more subsurface soil horizons in which suspended or dissolved minerals have been deposited: silicate clays, sodium, calcium carbonate, gypsum or soluble salts. These subsoil horizons can also be cemented by carbonates, gypsum or silica. Accumulation of salts on the surface can result in salinization.

In the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), most Aridisols belong to the Calcisols, Gypsisols, Durisols and Solonchaks.

Bagnore

Bagnore (Italian: [ˈbaɲɲore]) is a village in Tuscany, central Italy, administratively a frazione of the comune of Santa Fiora, province of Grosseto. At the time of the 2001 census its population amounted to 420.Bagnore is about 60 km from Grosseto and 2 km from Santa Fiora, and it is situated along the provincial road which links Santa Fiora to Arcidosso, in the southern side of Monte Amiata. Bagnore is well known for its geothermal activity. The springs of Acquaforte were very popular during the 19th century and they were awarded at the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1900. Nowadays the springs no longer exist. A large geothermal power plant for the exploitation of the subsoil was built in 1997, designed by architect Stefano Boeri.The village is also known as the place of death of the prophet David Lazzaretti.

Catterick Racecourse

Catterick Racecourse, sometimes known as Catterick Bridge Racecourse, is a thoroughbred horse racing venue one mile north west of Catterick in North Yorkshire, England, near the hamlet of Catterick Bridge. The first racing at Catterick was held in 1783.

The track is left-handed, sharp and undulating, just over a mile round, with a 3 furlong run-in. The gravel subsoil means the going is usually good. It has been said that "it is not one of the North's most glamorous fixtures".The Catterick Sunday Market, held on the racecourse grounds, is the largest Sunday Market in the North of England. The international flat racing champion Collier Hill won his first race here in March 2002.

The feature event at the course is the North Yorkshire Grand National held in January.

There are plans to create an All Weather track and change the layout of the National Hunt course.

Claypan

In geology, a claypan is a dense, compact, slowly permeable layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlying material, from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary. Claypans are usually hard when dry, and plastic and sticky when wet. They limit or slow the downward movement of water through the soil.

Cob (material)

Cob, cobb or clom (in Wales) is a natural building material made from subsoil, water, fibrous organic material (typically straw), and sometimes lime. The contents of subsoil naturally vary, and if it does not contain the right mixture it can be modified with sand or clay. Cob is fireproof, resistant to seismic activity, and uses low-cost materials, although it is very labour intensive. It can be used to create artistic and sculptural forms, and its use has been revived in recent years by the natural building and sustainability movements.

In technical building and engineering documents, such as the Uniform Building Code of the western USA, cob may be referred to as an "unburned clay masonry" when used in a structural context. It may also be referred to as an "aggregate" in non-structural contexts, such as a "clay and sand aggregate" or more simply an "organic aggregate," such as where the cob is a filler between post and beam construction.

Gypsisol

Gypsisols in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) are soils with substantial secondary accumulation of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). They are found in the driest parts of the arid climate zone.In the USDA soil taxonomy they are classified as Gypsids (USDA Soil Taxonomy), in the Russian soil classification they are called Desert soils (USSR).

Gypsisols are developed in mostly unconsolidated alluvial, colluvial and aeolian deposits of base-rich weathering material. They are found on level to hilly land in arid regions. The natural vegetation is sparse and dominated by xerophytic shrubs and trees and/or ephemeral grasses

These soils have ABC profiles. Accumulation of calcium sulphate, with or without carbonates, is concentrated in and below the B horizon.

Deep Gypsisols located close to water resources can be planted to a wide range of crops. Yields are severely depressed where a petrogypsic horizon occurs at shallow depth. Nutrient imbalance, stoniness, and uneven subsidence of the land surface upon dissolution of gypsum in percolating (irrigation) water are further limitations. Irrigation canals must be lined to prevent the canal walls from caving in. Large areas of Gypsisols are in use for low volume grazing.

Gypsisols are exclusive to arid regions; their worldwide extent is probably of the order of 100 million hectares. Major occurrences are in and around Mesopotamia in desert areas in the Middle East and adjacent central Asian republics, in the Libyan and Namib deserts, in southeast and central Australia and in the southwestern United States.

Hunningham

Hunningham is a small village and civil parish in Warwickshire, England. It is found 3 miles to the north-east of Leamington Spa, within the Radford Semele ward. In 2005 the village population was 198.The name Hunningham comes from ancient times meaning 'Homestead/village of Huna's people' or 'hemmed-in land of Huna's people'. Places of interest are the Red Lion public house and a local nature reserve where endangered species live. It also has a cricket club, [1] that is home to one of the largest youth sections in the county. In 2007 The Red Lion public house was refurbished after flooding by the River Leam. The geology of the area is clay, with gravel subsoil.

