Submarine films

The submarine film is a subgenre of war film in which the majority of the plot revolves around a submarine below the ocean's surface. Films of this subgenre typically focus on a small but determined crew of submariners battling against enemy submarines or submarine-hunter ships, or against other problems ranging from disputes amongst the crew, threats of mutiny, life-threatening mechanical breakdowns, or the daily difficulties of living on a submarine.

The genre plays on the psychological tension of the submarine's crew and their unseen enemy, signified by a soundscape that may feature explosions, the ping of sonar, the creaking of the submarine's hull under extreme pressure, the alarm ordering the submarine to dive, and the threatening sound signatures of a destroyer's propellor or of an approaching torpedo.

Some 150 films have been made in the submarine genre between 1910 and 2010, variously depicting submarines in relatively realistic stories about World War I, World War II or the Cold War, or purely fictional and fantastic scenarios.

Bavaria Filmstudio Das Boot 4
The cramped, equipment-filled setting of a submarine film (Das Boot, 1981)

Characteristics

Submarine films have their own particular semantics and syntax, creating a film genre concerned specifically with submarine warfare. A distinctive element in this genre is the soundtrack, which attempts to bring home the emotional and dramatic nature of conflict under the sea. For example, in the 1981 Das Boot, the sound design works together with the hours-long film format to depict lengthy pursuit with depth charges, and as the critic Linda Maria Koldau writes,[1]

again and again, the mortal threat of the [sonar] ping, which signifies [the crew's] helpless exposure to the enemy.[1]

Koldau identifies the basic syntactic structure of the submarine genre as "outside is bad, inside is good."[1] The unseen outside means the enemy: this may be from nature, with elements such as water pressure threatening to crush the hull, sea monsters, or underwater rocks; or human opponents. Meanwhile, the inside of the submarine represents the human warmth and trust of the crew for each other and for their captain, their lives bound together by the situation.[1] To this scenario can be added elements from within such as mutiny, fire, discord, or accidents including radiation leakage; and from outside such as water, terrorism, disease, and weapons, while the plot may feature sudden switches from being the hunter to being the hunted.[1]

The soundscape may depict the creaking of the hull under pressure: as Koldau observes, this is both realistic and metaphoric, standing in for the fear and the responsibility on the shoulders of the crew.[1] Stress may further be expressed in the acoustic signature of specifically submarine threats, such as the swelling sound of an approaching destroyer's propellor, the soft buzz of an enemy torpedo, or the submarine's own alarm ordering an immediate dive.[1]

Another element of the soundscape less often remarked upon is simply silence, which can mean both safety (nothing is happening) and unseen danger, creating tension.[1]

List of submarine movies

This is a list of movies, grouped by the era in which they were made, in which a submarine plays a significant role in the storyline.[2] From 1910 to 2010, some 150 fictional films about submarines have been made.[1] Many of these are set in World War I, World War II, or the Cold War; others depict relatively "authentic" terrorist scenarios.[1]

Some movies depict historical events from actual battles or incidents, such as Above Us the Waves, a 1955 film which depicts the true story of the British Royal Navy's midget submarines attacks on the Tirpitz.[3] Other submarine movies develop a fictional plot created using more or less realistic details of naval warfare, such as the film U-571, which tells the story of a fictional U-boat in World War II.[4]

Other submarine films from the fantasy, science fiction or occasionally horror film genres depict entirely fictitious events,[1] such as the various film versions of Jules Verne's novel 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea.

Set before World War I

Made before World War II

Made during World War II

Later films depicting World War II

Korean War

Cold War

Post-Cold War

Other conflicts

Future or fantastic past

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Koldau, Linda Maria (2010). "Sound effects as a genre-defining factor in submarine films". MedieKultur. 48: 18–30.
  2. ^ "Submarine Movies A-Z". SubmarineMovies.com. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Above Us the Waves (1955)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b "U-571 (2000)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  5. ^ "A Submarine Pirate". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  6. ^ "Behind the Door". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  7. ^ "The Isle of Conquest". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  8. ^ "Mare Nostrum". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  9. ^ "Submarine 1928". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  10. ^ "A Woman of Experience". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Morgenrot". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Hell Below". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  13. ^ "Submarine D-1". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  14. ^ "The Spy in Black (1939)". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Thunder Afloat (1939)". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Crash Dive". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  17. ^ "Destination Tokyo". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  18. ^ "Gung Ho!". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  19. ^ "The Silver Fleet (1943)". BFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  20. ^ "Submarine Alert". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Submarine Base". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  22. ^ "Mystery Submarine". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  23. ^ "Operation Pacific". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  24. ^ "Submarine Command". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  25. ^ "Torpedo Alley". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  26. ^ "Run Silent Run Deep". AFI. Retrieved 4 March 2015.
  27. ^ Sharma, Devansh (January 11, 2017). "The Ghazi Attack trailer: First underwater war film of India, with Rana Daggubati, Om Puri". Firstpost.com.

