Subfamily

In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae",[1] and zoological names with "-inae".[2]

LifeDomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
The hierarchy of biological classification's eight major taxonomic ranks. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown.

See also

Sources

  1. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6. Article 19.
  2. ^ International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1999). "Article 29.2. Suffixes for family-group names". International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Fourth ed.). International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, XXIX. p. 306.
Acrididae

The Acrididae are the predominant family of grasshoppers, comprising some 10,000 of the 11,000 species of the entire suborder Caelifera. The Acrididae are best known because all locusts (swarming grasshoppers) are of the Acrididae. The subfamily Oedipodinae is sometimes classified as a distinct family Oedipodidae in the superfamily Acridoidea. Acrididae grasshoppers are characterized by relatively short and stout antennae, and tympana on the side of the first abdominal segment.

Alethinophidia

Common names: advanced snakes.The Alethinophidia are an infraorder of snakes that includes all snakes other than blind snakes and thread snakes. Snakes have long been grouped into families within Alethinophidia based on their morphology, especially that of their teeth. More modern phylogenetic hypotheses using genetic data support the recognition of 19 extant families (see below), although the taxonomy of alethinophidian snakes has long been debated, and ultimately the decision whether to assign a particular clade to a particular Linnaean rank (such as a superfamily, family, or subfamily) is arbitrary.

Blister beetle

Blister beetles are beetles of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin. About 7,500 species are known worldwide. Many are conspicuous and some are aposematically colored, announcing their toxicity to would-be predators.

Bostrichoidea

Bostrichoidea is a superfamily of beetles. It is the type superfamily of the infraorder Bostrichiformia.

It includes the following subgroups:

Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802 - Horned Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Bostrichinae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Dinoderinae Thomson, 1863

Subfamily Dysidinae Lesne, 1921

Subfamily Euderiinae Lesne, 1934

Subfamily Lyctinae Billberg, 1820 - Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Polycaoninae Lesne, 1896

Subfamily Psoinae Blanchard, 1851

Family Dermestidae Latreille, 1804 - Carpet Beetles

Subfamily Attageninae Laporte, 1840

Subfamily Dermestinae Latreille, 1804

Subfamily Megatominae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Orphilinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Thorictinae Agassiz, 1846

Subfamily Trinodinae Casey, 1900

Family Endecatomidae LeConte, 1861

Family Ptinidae Latreille, 1802 (formerly Anobiidae)

Subfamily Alvarenganiellinae Viana and Martínez, 1971

Subfamily Anobiinae Fleming, 1821 - Death-watch Beetles

Subfamily Dorcatominae Thomson, 1859

Subfamily Dryophilinae Gistel, 1848

Subfamily Ernobiinae Pic, 1912

Subfamily Eucradinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Mesocoelopodinae Mulsant and Rey, 1864

Subfamily Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 - Spider Beetles

Subfamily Ptininae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Xyletininae Gistel, 1848

Bovinae

The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. The evolutionary relationship between the members of the group is still debated, and their classification into loose tribes rather than formal subgroups reflects this uncertainty. General characteristics include cloven hooves and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having true horns. The largest extant bovine is the gaur.

In many countries, bovid milk and meat is used as food. Cattle are kept as livestock almost everywhere except in parts of India and Nepal where they are considered sacred by most Hindus. Bovids are used as draft animals and as riding animals. Small breeds of bovid, such as the Miniature Zebu, are kept as pets.

Calpinae

The Calpinae are a subfamily of moths in the family Erebidae. This subfamily includes many species of moths that have a pointed and barbed proboscis adapted to piercing the skins of fruit to feed on juice, and in the case of the several Calyptra species of vampire moths, to piercing the skins of mammals to feed on blood. The subfamily contains some large moths with wingspans longer than 5 cm (2 in).

Cerambycinae

Cerambycinae is a subfamily of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae). The subfamily includes over 715 genera, which, in total, consist of some 3,900 species. The subfamily is most widely distributed in the Americas, with 430 species in 130 genera in its neotropical regions. Within the family, the only subfamily of comparable diversity is the Lamiinae.

