Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.
Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation consisted of eighty-five federal subjects that are constituent members of the Federation. However, two of these federal subjects—the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol—are internationally recognized as part of Ukraine. All federal subjects are of equal federal rights in the sense that they have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council (upper house of the Federal Assembly). They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.
Autonomous okrugs are the only ones that have a peculiar status of being federal subjects in their own right, yet at the same time they are considered to be administrative divisions of other federal subjects (with Chukotka Autonomous Okrug being the only exception).
On March 18, 2014, as a part of the annexation of Crimea and following the establishment of the Republic of Crimea (an independent entity recognized only by Russia), a treaty was signed between Russia and the Republic of Crimea incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol as the constituent members of the Russian Federation. According to the Treaty, the Republic of Crimea is accepted as a federal subject with the status of a republic while the City of Sevastopol has received federal city status. Neither the Republic of Crimea nor the city of Sevastopol are politically recognized as parts of Russia by most countries.
Prior to the adoption of the 1993 Constitution of Russia, the administrative-territorial structure of Russia was regulated by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of August 17, 1982 "On the Procedures of Dealing with the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the RSFSR". The 1993 Constitution, however, did not identify the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions as the responsibility of the federal government nor as the joint responsibility of the federal government and the subjects. This was interpreted by the governments of the federal subjects as a sign that the matters of the administrative-territorial divisions became solely the responsibility of the federal subjects. As a result, the modern administrative-territorial structures of the federal subjects vary significantly from one federal subject to another. While the implementation details may be considerably different, in general, however, the following types of high-level administrative divisions are recognized:
Autonomous okrugs and okrugs are intermediary units of administrative divisions, which include some of the federal subject's districts and cities/towns/urban-type settlements of federal subject significance.
Typical lower-level administrative divisions include:
In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by January 1, 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went in effect on January 1, 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called "municipal formations") are as follows:
Territories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories.
The Federal Law was amended on May 27, 2014 to include new types of municipal divisions:
All of the federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are primarily responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws.
For economic and statistical purposes the federal subjects are grouped into twelve economic regions. Economic regions and their parts sharing common economic trends are in turn grouped into economic zones and macrozones.
In order for the Armed Forces to provide an efficient management of military units, their training, and other operational activities, the federal subjects are grouped into five military districts. Each military district operates under the command of the district headquarters, headed by the district commander, and is subordinated to the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Two types of subdivisions of Russia uses the designation "autonomous":
autonomous okrug (administrative division)
autonomous oblast (federal subject)The republics of Russia, have a degree of autonomy, but are not labeled so.Chechen diaspora
The Chechen diaspora (Chechen: Нохчийн диаспора) is a term used to collectively describe the communities of Chechen people who live outside of Chechnya; this includes Chechens who live in other parts of Russia. There are also significant Chechen populations in other subdivisions of Russia (especially in Dagestan, Ingushetia and Moscow Oblast).
Outside Russia, Chechens are mainly descendants of people who had to leave Chechnya during the 19th century Caucasian War (which led to the annexation of Chechnya by the Russian Empire) and the 1944 Stalinist deportation to the Soviet Central Asia in the case of Kazakhstan. More recently, tens of thousands of Chechen refugees settled in the European Union and elsewhere as the result of the First and Second Chechen Wars, especially in the wave of emigration to the West after 2002.Districts of Russia
A district (raion) is an administrative and municipal division of a federal subject of Russia.
As of 2014, excluding Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Sevastopol, there are 1,873 administrative districts (including the 14 in the Republic of Crimea) and 1,823 municipal districts (also including the 14 in the Republic of Crimea) in Russia. All these districts have an administrative center, which is usually the same locality for both the administrative and municipal entity.
In modern Russia, division into administrative districts largely remained unchanged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The term "district" ("raion") is used to refer to an administrative division of a federal subject or to a district of a big city.
In two federal subjects, however, the terminology was changed to reflect national specifics: in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic, where they are known as ulus (улус), and in Tyva Republic, where they are known as kozhuun (кожуун).Federal districts of Russia
The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.
The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.Federal subjects of Russia
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.
Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).
Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and didn't change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992 during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice it was never allowed), which conflicts with country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and didn't grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.
There are several groupings of Russian regions:
Federal subjects should not be confused with the eight federal districts which are not subdivisions of Russia — the federal districts are much larger and each encompasses many federal subjects. Federal districts were created by Executive Order of the President of Russia especially for presidential envoys.
Time zones are defined by the Order of the federal government.
The composition of judicial districts is defined by the federal law "On arbitration courts".
Economic regions are administered by the Ministry of Economic Development.
The Ministry of Defense uses the terminology of Military districts.Krai
A krai or kray (; Russian: край, plural: края́, kraya) was a type of geographical administrative division in the Russian Empire and in the Russian SFSR, and it is one of the types of the federal subjects of modern Russia.
