Subotica

Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: Суботица [sǔbotitsa] (listen), Hungarian: Szabadka) is a city and the administrative center of the North Bačka District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Formerly the largest city of Vojvodina region, contemporary Subotica is now the second largest city in the province, following the city of Novi Sad. According to the 2011 census, the city itself has a population of 97,910, while the urban area of Subotica (with adjacent urban settlement of Palić included) has 105,681 inhabitants, and the population of metro area (the administrative area of the city) stands at 141,554 people.[1]

Subotica

Суботица
Szabadka
City of Subotica
Subotica Town Hall View 2
Centar I, Subotica, Serbia - panoramio (1)
Centar I, Subotica, Serbia - panoramio (4)
Sinagoga u Subotici, Srbija, 010
Centar I, Subotica, Serbia - panoramio (3)
Centar II, Subotica, Serbia - panoramio (1)
Serbia, Subotica, Monument to the Victims of Fascism, 20120921
From top: Panorama of Subotica, City center, City hall, Subotica Synagogue, Reichel Palace, St. Theresa of Avila Cathedral, Monument to the Victims of Fascism
Flag of Subotica

Flag
Coat of arms of Subotica

Coat of arms
Subotica is located in Serbia
Subotica
Subotica
Location of the city of Subotica in Serbia
Coordinates: 46°06′01″N 19°39′56″E / 46.10028°N 19.66556°ECoordinates: 46°06′01″N 19°39′56″E / 46.10028°N 19.66556°E
CountrySerbia
ProvinceVojvodina
DistrictNorth Bačka
Settlements19
Government
 • MayorBogdan Laban (SNS)
Area
Area rank13th in Serbia
 • Urban164.33 km2 (63.45 sq mi)
 • Administrative1,007.47 km2 (388.99 sq mi)
Elevation
109 m (358 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[1]
 • City97,910
 • Rank6th in Serbia
 • Urban
105,681
 • Urban density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Administrative
141,554
 • Administrative density140/km2 (360/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
24000
Area code(s)(+381) 24
Vehicle registrationSU
WebsiteOfficial website

Name

The earliest known written name of the city was Zabotka[2] or Zabatka,[3] which dates from 1391. It is the origin of the current Hungarian name for the city "Szabadka".[3][4]

According to one opinion, the Name "Szabadka" comes from the adjective szabad,[4] which derived from the Slavic word for "free" – svobod.[5][6][7] According to this view, Subotica's earliest designation would mean, therefore, something like a "free place".[4]

The origin of the earliest form of the name (Zabotka or Zabatka) is obscure.[8] However, according to a local Bunjevci newspaper, Zabatka could have derived from the South Slavic word "zabat" (Gable), which describe parts of Pannonian Slavic houses.[9]

The town was named in the 1740s after Maria Theresa of Austria, Archduchess of Austria. It was officially called Sent-Maria in 1743, but was renamed in 1779 as Maria-Theresiapolis. These two official names were also spelled in several different ways (most commonly the German Maria-Theresiopel or Theresiopel), and were used in different languages.

Geography

It is located in the Pannonian Basin at 46.07° North, 19.68° East, about 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the border with Hungary, and is the northernmost city in Serbia. It is located in the vicinity of lake Palić.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

In Neolithic and Eneolithic period, several important archaeological cultures flourished in this area, including the Starčevo culture,[10] the Vinča culture,[11] and the Tiszapolgár culture.[12] The first Indo-European peoples settled in the territory of present-day Subotica in 4200 BC. During the Eneolithic period, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, several Indo-European archaeological cultures included areas around Subotica - the Baden culture, the Vučedol culture,[13] the Urnfield culture[14] and some other. Before the Iazyge conquest in the 1st century, Indo-European peoples of Illyrian, Celtic and Dacian descent inhabited this area. In the 3rd century BC, this area was controlled by Celtic Boii and Eravisci, while in the 1st century BC, it became part of the Dacian kingdom. Since the 1st century, the area came under the control of the Sarmatian Iazyges (which possibly included Serboi tribe), who occasionally were allies and occasionally enemies of the Romans. Iazyge rule lasted until the 4th century, after which the region came into the possession of various other peoples and states.

