Subgenus

In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.

In the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a species name, in parentheses, placed between the generic name and the specific epithet: e.g. the tiger cowry of the Indo-Pacific, Cypraea (Cypraea) tigris Linnaeus, which belongs to the subgenus Cypraea of the genus Cypraea. However, it is not mandatory, or even customary, when giving the name of a species, to include the subgeneric name.

In the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICNafp), the subgenus is one of the possible subdivisions of a genus. There is no limit to the number of divisions that are permitted within a genus by adding the prefix "sub-" or in other ways as long as no confusion can result.[1] The secondary ranks of section and series are subordinate to subgenus.[1] An example is Banksia subg. Isostylis, a subgenus of the large Australian genus Banksia.[2] The ICNafp requires an explicit "connecting term" to indicate the rank of the division within the genus.[3] Connecting terms are usually abbreviated, e.g. "subg." for "subgenus", and are not italicized.

In zoological nomenclature, when a genus is split into subgenus, the originally described population is retained as the "nominotypical subgenus" or "nominate subgenus", which repeats the same name as the genus. For example, Panthera (Panthera) pardus, a leopard. In botanical nomenclature, the same principle applies, although the terminology is different. Thus the subgenus that contains the original type of the genus Rhododendron is Rhododendron subg. Rhododendron. Such names are called "autonyms".[4]

Subgenus Eoseristalis P1530902a
A hoverfly of the subgenus Eristalis (Eoseristalis)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6. Article 4
  2. ^ George, Alex (1996). The Banksia Book. Kangaroo Press and The Society for Growing Australian Plants (NSW Region). ISBN 0-86417-818-2.
  3. ^ ICNafp, Art. 21.1
  4. ^ ICNafp, Art. 22.1
Equisetum

Equisetum (; horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.Equisetum is a "living fossil", the only living genus of the entire class Equisetopsida, which for over 100 million years was much more diverse and dominated the understory of late Paleozoic forests. Some Equisetopsida were large trees reaching to 30 meters tall. The genus Calamites of the family Calamitaceae, for example, is abundant in coal deposits from the Carboniferous period. The pattern of spacing of nodes in horsetails, wherein those toward the apex of the shoot are increasingly close together, inspired John Napier to invent logarithms.A superficially similar but entirely unrelated flowering plant genus, mare's tail (Hippuris), is occasionally referred to as "horsetail", and adding to confusion, the name mare's tail is sometimes applied to Equisetum.Despite centuries of use in traditional medicine, there is no evidence that Equisetum has any medicinal properties.

Equus (genus)

Equus is a genus of mammals in the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, and zebras. Within Equidae, Equus is the only recognized extant genus, comprising seven living species. The term equine refers to any member of this genus, including horses. Like Equidae more broadly, Equus has numerous extinct species known only from fossils. The genus most likely originated in North America and spread quickly to the Old World. Equines are odd-toed ungulates with slender legs, long heads, relatively long necks, manes (erect in most subspecies), and long tails. All species are herbivorous, and mostly grazers, with simpler digestive systems than ruminants, but able to subsist on lower-quality vegetation.

While the domestic horse and donkey (along with their feral descendants) exist worldwide, wild equine populations are limited to Africa and Asia. Wild equine social systems are in two forms; a harem system with tight-knit groups consisting of one adult male or stallion, several females or mares, and their young or foals; and a territorial system where males establish territories with resources that attract females, which associate very fluidly. In both systems, females take care of their offspring, but males may play a role, as well. Equines communicate with each other both visually and vocally. Human activities have threatened wild equine populations.

Glenea

Glenea is a genus of longhorn beetles belonging to the family Cerambycidae, subfamily Lamiinae.

Haemosporida

The Haemosporida (sometimes called Haemospororida) are an order of intraerythrocytic parasitic alveolates.

Hare

Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares are classified in the same family as rabbits. They are similar in size and form to rabbits and have similar herbivorous diets, but generally have longer ears and live solitarily or in pairs. Also unlike rabbits, their young are able to fend for themselves shortly after birth rather than emerging blind and helpless. Most are fast runners. Hare species are native to Africa, Eurasia, North America, and the Japanese archipelago.