Etymologically, the word is related to the verb "кроить" (kroit'), "to cut". Historically, krais comprised vast territories located along the periphery of the Russian state, since the word krai also means border or edge, i.e., a place of the cut-off. In English the term is often translated as "territory". As of 2015 the administrative usage of the term is mostly traditional, as some oblasts also fit this description and there is no difference in legal status between the krais and the oblasts.List of economic zones and macrozones of Russia
Economic zones (Russian: экономи́ческие зо́ны), or macrozones (ма́крозо́ны), group economic regions of Russia into territories that share common economic trends. Economic regions or their parts may belong to more than one economic zone.List of federal subjects of Russia by GDP per capita
This is a list of Russian federal subjects by GDP per capita The equivalent countries which are comparable to the Russian regions in GDP per capita are chosen by Worldbank data for the same year.List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP
The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.List of federal subjects of Russia by population
The following is a list of the 85 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 and 2010 Censuses. The totals of all federal subjects do not include nationals living abroad at the time of census.Municipal divisions of Russia
The municipal divisions in Russia, called the municipal formations (Russian: муниципальные образования, Munitsipalnye Obrazoniya), are territorial divisions of the Russian Federation within which the state governance is augmented with local self-government independent of the state organs of governance within the law, to manage local affairs.In the course of the Russian municipal reform of 2004–2005, all federal subjects of Russia were to streamline the structures of the local self-government, which is guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia. The reform mandated that each federal subject was to have a unified structure of the municipal government bodies by January 1, 2005, and a law enforcing the reform provisions went into effect on January 1, 2006. According to the law, the units of the municipal division (called municipal formations) are as follows:
Municipal district (or municipal raion), a group of urban and rural settlements, often along with the inter-settlement territories. In practice, municipal districts are usually formed within the boundaries of existing administrative districts.
Urban settlement, a city/town or an urban-type settlement, possibly together with adjacent rural and/or urban localities
Rural settlement, one or several rural localities
Urban okrug, an urban settlement not incorporated into a municipal district. In practice, urban okrugs are usually formed within the boundaries of existing cities of federal subject significance.
Intra-city territory of a federal city, a part of a federal city's territory. Since 2006 this kind of municipal units exists only in 3 cities:
Moscow, see ru:Список районов и муниципальных образований Москвы
Saint Petersburg, see ru:Административно-территориальное деление Санкт-Петербурга
Sevastopol, see ru:Административно-территориальное деление города федерального значения СевастополяTerritories not included as a part of municipal formations are known as inter-settlement territories.
Since 2005, for statistical and tax purposes, all municipal formations are assigned codes according to the All-Russian Classifier of Territories of Municipal Formations, abbreviated as ОКТМО.OKATO
Russian Classification on Objects of Administrative Division (Russian: Общеросси́йский классифика́тор объе́ктов администрати́вно-территориа́льного деле́ния), or OKATO (Russian: ОКАТО), also called All-Russian classification on units of administrative and territorial distribution in English, is one of several Russian national registers. OKATO's purpose is organization of information about structure of the administrative divisions of the federal subjects of Russia.
The document assigns numeric codes to each administrative division of the country, which are hierarchically structured from the federal subject level down to selsoviet level; an expanded version also includes listings of individual inhabited localities within each administrative division.
OKATO is used for statistical and tax purposes. It was adopted on July 31, 1995, replacing SOATO (Designation System of Objects of Administrative Division of the Union of SSR and the Union Republics, as well as Inhabited Localities). It went into effect on January 1, 1997 and as of 2014 underwent 243 revisions. The compilation and maintenance of the OKATO data are the responsibility of the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) of Russia.OKTMO
Russian Classification of Territories of Municipal Formations (Russian: Общероссийский классификатор территорий муниципальных образований), or OKTMO (Russian: ОКТМО), is one of several Russian national registers. OKTMO's purpose is organization of information about structure of the municipal divisions of Russia.
The document assigns numeric codes to each municipal division of the country.
OKTMO is used for statistical and tax purposes. It was adopted on December 14, 2005. It went into effect on January 1, 2014, replacing OKATO (Russian Classification on Objects of Administrative Division).Oblast
An oblast (UK: , US: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the former Soviet Union and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Official terms in successor states of the Soviet Union differ, but some still use a cognate of the Russian term, e.g., voblast (voblasts, voblasts', [ˈvobɫasʲtsʲ]) is used for regions of Belarus, and oblys (plural: oblystar) for regions of Kazakhstan.
The word "oblast" is a loanword in English, but it is, nevertheless, often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region". The last translation may lead to confusion, because "raion" may be used for other kinds of administrative subdivision, which may be translated as "region", "district", or "county" depending on the context.Outline of Russia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.
The Russian Federation, commonly known as Russia, is the most extensive country in the world, covering 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area. Russia is a transcontinental country extending across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe; it spans 11 time zones and incorporates a great range of environments and landforms. With 143 million people, Russia is the ninth most populated country. Russia has the world's largest mineral and energy resources, has the world's largest forest reserves, and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the Earth's fresh liquid water.Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators
The Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (Russian: Росси́йская Ассоциа́ция Навига́торов/Ска́утов), or RAS/N (РAН/С), is the national Scouting federation of Russia, which became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) in 2004. The coeducational Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators has 14,130 members as of 2010. Reformed, the organization makes up the bulk of the All-Russian Scout Association.
The membership badge of the Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators incorporates elements of the coat of arms as well as the flag of Russia.Southern Russia
Southern Russia or the South of Russia (Russian: Юг России, Yug Rossii) is a colloquial term for the southernmost geographic portion of European Russia, generally covering the Southern Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District.The term does not conform to any official areas of the Russian Federation as designated by the Russian Classification on Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO).Watershed district (Russia)
A watershed district in Russia is any of twenty groups of water bodies listed in the Water Code of Russian Federation.
According to chapter 4, article 28 of the Russian Water Code, those are: Baltic Watershed District, Barents–Belomor Watershed District, Dvina–Pechora Watershed District, Dnepr Watershed District, Don Watershed District, Kuban Watershed District, Western Caspian Watershed District, Upper Volga Watershed District, Oka Watershed District, Kama Watershed District, Lower Volga Watershed District, Ural Watershed District, Upper Ob Watershed District, Irtysh Watershed District, Lower Ob Watershed District, Angara–Baikal Watershed District, Yenisey Watershed District, Lena Watershed District, Anadyr–Kolyma Watershed District and Amur Watershed District.