Submarine chaser

A submarine chaser is a small and fast naval vessel that is specifically intended for anti-submarine warfare. Many of the American submarine chasers used in World War I found their way to Allied nations by way of Lend-Lease in World War II.

Uss pc-815 1
USS PC-815, a US subchaser that served in World War II

Submarine chaser variants

U.S. Navy submarine chasers were designed specifically to destroy German submarines in World War I, and Japanese and German submarines in World War II. The small 110-foot (34 m) SC-1-class submarine chasers of the design used in World War I carried the hull designator SC (for Submarine Chaser).[1] Their main weapon was the depth charge. They also carried machine guns and anti-aircraft guns. The similar-sized SC-497-class was built for World War II. Also in World War II, larger 173-foot (53 m) PC-461-class submarine chasers used the PC hull classification symbol (for Patrol, Coastal).[2]

In early 1915, the British Admiralty selected the US Elco company for the production of 50 Motor Launches for anti-submarine work, British industry being at maximum capacity. This order was eventually increased by a further 530. The whole order was completed by November 1916, and the vessels entered Royal Navy service. The vessels were 80 feet (24 m) in length and capable of 20 knots (37 km/h). They were armed with a 3-pounder gun, towed paravanes to attack submarines and, later, depth charges.[3] Additional motor launches of the Fairmile A and B and other classes were built for World War II.[4]

War service

The British sub chasers were operated around the coast in defence. However, they were uncomfortable, wet and not suited to British sea conditions. Although used during the First World War, they were sold when the war ended.

Submarine chasers were used mostly by the United States Coast Guard in World War II for destroying German U-boats that were stationed off the coast of the United States that were trying to sink merchant convoys as they departed American ports. By the end of World War II, submarine chasers had sunk around 67 German U-boats. In the Pacific Theatre, submarine chasers were used for amphibious landings, courier and escort duty.[5][6][7]

Eight British Fairmile B Motor Launches were transferred from Canada to the US in World War II, and included the SC-1466 class of sub-chasers.[8][9]

The Imperial Japanese Navy had around 250 submarine chasers in World War II, principally about 200 of the No.1-class auxiliary submarine chasers. Some of these survived to serve in the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) after the war.[10]

During Project Hula, the United States secretly transferred 32 U.S. Navy submarine chasers to the Soviet Union between 26 May and 2 September 1945, and some of these saw action in the Soviet Navy during Soviet military operations against the Japanese between 9 August and 2 September 1945. The transfer of 24 more was canceled when transfers halted on 5 September 1945, three days after the Japanese surrender. Between 1954 and 1960 all 32 transferred submarine chasers were scrapped by the Soviet Union or destroyed off its coast by mutual agreement between the two countries.[11]

Post-war

In the decade immediately after World War II, the Soviet Union built 227 Kronshtadt-class submarine chasers, some of which remained in active service until the 1990s. Rapid developments in submarine technologies since World War II mean that submarine chasers are now obsolete, having been replaced by corvettes, frigates, and destroyers.

Survivors

The only remaining submarine chaser with intact World War II armament is the Royal Norwegian Navy's HNoMS Hitra, which is a touring museum today. A World War II type submarine chaser built in 1953, originally PC1610, is being restored in the Netherlands as Le Fougueux.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ Gardiner, pp. 132-133
  2. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau, pp. 71, 152-154
  3. ^ Gardiner, p. 101
  4. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau, p. 71
  5. ^ Submarine Chaser Photo Archive NavSource
  6. ^ Splinter Fleet - The Wooden Subchasers of World War II
  7. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau, pp. 71, 152-154
  8. ^ "Sunday Ship History: Submarine Chasers" EagleSpeak
  9. ^ Gardiner and Chesneau, p. 71
  10. ^ Watts, pp. 279-288
  11. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 35, 37-38, 40.
  12. ^ P641 Le Fougueux
  • Gardiner, Robert, Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1906–1921 Conway Maritime Press, 1985. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  • Gardiner, Robert and Chesneau, Roger, Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1922-1946, Conway Maritime Press, 1980. ISBN 0-83170-303-2.
  • Watts, Anthony J., "Japanese Warships of World War II", Doubleday, 1966. ISBN 0-385-09189-3.

External links

CH-4-class submarine chaser

The No.4 class submarine chaser (第四号型駆潜艇,, Dai 4 Gō-gata Kusentei) was a class of submarine chasers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during and after World War II. 9 vessels were built in 1937-39 under the Maru 3 Programme.

Haijiu-class submarine chaser

The Haijiu class submarine chasers are two (possibly four) modified versions of the Hainan class submarine chasers (Type 037) of the People's Liberation Army Navy.

The main difference is that four ASW rocket launchers have replaced the original two ASW mortars. The biggest improvement, however, it's in the sonar system. Original SJD-3 sonar on earlier Type 037 class submarine chaser is replaced by a 13 kHz (2 frequency ranges) French Thomson Sintra SS-12/DIP 12 hull mounted (HM)/variable depth sonar (VDS). DIP 12, the VDS version weigh 4 tons and has a 200-meter cable with towing speed of 16 kts, and the range is selectable at 2, 4, 8 and 16 km respectively. However, during deployment, it was discovered that the endurance of this class is limited and the capabilities of SS/DIP 12 sonar system could not be fully exploited. There is some disagreement over the type designation of this class, some sources claim it is Type 037I, while others claim it is Type 037 Mod (for modified or modernized).

Italian submarine chaser Albatros

Albatros was a submarine chaser of the Regia Marina built in 1930s which served during World War II. Later she was reclassified as a torpedo boat, most likely purely for administrative purposes.