Five leporid species with "hare" in their common names are not considered true hares: the hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), and four species known as red rock hares (comprising Pronolagus). Conversely, jackrabbits are hares, rather than rabbits.

A hare less than one year old is called a leveret. A group of hares is called a "drove".

Iris (plant)

Iris is a genus of 260–300 species of flowering plants with showy flowers. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. Some authors state that the name refers to the wide variety of flower colors found among the many species. As well as being the scientific name, iris is also widely used as a common name for all Iris species, as well as some belonging to other closely related genera. A common name for some species is 'flags', while the plants of the subgenus Scorpiris are widely known as 'junos', particularly in horticulture. It is a popular garden flower.

The often-segregated, monotypic genera Belamcanda (blackberry lily, I. domestica), Hermodactylus (snake's head iris, I. tuberosa), and Pardanthopsis (vesper iris, I. dichotoma) are currently included in Iris.

Three Iris varieties are used in the Iris flower data set outlined by Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis.

Lemming

A lemming is a small rodent, usually found in or near the Arctic in tundra biomes. Lemmings make up the subfamily Arvicolinae (also known as Microtinae) together with voles and muskrats, which form part of the superfamily Muroidea, which also includes rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils.

Leporidae

Leporidae is the family of rabbits and hares, containing over 60 species of extant mammals in all. The Latin word Leporidae means "those that resemble lepus" (hare). Together with the pikas, the Leporidae constitute the mammalian order Lagomorpha. Leporidae differ from pikas in that they have short, furry tails and elongated ears and hind legs.

The common name "rabbit" usually applies to all genera in the family except Lepus, while members of Lepus (almost half the species) usually are called hares. Like most common names however, the distinction does not match current taxonomy completely; jackrabbits are members of Lepus, and members of the genera Pronolagus and Caprolagus sometimes are called hares.

Various countries across all continents except Antarctica and Australia have indigenous species of Leporidae. Furthermore, rabbits, most significantly the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, also have been introduced to most of Oceania and to many other islands, where they pose serious ecological and commercial threats.

List of Acacia species

Several cladistic analyses have shown that the genus Acacia is not monophyletic. While the subg. Acacia and subg. Phyllodinae are monophyletic, subg. Aculeiferum is not. This subgenus consists of three clades. Therefore, the following list of Acacia species cannot be maintained as a single entity, and must either be split up, or broadened to include species previously not in the genus. This genus has been provisionally divided into 5 genera, Acacia, Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa. The proposed type species of Acacia is Acacia penninervis.Which of these segregate genera is to retain the name Acacia has been controversial. The genus was previously typified with the African species Acacia scorpioides (L.) W.F.Wright, a synonym of Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile. Under the original typification, the name Acacia would stay with the group of species currently recognized as the genus Vachellia. Orchard and Maslin proposed a retypification of the genus Acacia with the species Acacia penninervis Sieber ex DC., an Australian species that is a member of the largest clade within Acacia, a primarily Australian group formerly recognized as Acacia subgenus Phyllodinae, on the basis that this results in the fewest nomenclatural changes. Although this proposal met with strong disagreement by some authors, it was accepted on 16 July 2005 by the XVII International Botanical Congress in Vienna, Austria. Consequently, the name Acacia is conserved for 948 Australian species, 7 in the Pacific Islands, 1 or 2 in Madagascar and 10 in tropical Asia. Those outside Australia are split between the genera Acaciella, Mariosousa, Senegalia, and Vachellia. This decision was upheld at the 2011 Congress.In its new circumscription, the genus Acacia (now limited to the Australian species) has seven subgenera—Alatae (an artificial section), Botrycephalae, Juliflorae, Lycopodiifoliae, Plurinerves, Phyllodinae, and Pulchellae (see below). The other species, distributed in the Indian Ocean, tropical Asia and tropical America are now classified under

Vachellia (former subgenus Acacia): 163 species (pantropical)

Senegalia (former subgenus Aculeiferum): 203 species (pantropical)

Acaciella (former subgenus Aculeiferum section Filicinae): 15 species (Americas)

Mariosousa: 13 species related to (and including) Acacia coulteri (Americas)Two Australian acacias were re-classified under Vachellia, and another two under Senegalia.