Colubridae

Colubridae (from Latin coluber, snake) is a family of snakes. With 524 genera and approximately 1,760 species, it is the largest snake family, and includes just over 51% of all known living snake species. The earliest species of the family date back to the Oligocene epoch. Colubrid snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica.

Crambidae

The Crambidae are the grass moth family of lepidopterans. They are variable in appearance, the nominal subfamily Crambinae (grass moths) taking up closely folded postures on grass stems where they are inconspicuous, while other subfamilies include brightly coloured and patterned insects which rest in wing-spread attitudes.

In many classifications, the Crambidae have been treated as a subfamily of the Pyralidae or snout-moths. The principal difference is a structure in the ears called the praecinctorium, which joins two tympanic membranes in the Crambidae, and is absent from the Pyralidae. The latest review by Munroe and Solis, in Kristensen (1999), retains the Crambidae as a full family.

Cyprinidae

The Cyprinidae are the family of freshwater fishes, collectively called cyprinids, that includes the carps, the true minnows, and their relatives (for example, the barbs and barbels). Also commonly called the "carp family", or "minnow family", Cyprinidae is the largest and most diverse fish family and the largest vertebrate animal family in general, with about 3,000 species of which only 1,270 remain extant, divided into about 370 genera.. They range from about 12 mm to the 3-meter Catlocarpio siamensis. This family of fish is one of the few that do not take care of their eggs. The family belongs to the ostariophysian order Cypriniformes, of whose genera and species the cyprinids make more than two-thirds. The family name is derived from the Ancient Greek kyprînos (κυπρῖνος, "carp").

Hawk

Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Hawks are widely distributed and vary greatly in size.

The subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity. They hunt by dashing suddenly from a concealed perch.

In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are also called hawks; this group are called buzzards in other parts of the world. Generally, buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas than accipiters. Buteos descend or pounce on their prey rather than hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit.The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies to both. The term "true hawk" is sometimes used for the accipitrine hawks in regions where buzzard is preferred for the buteonine hawks.

All these groups are members of the Accipitridae family, which includes the hawks and buzzards as well as kites, harriers and eagles. Some authors use "hawk" generally for any small to medium Accipitrid that is not an eagle.

The common names of some birds include the term "hawk", reflecting traditional usage rather than taxonomy. For example, some people may call an osprey a "fish hawk" or a peregrine falcon a "duck hawk".

Hominidae

The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and their extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.Several revisions in classifying the great apes have caused the use of the term "hominid" to vary over time. Its original meaning referred only to humans (Homo) and their closest extinct relatives. That restrictive meaning has now been largely assumed by the term "hominin", which comprises all members of the human clade after the split from the chimpanzees (Pan). The current, 21st-century meaning of "hominid" includes all the great apes including humans. Usage still varies, however, and some scientists and laypersons still use "hominid" in the original restrictive sense; the scholarly literature generally shows the traditional usage until around the turn of the 21st century.Within the taxon Hominidae, a number of extant and known extinct, that is, fossil, genera are grouped with the humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas in the subfamily Homininae; others with orangutans in the subfamily Ponginae (see classification graphic below). The most recent common ancestor of all Hominidae lived roughly 14 million years ago, when the ancestors of the orangutans speciated from the ancestral line of the other three genera. Those ancestors of the family Hominidae had already speciated from the family Hylobatidae (the gibbons), perhaps 15 million to 20 million years ago.

Lamiinae

Lamiinae, commonly called flat-faced longhorns, are a subfamily of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae). The subfamily includes over 750 genera, rivaled in diversity within the family only by the subfamily Cerambycinae.

Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.According to Ethnologue the 7,097 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities.

Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics. Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older. Speakers of a language family belong to a common speech community. The divergence of a proto-language into daughter languages typically occurs through geographical separation, with the original speech community gradually evolving into distinct linguistic units. Individuals belonging to other speech communities may also adopt languages from a different language family through the language shift process.Genealogically related languages present shared retentions; that is, features of the proto-language (or reflexes of such features) that cannot be explained by chance or borrowing (convergence). Membership in a branch or group within a language family is established by shared innovations; that is, common features of those languages that are not found in the common ancestor of the entire family. For example, Germanic languages are "Germanic" in that they share vocabulary and grammatical features that are not believed to have been present in the Proto-Indo-European language. These features are believed to be innovations that took place in Proto-Germanic, a descendant of Proto-Indo-European that was the source of all Germanic languages.