Early Middle Ages and Slavic settlement

In the Early Middle Ages various Indo-European and Turkic peoples and states ruled in the area of Subotica. These peoples included Huns, Gepids, Avars, Slavs and Bulgarians. Slavs settled today's Subotica in the 6th and 7th centuries, before some of them crossed the rivers Sava and Danube and settled in the Balkans.

The Slavic tribe living in the territory of present-day Subotica were the Obotrites, a subgroup of the Serbs. In the 9th century, after the fall of the Avar state, the first forms of Slavic statehood emerged in this area. The first Slavic states that ruled over this region included the Principality of Lower Pannonia, Great Moravia and the Bulgarian Empire.

Late-Middle Ages

Tsar Jovan Nenad monument
Emperor Jovan Nenad monument in the downtown

Subotica probably first became a settlement of note when people poured into it from nearby villages destroyed during the Tatar invasions of 1241–42. However the settlement has surely been older. It has been established that people inhabited these territories even 3000 years ago. When Zabadka/Zabatka was first recorded in 1391, it was a tiny town in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Later, the city belonged to the Hunyadis, one of the most influential aristocratic families in the whole of Central Europe.

King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary gave the town to one of his relatives, János Pongrác Dengelegi, who, fearing an invasion by the Ottoman Empire, fortified the castle of Subotica, erecting a fortress in 1470. Some decades later, after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Subotica became part of the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the Hungarian population fled northward to Royal Hungary. Bálint Török, a local noble who had ruled over Subotica, also escaped from the city. During the military and political havoc following the defeat at Mohács, Subotica came under the control of Serbian mercenaries recruited in Banat. These soldiers were in the service of the Transylvanian general John I Zápolya, a later Hungarian king.

The leader of these mercenaries, Jovan Nenad, established in 1526–27 his rule in Bačka, northern Banat and a small part of Syrmia and created an independent entity, with Subotica as its administrative centre. At the peak of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself as Serbian tsar in Subotica. He named Radoslav Čelnik as the general commander of his army, while his treasurer and palatine was Subota Vrlić, a Serbian noble from Jagodina. When Bálint Török returned and recaptured Subotica from the Serbs, Jovan Nenad moved the administrative centre to Szeged.[15]

Some months later, in the summer of 1527, Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his entity collapsed. However, after Jovan Nenad's death, Radoslav Čelnik led the remains of the army to Ottoman Syrmia, where he briefly ruled as an Ottoman vassal.

Ottoman administration

The Ottoman Empire ruled the city from 1542 to 1686. At the end of this almost 150-year-long period, not much remained of the old town of Zabadka/Zabatka. As much of the population had fled, the Ottomans encouraged the settlement of the area by different colonists from the Balkans. The settlers were mostly Orthodox Serbs. They cultivated the extremely fertile land around Subotica. In 1570, the population of Subotica numbered 49 houses, and in 1590, 63 houses. In 1687, the region was settled by Catholic Dalmatas (called Bunjevci today). It was called Sobotka under Ottoman rule and was a kaza centre in Segedin sanjak at first in Budin Eyaleti until 1596, and after that in Eğri Eyaleti between 1596–1686.[18]

Habsburg administration

In 1687, about 5,000 Bunjevci, led by Dujo Marković and Đuro Vidaković settled in Bačka (including Subotica). After the decisive battle against the Ottomans at Senta led by Prince Eugene of Savoy on 11 September 1697, Subotica became part of the military border zone Theiss-Mieresch established by the Habsburg Monarchy. In the meantime the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi broke out, which is also known as the Kuruc War.

In the region of Subotica, Rákóczi joined battle against the Rac National Militia. Rác was a designation for the South Slavic people (mostly Serbs and Bunjevci) and they often were referred to as rácok in the Kingdom of Hungary. In a later period rácok came to mean, above all, Serbs of Orthodox religion. The Serbian military families enjoyed several privileges thanks to their service for the Habsburg Monarchy. Subotica gradually, however, developed from being a mere garrison town to becoming a market town with its own civil charter in 1743. When this happened, many Serbs complained about the loss of their privileges. The majority left the town in protest and some of them founded a new settlement just outside 18th century Subotica in Aleksandrovo, while others emigrated to Russia. In New Serbia, a new Russian province established for them, those Serbs founded a new settlement and also named it Subotica. In 1775, a Jewish community in Subotica was established.

