Subarnarekha River

The Subarnarekha River (also called the Swarnarekha River[3]) flows through the Indian states of Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha.

Subarnarekha River
Subarnarekha
Subarnarekha in December 2005 at Gopiballavpur
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Map of the rivers and lakes in India
Subarnarekha River is located in India
Subarnarekha River
Location of the mouth in India
Location
CountryIndia
StateJharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal
CitiesChandil, Jamshedpur, Ghatshila, Gopiballavpur
Physical characteristics
Source 
 - locationPiska/ Nagri(Rani Chuan)near Ranchi, Chota Nagpur Plateau
 - coordinates23°18′N 85°11′E / 23.300°N 85.183°E
 - elevation610 m (2,000 ft)
MouthBay of Bengal
 - location
Kirtania port, Odisha, India
 - coordinates
21°33′18″N 87°23′31″E / 21.55500°N 87.39194°ECoordinates: 21°33′18″N 87°23′31″E / 21.55500°N 87.39194°E
Length395 km (245 mi)[1]
Basin size18,951 km2 (7,317 sq mi)[1]
Discharge 
 - average392 m3/s (13,800 cu ft/s)
Discharge 
 - locationKokpara[2]
 - average310 m3/s (11,000 cu ft/s)
 - minimum1 m3/s (35 cu ft/s)
 - maximum2,205 m3/s (77,900 cu ft/s)
Basin features
Tributaries 
 - leftDulang River
 - rightKanchi River, Kharkai, Karkari River, Raru River, Garru River

Etymology

As per tradition, gold was mined near the origin of the river at a village named piska near Ranchi. This is why it was named Subarnarekha, meaning "streak of gold".[4][5] Legend has it that traces of gold were found in the river bed. Even now, people look for traces of gold particles in its sandy beds. The name is a combination of two words meaning gold and line/ streak in Indian languages.[6][7]

Course

Subarnarekha river in Ghatshila, Jharkhand
Subarnarekha river in Ghatshila, Jharkhand

After originating near piska/nagri, near Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand,[8][9] the Subarnarekha traverses a long distance through Ranchi[10]Seraikela Kharsawan[11] and East Singhbhum[12] districts in the state. Thereafter, it flows for shorter distances through Paschim Medinipur district in West Bengal for 83 kilometres (52 mi) and Balasore district of Odisha. There, it flows for 79 kilometres (49 mi) and joins the Bay of Bengal near Talsari. The total length of the river is 395 kilometres (245 mi).[1]

The basin of the Subarnarekha is smaller than most multi-state river basins in India. The rain-fed river covers a drainage area of 18,951 square kilometres (7,317 sq mi)[1]

Tributaries

Fishing at Subarnarekha river near Domohani (River meets)
Fishing at Subarnarekha river near Domohani (confluence of Subarnarekha and Kharkhai)

The prominent tributaries of the Subarnarekha are Kharkai, Roro, Kanchi, Harmu Nadi, Damra, Karru, Chinguru, Karakari, Gurma, Garra, Singaduba, Kodia, Dulunga and Khaijori.[9] The Kharkai meets the Subarnarekha at Sonari (Domuhani), a neighborhood of Jamshedpur.[13]

Hundru Falls

Hundru falls
Hundru Falls

Hundru Falls is created on the course of the Subarnarekha, where it falls from a height of 98 metres (322 ft). The spectacular sight of water falling from such a great height is a sight to behold. The different rock formations due to erosion by the constantly falling water have added to the beauty of the place.[14][15][16]

Pollution

The Subarnarekha passes through areas with extensive mining of copper and uranium ores. As a result of the unplanned mining activities, the river is polluted. The Subarnarekha has been the lifeline of tribal communities inhabiting the Chhotanagpur region and water pollution affects their livelihood.[5]

Flood

Several areas in the lower reaches of the Subarnarekha, particularly the coastal areas of Odisha and West Bengal, are within the flood hazard zone. The Subarnarekha in Odisha had crossed its previous Highest Flood Level (HFL) of 12.2 metres (40 ft) in 2007, surpassing the earlier record of 1997. In 2009, the Subarnarekha witnessed flash floods following heavy rainfall in the upper catchment areas of the river.[17][18][19] During the flood, large areas of Jaleswar, Bhograi and Baliapal blocks and a small pocket of Basta block in Balasore district of Odisha were affected.[20] Certain areas of Medinipur in West Bengal are also affected by floods.[6]

Projects

Getalsud Dam
Sunset across Getalsud reservoir

Getalsud

Getalsud reservoir is located across the Subernarekha, 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Ranchi and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) from its point of origin. Completed in 1971, this multi-purpose reservoir was envisaged mainly to meet municipal water demands of Ranchi city and the adjoining industrial area. The height of the dam is 35.5 metres (116 ft). There are two power houses in Sikidiri with one unit of 65 MW each. Sikidiri Hydal Power Plants are the only hydal projects in Jharkhand.[9]

Subarnarekha multipurpose project

The Subarnarekha multipurpose project envisaged the construction of two dams, one at Chandil across the Subarnarekha and the other across the Kharkai at Icha near Chaibasa, two barrages at Galudih across the Subarnarekha and the other across the Kharkai at Ganjia near Adityapur and a network of canals from these. Three small storage reservoirs and a network of canals from these reservoirs are in Orissa. Started in 1982–83, the multipurpose project was planned for irrigation, hydropower generation and water supply. While the Chandil dam and Galudih barrage are almost complete, the other components are still incomplete.[9][21] Subernarekha Barrage project (West Bengal) envisages construction of a barrage across the Subarnarekha downstream of Chandil dam and Galudih barrage near Bhosraghat to irrigate 114,198 hectares (282,190 acres) annually in the Medinipur district of West Bengal through a left bank canal and its distribution system covering a culturable command area of 96,860 hectares (239,300 acres). The project was taken up for construction in the year 1995–96.[22]