Leaching (pedology)

In pedology, leaching is the removal of soluble materials from one zone in soil to another via water movement in the profile. It is a mechanism of soil formation distinct from the soil forming process of eluviation, which is the loss of mineral and organic colloids. Leached and elluviated materials tend to be lost from topsoil and deposited in subsoil. A soil horizon accumulating leached and eluviated materials is referred to as a zone of illuviation.

Laterite soil, which develops in regions with high temperature and heavy rainfall, is an example of this process in action.

Medal "For the Tapping of the Subsoil and Expansion of the Petrochemical Complex of Western Siberia"

The Medal "For the Tapping of the Subsoil and Expansion of the Petrochemical Complex of Western Siberia" (Russian: Медаль «За освоение недр и развитие нефтегазового комплекса Западной Сибири») was a civilian award of the Soviet Union established on July 28, 1978 by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to recognise three years of dedicated work in developing the Petrochemical Complex of Western Siberia.

Pedocal

Pedocal is a subdivision of the zonal soil order. It is a class of soil which forms in semiarid and arid regions. It is rich in calcium carbonate and has low soil organic matter. With only a thin A horizon (topsoil), and intermittent precipitation calcite, other soluble minerals ordinarily removed by water may build up in the B horizon (subsoil) forming a cemented layer known as caliche. It is not used in the current United States system of soil classification but the term commonly shows up in college geology texts.

Planosol

A Planosol in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources is a soil with a light-coloured, coarse-textured, surface horizon that shows signs of periodic water stagnation and abruptly overlies a dense, slowly permeable subsoil with significantly more clay than the surface horizon. In the US Soil Classification of 1938 used the name Planosols, whereas its successor, the USDA soil taxonomy, includes most Planosols in the Great Groups Albaqualfs, Albaquults and Argialbolls.

These soils are typically in seasonally waterlogged flat lands. They occur mainly in subtropical and temperate, semi-arid and subhumid regions. Planosols are formed mostly in clayey alluvial and colluvial deposits. Geological stratification and/or a pedogenetic process of destruction and removal of clay has resulted in the relatively coarse-textured, light-coloured surface soil abruptly overlying finer textured subsoil; impeded downward percolation of water causes temporarily reducing conditions with a stagnic colour pattern, at least close to the abrupt textural change.

Planosols in their natural state support a sparse grass vegetation, often with scattered shrubs and trees that have shallow root systems that can cope with temporary waterlogging. Agricultural land use on is normally less intensive than that on most other soils under the same climate conditions. Vast areas of Planosols are used for extensive grazing. Wood production on Planosols is much lower than on other soils under the same conditions.

In the temperate zone these soils are mainly in grass or planted to crops such as wheat and sugar beet. Yields are modest even on drained and deeply loosened soils. Root development on natural unmodified Planosols is hindered severely by oxygen deficiency in wet periods, dense subsoil and, in places, by toxic levels of Al in the rootzone. Planosols in Southeast Asia are widely planted with paddy rice. Other crops met with little success. Fertilizers are needed for good yields. In climates with long dry periods and short infrequent wet spells the best land use are grasslands. Strongly developed Planosols with a very silty or sandy surface soil are best left untouched.

Planosols cover an estimated 130 million hectares of the world. Major areas with Planosols occur in subtropical and temperate regions with clear alternation of wet and dry seasons, as in South America (Uruguay, northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, eastern Bolivia, the Brazilian pampa, the Pantanal mato-grossense and northeastern Brazil), Africa (Sahelian zone, East and Southern Africa), the east of the United States of America, Southeast Asia (Bangladesh and Thailand), and Australia.

Preston Bissett

Preston Bissett is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England. It is about four miles SSW of Buckingham, six miles north east of Bicester in Oxfordshire. The soil is clay and gravel, but the subsoil varies. The parish is watered by a tributary of the River Great Ouse.

The toponym "Preston" is common in England; it is derived from the Old English for "priest's farm". The Domesday Book of 1086 records the village as Prestone. The affix "Bissett" came later and refers to the lords of the manor, distinguishing it from other places called Preston.

The village has a public house, the White Hart. As of 1927, the History of the County of Buckingham described the village as 'picturesque', mainly composed of thatched cottages grouped around the parish church, which in turn stood in a churchyard on rising ground; although it reported there were "a few modern residences" on the east end of the village.