It was perhaps to emphasise the new civic serenity of Subotica that the pious name Saint Mary came to be used for it at this time. Some decades later, in 1779, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria advanced the town's status further by proclaiming it a Free Royal Town. The enthusiastic inhabitants of the city renamed Subotica once more as Maria-Theresiopolis.

This Free Royal Town status gave a great impetus to the development of the city. During the 19th century its population doubled twice, attracting many people from all over the Habsburg Monarchy. This led eventually to a considerable demographic change. In the first half of the 19th century, the Bunjevci had still been in the majority, but there was an increasing number of Hungarians and Jews settling in Subotica. This process was not stopped even by the outbreak of the Revolutions in the Habsburg Monarchy (1848-49).

1848/1849 Revolutions

Szabadka 1
Subotica (Szabadka) in 1914 Hungarian postcard

During the 1848-49 revolution, the proclaimed borders of autonomous Serbian Vojvodina included Subotica, but Serb troops could not establish control in the region. On 5 March 1849, at the locality named Kaponja (between Tavankut and Bajmok), there was a battle between the Serb and Hungarian armies, which was won by the Hungarians.

The first newspaper in the town was also published during the 1848/49 revolution—it was called Honunk állapota ("State of Our Homeland") and was published in Hungarian by Károly Bitterman's local printing company. Unlike most Serbs and Croats who confronted the Hungarians, part of the local Bunjevci people supported the Hungarian revolution.

In 1849, after the Hungarian revolution of 1848 was defeated by the Russian and Habsburg armies, the town was separated from the Kingdom of Hungary together with most of the Bačka region, and became part of a separate Habsburg province, called Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar. The administrative centre of this new province was Timişoara. The province existed until 1860. During the existence of the voivodeship, in 1853, Subotica acquired its impressive theatre.

Hungarian administration

After the establishment of the Dual-Monarchy in 1867, there followed what is often called the "golden age" of city development of Subotica. Many schools were opened after 1867 and in 1869 the railway connected the city to the world. In 1896 an electrical power plant was built, further enhancing the development of the city and the whole region. Subotica now adorned itself with its remarkable Central European, fin de siècle architecture. In 1902 a Jewish synagogue was built in the Art Nouveau style.

Between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar.[19]

Yugoslavia and Serbia

Leševi na Senćanskom putu
Hungarian occupation troops massacred Serbian and Jewish civilians during the occupation (1941-1944)

Subotica was part of Austria-Hungary until the aftermath of World War I in 1918, when the city became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In changed economic and political circumstances, Subotica was now a border-town in Yugoslavia and did not, for a time, experience again the dynamic prosperity it enjoyed in the years preceding World War I. However, at that time, Subotica was the third largest city in Yugoslavia by population, following Belgrade and Zagreb.

In 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis Powers, and its northern parts, including Subotica, were annexed by Hungary (This partition of Yugoslavia was not recognized by the international community and city was, from the legal point of view, still part of Yugoslavia, whose only legal representative was the Yugoslav government in exile). Hungarian troops entered Subotica on 11 April 1941.

As the majority of people living in the city were ethnic Hungarians and the city had been part of Hungary for over 600 years, Hungary felt it had to protect its people now living outside of its borders. During World War II the city lost approximately 7,000 of its citizens, mostly Serbs, Hungarians and Jews. Before the war about 6,000 Jews lived in Subotica; many of these were deported from the city during the Holocaust, mostly to Auschwitz.

In April 1944 a ghetto was set up. In addition, many communists were put to death during Axis rule. In 1944, the Axis forces left the city, and Subotica became part of the new Yugoslavia. During the 1944–45 period about 8,000 citizens (mainly Hungarian) were killed by Partisans while re-taking the city as retribution for supporting Axis Hungary.[20][21]

In the post-war period Subotica has gradually been modernised. During the Yugoslav and Kosovo wars of the 1990s, a considerable number of Serb refugees came to the city from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo, while many ethnic Hungarians and Croats, as well as some local Serbs, left the region due to economical stagnation and fear of racism.