Littorinimorpha

Littorinimorpha is a large clade of snails, gastropods, consisting primarily of sea snails (marine species), but also including some freshwater snails (aquatic species) and land snails (terrestrial species).Previously, the Linnaean taxonomy used in the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Ponder & Lindberg (1997) ranked like this: subclass Orthogastropoda, superorder Caenogastropoda, order Sorbeoconcha, suborder Hypsogastropoda, infraorder Littorinimorpha.

The order Littorinimorpha contains many gastropoda families that were formerly placed in the order Mesogastropoda, as introduced by J. Thiele in his work from 1921. Evidence for this group being monophyletic is scanty. In 2003, E. E. Strong suggested using only Neogastropoda as a clade within the clade Hypsogastropoda, and to include the unresolved superfamilies of the Hypsogastropoda within the Littorinimorpha.

Noctuidae

The Noctuidae, commonly known as owlet moths, cutworms or armyworms, are the most controversial family in the superfamily Noctuoidea because many of the clades are constantly changing, along with the other families of the Noctuoidea. It was considered the largest family in Lepidoptera for a long time, but after regrouping Lymantriinae, Catocalinae and Calpinae within the family Erebidae, the latter holds this title now. Currently, Noctuidae is the second largest family in Noctuoidea, with about 1,089 genera and 11,772 species. However, this classification is still contingent, as more changes continue to appear between Noctuidae and Erebidae.

Orchidoideae

The Orchidoideae, or the orchidoid orchids, are a subfamily of the orchid family (Orchidaceae).

They typically contain the orchids with a single (monandrous), fertile anther which is erect and basitonic.

The subfamily Orchidoideae and the previously recognized subfamily Spiranthoideae are considered the closest allies in the natural group of the monandrous orchids because of

a shared terrestrial habit

sectile (capable of being severed) or granular pollinia

erect anthers.The Orchidoideae contain two subclades with the following tribes :

tribes Orchideae and Diseae

tribes Cranichideae, Chloraeeae and DiurideaeThe former subfamily Spiranthoideae is now embedded as tribe Cranichideae in the clade of the Orchidoideae. It is sister to the tribe Diurideae.

The tribe Orchideae comprises the following subtribes:

Habenariinae

OrchidinaeThe tribe Diseae comprises the following subtribes:

Disinae

SatyriinaeThe tribe Chloraeeae comprises the following subtribes:

ChloraeinaeThe monophyletic tribe Cranichideae comprises the following monophyletic subtribes :

Cranichidinae s.l. (including former Prescottiinae)

Galeottiellinae

Goodyerinae s.l. (including former Pachyplectroninae)

Manniellinae

Pterostylidinae

Discyphinae

SpiranthinaeThe tribe Diurideae comprises the following subtribes :

Acianthinae (monophyletic)

Caladeniinae (polyphyletic)

Cryptostylidinae (monophyletic)

Diuridinae (monophyletic)

Drakaeinae (monophyletic)

Prasophyllinae(monophyletic)

Thelymitrinae (monophyletic)

Squirrel

Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known squirrels date from the Eocene period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.

Succulent plant

In botany, succulent plants, also known as succulents, are plants that have some parts that are more than normally thickened and fleshy, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions. The word "succulent" comes from the Latin word sucus, meaning juice, or sap. Succulent plants may store water in various structures, such as leaves and stems. Some definitions also include roots, thus geophytes that survive unfavorable periods by dying back to underground storage organs may be regarded as succulents. In horticultural use, the term "succulent" is sometimes used in a way which excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, such as cacti. Succulents are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unusual appearance.

Many plant families have multiple succulents found within them (over 25 plant families). In some families, such as Aizoaceae, Cactaceae, and Crassulaceae, most species are succulents. The habitats of these water preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures and low rainfall. Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an ecosystem which contains scarce water sources.

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