List of Pinus species

Pinus, the pines, is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub species. The genus is currently split into two subgenera: subgenus Pinus (hard pines), and subgenus Strobus (soft pines). Each of the subgenera have several sections within based on chloroplast DNA sequencing. Older classifications split the genus into three subgenera – subgenus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, and subgenus Ducampopinus (pinyon, bristlecone and lacebark pines) – based on cone, seed and leaf characteristics. DNA phylogeny has shown that species formerly in subgenus Ducampopinus are members of subgenus Strobus, so Ducampopinus is no longer used.

The species of subgenus Ducampopinus were regarded as intermediate between the other two subgenera. In the modern classification, they are placed into subgenus Strobus, yet they did not fit entirely well in either so they were classified in a third subgenus. In 1888 the Californian botanist John Gill Lemmon placed them in subgenus Pinus. In general, this classification emphasized cone, cone scale, seed, and leaf fascicle and sheath morphology, and species in each subsection were usually recognizable by their general appearance. Pines with one fibrovascular bundle per leaf, (the former subgenera Strobus and Ducampopinus) were known as haploxylon pines, while pines with two fibrovascular bundles per leaf, (subgenus Pinus) were called diploxylon pines. Diploxylon pines tend to have harder timber and a larger amount of resin than the haploxylon pines.

Several features are used to distinguish the subgenera, sections, and subsections of pines: the number of leaves (needles) per fascicle, whether the fascicle sheaths are deciduous or persistent, the number of fibrovascular bundles per needle, the position of the resin ducts in the needles, the presence or shape of the seed wings, and the position of the umbo and presence of a prickle on the scales of the seed cones.

Marmot

Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.

Microtus

Microtus is a genus of voles found in North America, Europe, and northern Asia. The genus name refers to the small ears of these animals. About 62 species are placed in the genus.

They are stout rodents with short ears, legs, and tails. They eat green vegetation such as grasses and sedges in summer, and grains, seeds, roots, and bark at other times. The genus is also called "meadow voles". (ITIS database)

The species are:

Insular vole (M. abbreviatus)

California vole (M. californicus)

Rock vole (M. chrotorrhinus)

Long-tailed vole (M. longicaudus)

Mexican vole (M. mexicanus)

Singing vole (M. miurus)

Water vole (M. richardsoni)

Zempoaltépec vole (M. umbrosus)

Taiga vole (M. xanthognathus)Subgenus Microtus

Field vole (M. agrestis)

Anatolian vole (M. anatolicus)

Common vole (M. arvalis)

Cabrera's vole (M. cabrerae)

Doğramaci's vole (M. dogramacii)

Günther's vole (M. guentheri)

Tien Shan vole (M. ilaeus)

Persian vole (M. irani)

Southern vole (M. levis)

Paradox vole (M. paradoxus)

Qazvin vole (M. qazvinensis)

Schidlovsky's vole (M. schidlovskii)

Social vole (M. socialis)

Transcaspian vole (M. transcaspicus)Subgenus Terricola

Bavarian pine vole (M. bavaricus)

Calabria pine vole (M. brachycercus)

Daghestan pine vole (M. daghestanicus)

Mediterranean pine vole (M. duodecimcostatus)

Felten's vole (M. felteni)

Gerbe's vole (M. gerbei)

Liechtenstein's pine vole (M. liechtensteini)

Lusitanian pine vole (M. lusitanicus)

Major's pine vole (M. majori)

Alpine pine vole (M. multiplex)

Savi's pine vole (M. savii)

European pine vole (M. subterraneus)

Tatra pine vole (M. tatricus)

Thomas's pine vole (M. thomasi)Subgenus Mynomes

Beach vole (M. breweri)

Gray-tailed vole (M. canicaudus)

Montane vole (M. montanus)

Creeping vole (M. oregoni)

Meadow vole (M. pennsylvanicus)

Townsend's vole (M. townsendii)Subgenus Alexandromys

Clarke's vole (M. clarkei)

Evorsk vole (M. evoronensis)

Reed vole (M. fortis)

Taiwan vole (M. kikuchii)

Lacustrine vole (M. limnophilus)

Maximowicz's vole (M. maximowiczii)

Middendorf's vole (M. middendorffi)

Mongolian vole (M. mongolicus)

Japanese grass vole (M. montebelli)