Cityscape

Subotica02
Municipal Library
Pałac Rajhla (Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej) w Suboticy
Reichel Palace
Suboticka arhitektura
Secession architecture in downtown

Unique in Serbia, Subotica has the most buildings built in the art nouveau style. The City Hall (built in 1908-1910) and the Synagogue (1902) are of especially outstanding beauty. These were built by the same architects, Marcell Komor and Dezső Jakab, from Budapest, Hungary. Another exceptional example of art nouveau architecture is the actual Artistic Encounter building, which was built in 1904 by Ferenc J. Raichle.

Church buildings include the Cathedral of St. Theresa of Avila dating from 1797, the Franciscan friary dating from 1723, the Orthodox churches also from the 18th century, and the Hungarian Art Nouveau Subotica Synagogue from the early 20th century and it's renovation was completed in the summer of 2019.

The historic National Theatre in Subotica, which was built in 1854 as the first monumental public building in Subotica, was demolished in 2007, although it was declared a historic monument under state protection in 1983, and in 1991 it was added to the National Register as a monument of an extraordinary cultural value. It is currently in the midst of renovation and is scheduled to open in 2017.[22]

Neighborhoods

The following are the neighborhoods of Subotica:

  • Aleksandrovo
  • Bajnat
  • Centar
  • Dudova Šuma (Radijalac)
  • Gat
  • Graničar
  • Ker
  • Kertvaroš
  • Makova Sedmica
  • Mali Bajmok
  • Mali Radanovac
  • Novi Grad
  • Novo Naselje
  • Prozivka
  • Srpski Šor
  • Teslino Naselje
  • Veliki Radanovac
  • Zorka
  • Železničko Naselje
For Hungarian names of some of the quarters, please see: List of Hungarian exonyms in Vojvodina.

Suburbs and villages

SuboticaMunicip2

The administrative area of Subotica comprises Subotica proper, the town of Palić and 17 villages. The villages are:

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1948123,668—    
1953126,559+0.46%
1961136,782+0.98%
1971146,770+0.71%
1981154,611+0.52%
1991150,534−0.27%
2002148,401−0.13%
2011141,554−0.52%
Source: [23]
Subotica quarters ethnic
Ethnic map of the Subotica proper
Subotica ethnic mun
Ethnic map of the Subotica administrative area

According to the 2011 census results, the city administrative area of Subotica had 141,554 inhabitants.

Ethnic composition

Places with either an absolute or relative Hungarian ethnic majority are: Subotica (Hungarian: Szabadka), Palić (Hungarian: Palicsfürdő), Hajdukovo (Hungarian: Hajdújárás), Bački Vinogradi (Hungarian: Bácsszőlős), Šupljak (Hungarian: Alsóludas), Čantavir (Hungarian: Csantavér), Bačko Dušanovo (Hungarian: Zentaörs), and Kelebija (Hungarian: Alsókelebia). Places with an absolute or relative Serb ethnic majority are: Bajmok, Višnjevac, Novi Žednik, and Mišićevo. Places with a relative ethnic majority Croat are: Mala Bosna, Đurđin, Donji Tavankut, Gornji Tavankut, Bikovo, Stari Žednik. Ljutovo has a relative Bunjevac ethnic majority.

The ethnic composition of the municipality:[24]

Ethnic group Population
Hungarians 50,469
Serbs 38,254
Croats 14,151
Bunjevci 13,553
Yugoslavs 3,202
Roma 2,959
Montenegrins 1,349
Macedonians 482
Albanians 383
Muslims 334
Germans 260
Bosniaks 216
Rusyns 172
Slovenians 169
Slovaks 158
Gorani 151
Others 15,292
Total 141,554

Languages

Languages spoken in Subotica administrative area:[25]

Serbian is the most employed language in daily life, but Hungarian is also used by almost one third of the population in their daily conversations. Both languages are also widely employed in commercial and official signage [26]

Religion

Religion in the Subotica administrative area as of the 2011 census:[25]

Subotica is the centre of the Roman Catholic diocese of the Bačka region. The Subotica area has the highest concentration of Catholics in Serbia. 57% of the city's population are Catholic. There are eight Catholic parish churches, a Franciscan spiritual centre (the city has communities of both Franciscan friars and Franciscan nuns), a female Dominican community, and two congregations of Augustinian religious sisters. The diocese of Subotica has the only Catholic secondary school in Serbia (Paulinum).