Japanese submarine chaser CH-22

The Japanese submarine chaser CH-22 was a No.13-class submarine chaser of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. She was built by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Yokohama, launched on 29 May 1941 and completed on 12 October 1941. On 24 August 1942, she left Rabaul as part of Operation RE, for the landings at Milne Bay.

Japanese submarine chaser CH-24

The Japanese submarine chaser CH-24 was a No.13-class submarine chaser of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. She was built by the Ōsaka Iron Works, Sakurajima and completed on 20 December 1941. On 24 August 1942, she left Rabaul as part of Operation RE, for the landings at Milne Bay. March 15, 1943 she, along with CH-22 and Satsuki, sank a submarine, possibly USS Triton, north west of the Admiralty Islands.

Kronshtadt-class submarine chaser

Project 122bis (NATO codename Kronshtadt class) submarine chasers were a Soviet design which were exported throughout the communist bloc in the 1950s. The first ship, BO-270, was built at Zelenodolsk in 1945-1947 and a total of 227 were built for Soviet Navy (175) and border guard until 1955. As well as this, twenty Project 357 (Libau class) despatch vessels were built on the same hull, but were lightly armed.

List of ship launches in 1949

The list of ship launches in 1949 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1949.

List of ship launches in 1950

The list of ship launches in 1950 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1950.

Motor Launch

A Motor Launch (ML) is a small military vessel in Royal Navy service. It was designed for harbour defence and submarine chasing or for armed high-speed air-sea rescue. Some vessels for water police service are also known as motor launches.

No.1-class auxiliary submarine chaser

The No.1 class auxiliary submarine chaser (第一号型駆潜特務艇,, Dai Ichi Gō-gata Kusen-Tokumutei) was a class of submarine chasers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during World War II. 200 vessels were built under the Maru Kyū Programme (Ship # 500–599) and the Maru Sen Programme (Ship # 2001–2100).

No.1-class submarine chaser

The No. 1-class submarine chaser (第一号型駆潜艇,, Dai 1 Gō-gata Kusentei) was a class of submarine chasers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during World War II. Three vessels were built in 1933-36 under the Maru 1 Programme and the Maru 2 Programme. They have two sub classes; this article handles them collectively.

No.13-class submarine chaser

The No.13 class submarine chaser (第十三号型駆潜艇,, Dai 13 Gō-gata Kusentei) were a class of submarine chasers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during and after World War II; there were three sub classes, however the IJN's official document calls all of them the No.13 class.

No.251-class auxiliary submarine chaser

The No.251 class auxiliary submarine chaser (第二百五十一号型駆潜特務艇,, Dai 251 Gō-gata Kusen-Tokumutei) was a class of submarine chasers of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), serving during World War II. 3 vessels were built in 1936 – 1939 under the Maru 2 Programme. They have two sub classes, this article handles them collectively.

PC-461-class submarine chaser

The PC-461-class submarine chasers were a class of 343 submarine chasers constructed mainly for the US Navy and built from 1941–1944. The PC-461s were based primarily on two experimental submarine chasers, PC-451 and PC-452. While PC-461 began the series, the first of the class to enter service was PC-471. As part of the Lend-Lease program, 46 ships of this class were transferred to allies of the United States. Fifty-nine PC-461s were converted to other types of patrol vessels. Eight vessels of this class were lost, and one vessel was lost after conversion to a PGM-9-class motor gunboat. Only one of the class, USS PC-566 commanded by Lieutenant Commander (later Captain) Herbert G. Claudius, actually sank a submarine, U-166, during World War II; however, the website 'Patrol Craft Sailors Association' cites PC-461-class ships sinking or assisting sinking up to 6 German and Japanese subs. One member of this class, USS PC-1264, was one of only two ships in the US Navy during World War II that had a mostly African-American crew.

SC-1-class submarine chaser

The SC-1 class was a large class of submarine chasers built during World War I for the United States Navy. They were ordered in very large numbers in order to combat attacks by German U-boats, with 442 boats built from 1917 to 1919.

SC-497-class submarine chaser

The SC-497-class submarine chasers were a class of 438 submarine chasers built primarily for the United States Navy from 1941-1944. The SC-497s were based on the experimental submarine chaser, USS SC-453. Production began in 1941 and continued until they were succeeded by the SC-1466-class submarine chaser in 1944. Submarine chasers of this variety were collectively nicknamed "the splinter fleet" due to their wooden hulls.

Type 037 corvette

The Type 037 corvette is a series 400–500 ton corvette type classes in service with the People's Liberation Army Navy. Unlike western navies, the People's Liberation Army Navy does not have dedicated patrol boats in its inventory. Instead, a large variety of corvette type classes, in the form of missile boats and submarine chasers fulfill the tasks of patrolling China's territorial waters. The Egyptian Navy operates eight vessels.

USS Luzon (PG-47)

The first USS Luzon (PG-47) was laid down 20 November 1926 by the Kiangnan Dock and Engineering Works, Shanghai, China; launched 12 September 1927; sponsored by Miss Mary C. Carter, daughter of Commander Andrew F. Carter, USN; and commissioned 1 June 1928.

USS SC-42

USS SC-42, until July 1920 known as USS Submarine Chaser No. 42 or USS S.C. 42, was an SC-1-class submarine chaser built for the United States Navy during World War I.

Aircraft carriers
Battleships
Cruisers
Escort
Transport
Patrol craft
Fast attack craft
Mine warfare
Command and support
Submarines
Miscellaneous
 United States Navy
 Soviet Navy

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.