Solonetz

Solonetz (Ukrainian: Солонець, Russian: Солоне́ц, IPA: [səlɐˈnʲɛts]) is a Reference Soil Group of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). They have, within the upper 100 cm of the soil profile, a so-called "natric horizon" ("natrium" is the Latin term for sodium). There is a subsurface horizon (subsoil), higher in clay content than the upper horizon, that has more than 15% exchangeable sodium. The name is based on the Russian соль (sol, meaning salt). Ukrainian folk word "solontsi" means salty soil. In Ukraine there are many villages that are called Solontsі.

Solonetz zones are associated with Gleysols, Solonchaks and Kastanozems.

In USDA soil taxonomy, Solonetz corresponds to sodium-rich Alfisols.

Stagnosol

A Stagnosol in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) is soil with strong mottling of the soil profile due to redox processes caused by stagnating surface water. Stagnosols are periodically wet and mottled in the topsoil and subsoil, with or without concretions and/or bleaching. The topsoil can also be completely bleached (albic horizon). A common name in many national classification systems for most Stagnosols is pseudogley. In the USDA soil taxonomy, many of them belong to the Aqualfs, Aquults, Aquents, Aquepts and Aquolls.

They are developed in a wide variety of unconsolidated materials like glacial till, and loamy aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits and physically weathered siltstone. Stagnosols occur on flat to gently sloping land in cool temperate to subtropical regions with humid to perhumid climate conditions.

The agricultural suitability of Stagnosols is limited because of their oxygen deficiency resulting from stagnating water above a dense subsoil. Therefore, they have to be drained. However, in contrast to Gleysols, drainage with channels or pipes is in many cases insufficient. It is necessary to have a higher porosity in the subsoil in order to improve the hydraulic conductivity. This may be achieved by deep loosening or deep ploughing. Drained Stagnosols can be fertile soils owing to their moderate degree of leaching.

Stagnosols cover 150–200 million ha worldwide. For the greater part in humid to perhumid temperate regions of West and Central Europe, North America, southeast Australia and Argentina. Here Stagnosols are associated with Luvisols as well as silty to clayey Cambisols and Umbrisols. They also occur in humid to perhumid subtropical regions, where they are associated with Acrisols and Planosols.

with a light-coloured, coarse-textured, surface horizon that shows signs of periodic water stagnation and abruptly overlies a dense, slowly permeable subsoil with significantly more clay than the surface horizon. In the US Soil Classification of 1938 used the name Planosols, whereas its successor, the USDA soil taxonomy, includes most Planosols in the Great Groups Albaqualfs, Albaquults and Argialbolls.

Subsoil (short story)

"Subsoil" is a short story by American writer Nicholson Baker, first appeared in The New Yorker periodical on June 27, 1994. It is about a character who meets his doom after being assaulted and forced by attacking, sprouting potatoes that lure agriculturalists into their sleepy Krebs Cycle.

Topsoil

Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top 5 inches (13 cm) to 10 inches (25 cm). It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms and is where most of the Earth's biological soil activity occurs. Topsoil is composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, and air. Organic matter varies in quantity on different soils. The strength of soil structure decreases with the presence of organic matter, creating weak bearing capacities. Organic matter condenses and settles in different ways under certain conditions, such as roadbeds and foundations. The structure becomes affected once the soil is dewatered. The soil's volume substantially decreases. It decomposes and suffers wind erosion.

Trespass

Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups: trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land.

Trespass to the person historically involved six separate trespasses: threats, assault, battery, wounding, mayhem (or maiming), and false imprisonment. Through the evolution of the common law in various jurisdictions, and the codification of common law torts, most jurisdictions now broadly recognize three trespasses to the person: assault, which is "any act of such a nature as to excite an apprehension of battery"; battery, "any intentional and unpermitted contact with the plaintiff's person or anything attached to it and practically identified with it"; and false imprisonment, the "unlaw[ful] obstruct[ion] or depriv[ation] of freedom from restraint of movement".

One can Retrieve wounded or expired game from neighboring properties and boundaries even if the neighboring land owner does not give permission as long as there are no weapons in possession while retrieving game caus[ing] injury". Trespass to chattel does not require a showing of damages. Simply the "intermeddling with or use of … the personal property" of another gives cause of action for trespass. Since CompuServe Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, Inc., various courts have applied the principles of trespass to chattel to resolve cases involving unsolicited bulk e-mail and unauthorized server usage.Trespass to land is today the tort most commonly associated with the term trespass; it takes the form of "wrongful interference with one's possessory rights in [real] property". Generally, it is not necessary to prove harm to a possessor's legally protected interest; liability for unintentional trespass varies by jurisdiction. "[A]t common law, every unauthorized entry upon the soil of another was a trespasser"; however, under the tort scheme established by the Restatement of Torts, liability for unintentional intrusions arises only under circumstances evincing negligence or where the intrusion involved a highly dangerous activity.Trespass has also been treated as a common law offense in some countries.

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