External links

Batman (1966 film)

Batman is a 1966 American superhero film based on the Batman television series, and the first full-length theatrical adaptation of the DC Comics character Batman. Released by 20th Century Fox, the film starred Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward as Robin. The film hit theaters two months after the last episode of the first season of the television series. The film includes most members of the original TV cast, with the exception of Lee Meriwether as Catwoman, the character previously played by Julie Newmar in two episodes of the series' first season.

Crash Dive

Crash Dive is a World War II film in Technicolor released in 1943. It was directed by Archie Mayo, written by Jo Swerling and W.R. Burnett, and starred Tyrone Power, Dana Andrews and Anne Baxter. The film was the last for Power, already enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, before assignment to recruit training.

Crimson Tide (film)

Crimson Tide is a 1995 American submarine film directed by Tony Scott, and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer. It takes place during a period of political turmoil in the Russian Federation, in which ultranationalists threaten to launch nuclear missiles at the United States and Japan. It focuses on a clash of wills between the new executive officer (Denzel Washington) of a U.S. nuclear missile submarine and its seasoned commanding officer (Gene Hackman), arising from conflicting interpretations of an order to launch their missiles. Its story parallels a real incident during the Cuban Missile Crisis, albeit aboard a Soviet rather than U.S. submarine.

The film was scored by Hans Zimmer, who won a Grammy Award for the main theme, which makes heavy use of synthesizers in place of traditional orchestral instruments.

An extended cut, which incorporated seven minutes of deleted scenes, was released on DVD in 2006. When the film was released on Blu-ray two years later, however, the film was restored to the theatrical version.

Deep Shock

Deep Shock is a 2003 American science-fiction-horror film that debuted as a Sci Fi Pictures TV-movie on the Sci Fi Channel. Its plot concerns an unknown underwater object that disables an American nuclear-powered submarine and attacks a submerged Arctic research complex.The monsters of the movie are giant intelligent electric eels.

Destination Tokyo

Destination Tokyo is a 1943 black and white American submarine war film. It was directed by Delmer Daves in his directorial debut, and the screenplay was written by Daves and Albert Maltz, based on an original story by former submariner Steve Fisher. The film stars Cary Grant and John Garfield and features Dane Clark, Robert Hutton, and Warner Anderson, along with John Ridgely, Alan Hale Sr., and William Prince. Production began on June 21, 1943 and continued through September 4 of that year. The film premiered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on December 15, 1943 as a benefit for crippled children, and was released generally in the U.S. on December 31, 1943.

Destination Tokyo has been called "the granddaddy of submarine films like Run Silent, Run Deep (1958), Das Boot (1981), and U-571 (2000)".

Fantastic Voyage

Fantastic Voyage is a 1966 American science fiction film directed by Richard Fleischer and written by Harry Kleiner, based on a story by Otto Klement and Jerome Bixby. The film is about a submarine crew who are shrunk to microscopic size and venture into the body of an injured scientist to repair damage to his brain. The original story took place in the 19th century and was meant to be a Jules Verne-style adventure with a sense of wonder. Kleiner abandoned all but the concept of miniaturization and added a Cold War element. The film starred Stephen Boyd, Raquel Welch, Edmond O'Brien, Donald Pleasence, and Arthur Kennedy.

Bantam Books obtained the rights for a paperback novelization based on the screenplay and approached Isaac Asimov to write it.

Because the novelization was released six months before the movie, many people mistakenly believed that the film was based on Asimov's book.

The movie inspired an animated television series.

Gung Ho!

Gung Ho! (full title: Gung Ho!: The Story of Carlson's Makin Island Raiders) is a 1943 American war film directed by Ray Enright and starring Randolph Scott. The story is based on the real-life World War II Makin Island raid led by Lieutenant Colonel Evans Carlson's 2nd Marine Raider Battalion.