When the nuns' orphanage and children's home in Blato, Korčula (present-day Croatia) had exhausted the food and funds needed for helping poor and hungry children, Marija Petković (later known as Blessed Mary of Jesus Crucified Petković), went to Bačka, whose apostolic seat is Subotica, to solicit help for orphans and widows. Bishop Ljudevit Lajčo Budanović asked Petković to found monasteries of her Order in Subotica and neighbourhood, so the locals could benefit spiritually from the instruction of the nuns of her Order.[27] She learned that Bačka had many poor and abandoned children. In 1923, she opened Kolijevka, a children's home in Subotica. The home still exists but is no longer run by nuns.

Among other Christian communities, the members of the Serbian Orthodox Church are the most numerous. There are two Orthodox church buildings in the city. Orthodox Christians in Subotica belong to the Eparchy of Bačka of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Subotica has two Protestant churches as well, Lutheran and Calvinist. The Jewish community of Subotica is the third largest in Serbia, after those in Belgrade and Novi Sad. About 1000 (of the 6,000 pre-WWII Jews of Subotica) survived the Holocaust. According to the 2011 census, fewer than 90 Jews remained in Subotica as of 2011.[25]

Politics

Toranj gradske kuće - panoramio
City hall

Results of 2016 local elections in Subotica municipality:[28]

After the elections, a coalition led by Serbian Progressive Party and Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians formed the local municipal government. Bogdan Laban, from Serbian Progressive Party, was elected mayor.

Coat of arms

The original coat of arms and current medium coat of arms have an outlining latin inscription of Civitatis Maria Theresiopolis, Sigillum Liberæque Et Regiæ, translated as Seal of the Free and Royal City of Maria Theresiopolis.

Economy

The area around Subotica is mainly farmland but the city itself is an important industrial and transportation centre in Serbia. Due to the surrounding farmlands Subotica has famous food producer industries in the country, including such brands as the confectionery factory "Pionir", "Fidelinka" the cereal manufacturer, "Mlekara Subotica" a milk producer and "Simex" producer of strong alcohol drinks.

There are a number of old socialistic industries that survived the transition period in Serbia. The biggest one is the chemical fertilizer factory "Azotara" and the rail wagon factory "Bratstvo". Currently the biggest export industry in town is the "Siemens Subotica" wind generators factory and it is the biggest brownfield investment so far. The other big companies in Subotica are: Fornetti, ATB Sever and Masterplast. More recent companies to come to Subotica include Dunkermotoren and NORMA Group. Tourism is important. In the past few years, Palić has been famous for the Palić Film Festival. Subotica is a festival city, hosting more than 17 festivals over the year.

As of September 2017, Subotica has one of 14 free economic zones established in Serbia.[29]

The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[30]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 717
Mining 6
Processing industry 13,328
Distribution of power, gas and water 402
Distribution of water and water waste management 555
Construction 1,632
Wholesale and retail, repair 7,006
Traffic, storage and communication 2,949
Hotels and restaurants 1,624
Media and telecommunications 826
Finance and insurance 1,049
Property stock and charter 135
Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 1,450
Administrative and other services 926
Administration and social assurance 2,059
Education 2,668
Healthcare and social work 3,504
Art, leisure and recreation 723
Other services 941
Total 42,501

Education

Secondary schools

  • Polytechnic school, Surveying and Construction, Typography, Forestry and Wood Processing
  • Teachers' College, founded in 1689, the oldest college in the country and region
  • "Svetozar Marković" grammar school
  • "Dezső Kosztolányi" Philological grammar school
  • "MEŠC" Electro-mechanical school, recently renamed to "Tehnička Škola - Subotica" (en. "Technical School")
  • "Bosa Milićević" School of Economics
  • "Lazar Nešić" School of Chemistry
  • "Medicinska Škola" Medical School

Historical schools (1920 to 1941)

Sport

Subotica has one major football stadium, the Subotica City Stadium, indoor arena and indoor swimming pool. The local football team is Spartak and plays in the Serbian SuperLiga, the country's primary football competition.