Muisk vole (M. mujanensis)

Tundra vole or root vole (M. oeconomus) - several subspecies

Sakhalin vole (M. sachalinensis)Subgenus Stenocranius

Narrow-headed vole (M. gregalis)Subgenus Pitymys

Guatemalan vole (M. guatemalensis)

Tarabundí vole (M. oaxacensis)

Woodland vole (M. pinetorum)

Jalapan pine vole (M. quasiater)Subgenus Pedomys

Prairie vole (M. ochrogaster)Subgenus Hyrcanicola

Schelkovnikov's pine vole (M. schelkovnikovi)

Mouse

A mouse, plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail, and a high breeding rate. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musculus). It is also a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are locally common. They are known to invade homes for food and shelter.

Species of mice are mostly found in Rodentia, and are present throughout the order. Typical mice are found in the genus Mus.

Mice are typically distinguished from rats by their size. Generally, when someone discovers a smaller muroid rodent, its common name includes the term mouse, while if it is larger, the name includes the term rat. Common terms rat and mouse are not taxonomically specific. Scientifically, the term mouse is not confined to members of Mus for example, but includes such as the deer mouse, Peromyscus.

Domestic mice sold as pets often differ substantially in size from the common house mouse. This is attributable both to breeding and to different conditions in the wild. The best-known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research.

Cats, wild dogs, foxes, birds of prey, snakes and even certain kinds of arthropods have been known to prey heavily upon mice. Nevertheless, because of its remarkable adaptability to almost any environment, the mouse is one of the most successful mammalian genera living on Earth today.

Mice, in certain contexts, can be considered vermin which are a major source of crop damage, causing structural damage and spreading diseases through their parasites and feces. In North America, breathing dust that has come in contact with mouse excrement has been linked to hantavirus, which may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).

Primarily nocturnal animals, mice compensate for their poor eyesight with a keen sense of hearing, and rely especially on their sense of smell to locate food and avoid predators.Mice build long intricate burrows in the wild. These typically have long entrances and are equipped with escape tunnels or routes. In at least one species, the architectural design of a burrow is a genetic trait.

Pika

A pika ( PY-kə; archaically spelled pica) is a small mountain-dwelling mammal found in Asia and North America. With short limbs, very round body, and even coat of fur, and no external tail, they resemble their close cousin the rabbit, but with short rounded ears. The large-eared pika of the Himalayas and nearby mountains is found at heights of more than 6,000 metres (20,000 ft), among the highest of any mammal.

Pikas prefer rocky slopes and graze on a range of plants, mostly grasses, flowers and young stems. In the autumn, they pull hay, soft twigs and other stores of food into their burrows to eat during the long cold winter. The pika is also known as the "whistling hare" for its high-pitched alarm call when diving into its burrow.

The name "pika" appears to be derived from the Tungus piika, and the scientific name Ochotona is from the Mongolian word ogdoi which means pika. It is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs which includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). Only one genus, Ochotona, is recognised within the family, covering 30 species.

The two species found in North America are the American pika, found primarily in the mountains of the western United States and far southwestern Canada, and the collared pika of northern British Columbia, the Yukon, western Northwest Territories, and Alaska.

Platanus

Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the sole living members of the family Platanaceae.

All members of Platanus are tall, reaching 30–50 m (98–164 ft) in height. All except for P. kerrii are deciduous, and most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane (Platanus × acerifolia) has proved particularly tolerant of urban conditions, and has been widely planted in London and elsewhere in the United Kingdom.

They are often known in English as planes or plane trees. Some North American species are called sycamores (especially Platanus occidentalis), although the term sycamore also refers to the fig Ficus sycomorus, the plant originally so named, and to the sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus. The genus name Platanus comes from Ancient Greek πλάτανος, which referred to Platanus orientalis.

Rhododendron

Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal as well as the state flower of West Virginia and Washington in United States, and state tree of Sikkim and Uttarakhand in India . Most species have brightly coloured flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower.

Spilosomina

The Spilosomina are a subtribe of tiger moths in the Arctiini tribe, which is part of the family Erebidae.

Squirrel

Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known fossilized squirrels date from the Eocene period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.

Type species

In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus.

In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types.In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus.Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.

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