Hell Below

Hell Below is a 1933 American MGM pre-Code film set in the Adriatic Sea during World War I about submarine warfare based on Commander Edward Ellsberg's novel Pigboats, starring Robert Montgomery, Walter Huston, Robert Young, Madge Evans, and Jimmy Durante.

Latitude Zero (film)

Latitude Zero (緯度0大作戦, Ido zero daisakusen), is a 1969 science fiction film. It was directed by Ishirō Honda and written by Ted Sherdeman, based on his radio serial of the same name. The film stars both American and Japanese actors including Joseph Cotten, Cesar Romero, Akira Takarada, Masumi Okada, Richard Jaeckel, Patricia Medina, and Akihiko Hirata.

Men Without Women (film)

Men Without Women is an American 1930 pre-Code drama film directed and written by John Ford, from the script by James Kevin McGuinness. The film also starred Kenneth MacKenna, Frank Albertson, and J. Farrell MacDonald. The sound version is now lost. Only a print of the "International Sound Version", held by the Museum of Modern Art, survives.

Out of the Depths (1945 film)

Out of the Depths is a 1945 American war drama film directed by D. Ross Lederman.

Submarine (1928 film)

Submarine is a 1928 silent drama film directed by Frank Capra. It was produced by Harry Cohn for Columbia Pictures, and released with a synchronized music score and sound effects. This was Capra's first attempt to make an "A-picture".

Submarine Patrol

Submarine Patrol is a 1938 film directed by John Ford and starring Richard Greene and Nancy Kelly. The supporting cast includes Preston Foster and George Bancroft. The movie was partly written by William Faulkner.

The Flying Missile

The Flying Missile is a 1950 black-and-white Cold War era Columbia Pictures film starring Glenn Ford and Viveca Lindfors. Made with the cooperation of the US Navy it tells a fictionalised story of the then recently revealed story of the US Navy's first mounting and firing submarine-launched cruise missiles such as the Loon off the deck of submarines.

The Meg

The Meg is a 2018 science fiction action film directed by Jon Turteltaub with a screenplay by Dean Georgaris, Jon Hoeber, and Erich Hoeber, loosely based on the 1997 book Meg: A Novel of Deep Terror by Steve Alten. The film stars Jason Statham, Li Bingbing, Rainn Wilson, Ruby Rose, Winston Chao, and Cliff Curtis. The film follows a group of scientists who encounter a 75-foot-long (23 m) megalodon shark while on a rescue mission at the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

Walt Disney Studios originally purchased the film rights to the book in the 1990s, but after several years in development hell, the rights landed at Warner Bros. The movie was eventually greenlit in 2015. Turteltaub and much of the cast joined by September 2016, and filming began the following month in New Zealand and ended in Sanya, China, in January 2017.

A Chinese-American co-production, The Meg was released in both countries on August 10, 2018, in RealD 3D. It grossed over $530 million worldwide and received mixed reviews from critics, with some describing it as an entertaining movie and others calling it "neither good enough nor bad enough" to be fun.

Thunder Afloat

Thunder Afloat is a 1939 World War I naval film starring Wallace Beery and Chester Morris. The movie was directed by George B. Seitz.

The submarine sequences were shot with the cooperation of the U. S. Navy at Annapolis, Maryland and around the Coronado Islands off San Diego, California.

Torpedo Alley (film)

Torpedo Alley, also known as Down Periscope, is a 1952 American war movie directed by Lew Landers. It depicts a US Navy pilot rescued at sea by submarine before applying for submarine duty.

Torpedo Run

Torpedo Run is a 1958 American war film directed by Joseph Pevney and starring Glenn Ford as a World War II submarine commander in the Pacific who is obsessed with sinking a particular Japanese aircraft carrier. It was filmed in Metrocolor CinemaScope.

A. Arnold Gillespie and Harold Humbrock were nominated for an Academy Award for Best Visual Effects.

Up Periscope

Up Periscope is a 1959 World War II film drama directed by Gordon Douglas and starring James Garner, Edmond O'Brien, Andra Martin and Alan Hale, Jr. The film was made in WarnerScope and Technicolor, distributed by Warner Bros., and produced by Aubrey Schenck. The film's screenplay was written by Richard H. Landau and Robb White, having been adapted from White's novel.

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