Media

Newspapers and magazines published in Subotica:

  • Magyar Szó, daily newspaper in Hungarian, founded 1944, published in Subotica since 2006.
  • Subotičke novine, main weekly newspaper in Serbian.
  • Bunjevačke novine, in Bunjevac.
  • Hrvatska riječ, in Croatian.
  • Zvonik, in Croatian

Infrastructure

A1 motorway connects the city with Novi Sad and Belgrade to the south and, across the border with Hungary, with Szeged to the north. It runs alongside the Budapest–Belgrade railway, which connects it to major European cities.

The city used to have a tram system, the Subotica tram system, but it was discontinued in 1974. The Subotica tram, put into operation in 1897, ran on electricity from the start. While neighbouring cities' trams at this date were often still horse-drawn, this gave the Subotica system an advantage over other municipalities including Belgrade, Novi Sad, Zagreb, and Szeged. Its existence was important for the citizens of Subotica, as well as tourists who came to visit. Subotica has since developed a bus system. The Subotica buses transport people via nine city, six suburban, and ten interurban, as well as two international lines of bus operations. Per year the buses travel some 4.7 million kilometres, and carry about ten million people.

The city is served by Subotica Airport; its runway is too short for airliners, limiting usage to mostly recreational aviation. Southwest of the city there is a 218.5 metres tall guyed mast for FM-/TV-broadcasting. It is the tallest of its kind in Serbia and one of the tallest in the region.

Famous citizens

International cooperation

Twin towns - Sister cities

Subotica is twinned with the following cities:

Hungary Szeged, Hungary
Slovakia Dunajská Streda, Slovakia
Czech Republic Olomouc, Czech Republic
Croatia Osijek, Croatia
Romania Odorheiu Secuiesc, Romania

Partner Cities

Subotica is a partner city with the following:

Hungary Baja, Hungary
Hungary Budapest, Hungary
Slovenia Izola, Slovenia
Hungary Kecskemét, Hungary
Hungary Kiskunhalas, Hungary
Germany München, Germany
Belgium Namur, Belgium
Netherlands Tilburg, Netherlands
Finland Turku, Finland
Germany Ulm, Germany
United Kingdom Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
Croatia Zagreb, Croatia
Hungary Zirc, Hungary

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Borovszky - Magyarország vármegyéi és városai". mek.oszk.hu.
  3. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2011-03-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  6. ^ "Ungarisch - ein goldener Käfig?(Hungarian - a golden cage?)" (in German). By Die Zeit. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  7. ^ "Ein goldener Käfig von Ádám Nádasdy (A golden cage by Ádám Nádasdy), page 2" (PDF) (in German). By the Hungarian Book Foundation by Ádám Nádasdy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  8. ^ "Szabadka – Magyar Katolikus Lexikon". lexikon.katolikus.hu.
  9. ^ Article in "Bunjevačke novine", number 8, February 2006. Archived 2011-10-05 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hjohnson/New%20Index/Family%20Groups/Group%20Leaders%20Pages/Pin%20Oak%20Reports/inthebeginningupdated2009_files/image010.jpg
  11. ^ "Map". catyline.com.
  12. ^ "[Projekat Rastko] Nikola Tasic: Eneolitske kulture centralnog i zapadnog Balkana". www.rastko.rs.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-02-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link),
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  16. ^ Officially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes until 1929
  17. ^ Known as Democratic Federal Yugoslavia until 1945
  18. ^ Sanjak of Segedin
  19. ^ "Subotica | Hrvatska enciklopedija". www.enciklopedija.hr. Retrieved 2019-05-04.
  20. ^ Mészáros Sándor: Holttá nyilvánítva - Délvidéki magyar fátum 1944–45, I-II, Hatodik Síp Alapítvány, Budapest 1995.
  21. ^ Cseres Tibor: Vérbosszú Bácskában, Magvető kiadó, Budapest 1991.
  22. ^ "Radovi na rekonstrukciji Narodnog pozorišta u Subotici".
  23. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  24. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Republički zavod za statistiku. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  25. ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "The Use of Hungarian and Serbian in the City of Szabadka/Subotica: An Empirical Study". Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  27. ^ M. Stantić. Blessed Marija Petković Archived 19 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine M. Stantić: Zauzimanje za siromahe - karizma danas, marijapropetog.hr; accessed 5 February 2016. (in Croatian)
  28. ^ "SNS osvojio najviše glasova u Subotici - Srbija izbori 2018". www.srbijaizbori.com.
  29. ^ Mikavica, A. (3 September 2017). "Slobodne zone mamac za investitore". politika.rs (in Serbian). Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  30. ^ ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017. (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
  31. ^ "Intercultural Cities - Home". Intercultural cities programme.

Sources

  • Recent (2002) statistical information comes from the Serbian statistical office.

External links

1993–94 FR Yugoslavia Cup

The 1993–94 FR Yugoslavia Cup was the second season of the FR Yugoslavia's annual football cup. The cup defenders was Red Star Belgrade, but was defeated by FK Partizan in the semi-finals. FK Partizan has the winner of the competition, after they defeated Spartak Subotica.

Banatska Subotica

Banatska Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: Банатска Суботица) is a village in Serbia. It is located in the Bela Crkva municipality, in the South Banat District, Vojvodina province. The village has a Serb ethnic majority (85%) and a population of 200 (2002 census).

Dušan Drašković

Dušan Drašković (born 20 June 1939) is a Montenegrin former football manager and player. He is considered as one of the pioneers of modern football in Ecuador.

European route E662

European route E662 is a class B road, part of International E-road network in Serbia and Croatia. It connects E75 at Subotica, and E73 road at Osijek.

FK Bačka 1901

FK Bačka 1901 (Serbian Cyrillic: ФК Бачка 1901) is a football club from Subotica in Bačka, Serbia. It is the longest running club in Serbia and also the oldest within the former Yugoslavia. Founded in 1901 in Subotica, the club's colors are red and white, while the club's anthem is Pivaj Bačka veselo.

FK Spartak Subotica

Fudbalski klub Spartak Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: Фудбалски клуб Спартак Суботица) is a professional football club from Subotica, Serbia, that plays in the Serbian SuperLiga. The club was founded in 1945 and was named after Jovan Mikić Spartak, the leader of the Partisans in Subotica, who was a national hero and was killed in 1944. The club was named Spartak Subotica until the end of the 2007–08 Serbian League Vojvodina season when it was merged with Zlatibor Voda who won promotion to the Serbian First League thus gaining the name Spartak Zlatibor Voda. In 2013 the board decided to return the original name of the club: "FK Spartak Subotica."

KK Spartak Subotica

Košarkaški klub Spartak (Serbian Cyrillic: Кошаркашки клуб Спартак), commonly referred to as KK Spartak Subotica, is a men's professional basketball club based in Subotica, Serbia. They are currently competing in the Basketball League of Serbia.

The club was founded in 1945 and was named after Jovan Mikić Spartak, the leader of the Partisans in Subotica, who was a national hero and was killed in 1944.

Palić

Palić (Serbian: Палић or Palić, Hungarian: Palics, Croatian: Palić, Bunjevac: Palić, German: Palitsch) is a town in Serbia, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Subotica, and 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the border between Serbia and Hungary. It is a part of the Subotica Municipality, North Bačka District, autonomous province of Vojvodina. The town has a Hungarian ethnic majority and its population numbering 7,745 people (2002 census). Many tourists come to Palić every year because of the Palić lake and spa. There are over 450 guest houses, and even a five-star hotel. It is known for its European film festival which takes place every summer. In 2008 the life achievement award was presented to the British film director Ken Loach.

Ranko Popović

Ranko Popović (Serbian Cyrillic: Ранко Поповић; born 26 June 1967) is a Serbian football manager and former player who also holds Austrian citizenship.

SAND Subotica

SAND, initials for Subotičko atletičko nogometno društvo (Serbian Cyrillic: CAНД Cубoтицa) was a football club based in Subotica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

It was formed in 1920. It participated in the 1927 Yugoslav Football Championship finishing 4th out of 6. After that accomplishment, two of their best players, Miloš Beleslin and Geza Šifliš, received calls to join the Yugoslav national team that would play at the 1928 Summer Olympics.

Its stadium was the first in the country to have electrical illumination, still in the 1930s.SAND came into headlines of the press in 1921 when they brought almost a complete team of the, back then footballistically strong, representative team of Szeged. It was just ahead of a Subotica Football Subassociation First League game against JSD Bačka. Bačka were the title holders and top ranked at the league, and reinforced SAND won by 6:4. The game was played on June 22, 1921. Bačka issued a protest to the direction board of the Subassociation and to the Football Association of Yugoslavia asking about the regularity of this procedure on behalve of SAND which fielded in that game only 4 domestic players while the others, Hungarians, were brought just days before and got permition to play so quickly.

Serbian Women's Cup

The Serbian Women's Cup (Serbian: Kupa Srbija za zene) is the national women's football cup competition in Serbia and was first held in 2007.

Slobodan Vladušić

Slobodan Vladušić (Serbian-Cyrillic: Слободан Владушић; born 9 May 1973 in Subotica, Yugoslavia) is a Serbian writer and associate professor of Serbian literature at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Novi Sad.

Subotica (horse)

Subotica (foaled February 13, 1988 in Orne) is a French Thoroughbred racehorse best known for winning the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe in 1992.

Subotica City Stadium

Subotica City Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium located in Subotica, Serbia. With a capacity of 13,000 people, it is currently used mostly for football matches and is the home ground of FK Spartak Zlatibor Voda from 1945. There is a football pitch and a registered track for athletics suitable for competitions. One part of the Stadium is covered. There are also two subsidiary football pitches.

Subotica Synagogue

The Jakab and Komor Square Synagogue in Subotica is a Hungarian Art Nouveau synagogue in Subotica, Serbia. It is the second largest synagogue in Europe. It was built in 1901-1902 during the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary (part of Austria-Hungary), according to the plans of Marcell Komor and Dezső Jakab replacing a smaller and less elaborate synagogue. It is one of the finest surviving pieces of religious architecture in the art nouveau style. It served the local Neolog community.

In 1974 the synagogue was designated a Monument of Culture; in 1990 it was designated a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia.

The synagogue has long been plagued by conservation issues, though a decade-long partnership between the government and World Monuments Fund that ended in 2010 rendered the building watertight after years of water infiltration. Work on the restoration of the facades is the next phase of work on the synagogue.

Tihomir Ognjanov

Tihomir "Bata" Ognjanov (Serbian Cyrillic: Тихомир Огњанов; 2 March 1927 – 2 July 2006) was a Serbian footballer who was part of Yugoslavia national football team at the 1950 and 1954 FIFA World Cup. He later became a manager. He played for Spartak Subotica (in three different periods), Partizan (when he was in the Yugoslav Army although he only played in friendly matches) and Red Star. With Red Star he won 2 national championships (1951, 1953) and 2 Yugoslav cups (1949, 1950).

Tomislav Sivić

Tomislav Sivić (Serbian Cyrillic: Томислав Сивић, Hungarian: Szivics Tomiszlav; born 29 August 1966) is a former professional footballer and current coach.

ŽAK Subotica

ŽAK Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: ЖAK Cубoтицa) was a football club based in Subotica, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.The club was formed in 1921 and the name comes from the initials of Železničarski atletski klub derived from the fact that the club was backed by the Yugoslav Railways company.It played in the 1935–36 Yugoslav Football Championship where it was eliminated in the round of sixteen by Slavija Osijek. Afterwards, it played in the 1940–41 Serbian League where it finished 5th out of 10.

With the start of the Second World War and the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, the city came under Hungarian occupation and the club competed in the Hungarian Second League under its Hungarian translated name, Szabadkai Vasutas AC. During this period the coach was Geza Takács and among its best known players was István Nyers who begin his senior career at the club.

After the end of the Second World War, the club made a tour throughout Serbia in order to prepare for competition, however the new socialist authorities demanded that most of the pre-1945 clubs to be disbanded and new clubs to be formed. ŽAK was dissolved in 1945 and its players made a meeting where they decided to join the newly founded FK Spartak Subotica which beside the players, the stadium, the colors and the fans, it also inherited the tradition of being backed by the railways.

ŽFK Spartak Subotica

ŽFK Spartak Subotica (Serbian Cyrillic: ЖФК Спартак Суботица) is women's football team from Subotica, Serbia. The team has won ten national championships, including nine in a row from 2011 to 2019. It also has appeared in the UEFA Women's Champions League.

Cities, towns and villages in the North Bačka District
Subotica
Bačka Topola
Mali Iđoš

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