Chandil Dam
Completed Chandil Dam

The Chandil Dam and reservoir required 17,028 hectares (42,080 acres) of land. Icha Dam submerged 8,585 hectares (21,210 acres) of land in Jharkhand and 4,415 hectares (10,910 acres) of land in Orissa. The Ganjia Barrage required 266 hectares (660 acres) of land. Galudiha Barrage required 180 hectares (440 acres) of land, of which 150 hectares (370 acres) was private land and 30 hectares was Revenue Land. The canal network required additional land. The project experienced protests from its inception in 1975 and, in 1978, some 10,000 of them demonstrated against the dam at the construction site.[23][24] To address the protests, the government increased the compensation package for 12,000 families and 2,200 people got jobs in different government departments.[25][26]

The construction of Chandil dam, Icha dam and Galudih barrage are complete. This dam is one of the most visited places of Jharkhand. The museum located close to the Chandil dam has scripts written on rocks, which are 2,000 years old.

Kirtania port

Dassam fall, ranchi
Dassam fall on Kanchi River before it merges with Subarnarekha

The Government of Odisha has signed a memorandum of understanding with Chennai-based Creative Port Development Pvt. Ltd. For the development of a deep-water, all-weather project at Kirtania at the mouth of the Subarnarekha. The Kirtania Port project was being taken up on a 50-year build, own, operate, share and transfer (boost) basis. The development would include a dedicated rail cum road connection from the port to the NH 5 and rail network at Jaleswar.[27][28]

Film

Ritwik Ghatak directed a Bengali film Subarnarekha in 1965. Ghatak’s films are deeply haunted by the spectre of the partition of Bengal in 1947. In the film Subarnarekha, Ghatak "has rendered the very idea of home as a sentimental place on an elusive other side that, like the distant, opposing banks of the Subarnarekha River, symbolically represents an idealized, and intranscendible, elsewhere."[29]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Subarnarekha". Water Resources Information System of India. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  2. ^ "Subarnarekha Basin Station: Kokpara". UNH/GRDC. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  3. ^ "Report on National Aquifer Mapping and Management Plan Parts of Ranchi, Khunti and Lohardagga Districts, Jharkhand" (PDF). Ranchi: Central Ground Water Board. p. 8.
  4. ^ "Swarna Rekha in Jharkhand". mapsofindia. Archived from the original on 2009-11-03. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  5. ^ a b "Subarnarekha River". rainwaterharvesting. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  6. ^ a b "Rivers in Medinipur District". midnapore.in. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  7. ^ "Next weekend you can be at ... Galudih". The Telegraph, 1 May 2005. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  8. ^ "Hydrology and Water Resources Information System - Subernarekha Basin". Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  9. ^ a b c d "River System & Basin Planning" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  10. ^ "Ranchi district". District administration. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  11. ^ "Seraikela Kharswan". District administration. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  12. ^ "East Singhbhum". District administration. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  13. ^ "Kharkai River". india9. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  14. ^ "Hundru Falls Ranchi". Maps of India. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  15. ^ "The other side of this industrial city". The Hindu Business Line, 28 July 2003. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  16. ^ "Hundru Falla". District administration. Archived from the original on 2010-01-24. Retrieved 2010-04-20.
  17. ^ "Generation of a Coastal Flood Hazard Zonation Map of Midnapur-Balasore Coast in Eastern India using Integrated Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques" (PDF). Department of Geology and Geophysics Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  18. ^ "Flood". NRSC Decision Support Centre. Archived from the original on 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  19. ^ "Subarnarekha, Jalaka flowing above red mark". India Environment Portal. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  20. ^ "Subarnarekha river". Balasore district administration. Archived from the original on 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  21. ^ "Subarnarekha Project – Singhbhum's Sorrow". 28: 2194–2196. JSTOR 4400253.
  22. ^ "Subarnarekha Project". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  23. ^ "Dams, Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities" (PDF). World Commission on Dams. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  24. ^ "DAMS, DISPLACEMENT, POLICY AND LAW IN INDIA" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  25. ^ "The Telegraph - Ranchi". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  26. ^ http://jhr.nic.in/hcjudge/data/50-1538-2009-24012011.pdf
  27. ^ "Govt sign MOU to set up port in river Subarnarekha at Kirtania". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  28. ^ "DEVELOPMENT OF PORT AT SUBARNAREKHA". Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
  29. ^ "Subarnarekha – the Golden Thread, 1965, Ritwik Ghatak". Shooting Down Pictures. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
Behera Sahi

Behera Sahi is a village located in Jaleswar, Balasore district on the bank of Subarnarekha River. It has a population of 1500 on account of the census 2001.

Chandil railway station

Chandil railway station serves Chandil in Seraikela Kharsawan district in the Indian state of Jharkhand.

Dagara, Baleswar

Dagara is a village situated in the Baleswar district of Odisha, in eastern India. The village, with a beach on the Bay of Bengal, is a well-known spot for local tourists.

In 2006, the Government of Odisha signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Chennai-based Creative Port Development Pvt Ltd. for the development of a deep-water, all-weather project, Kirtania port, at the mouth of the Subarnarekha River.

Dutch Bengal

Bengal was a directorate of the Dutch East India Company in Bengal between 1610 until the company's liquidation in 1800. It then became a colony of the Kingdom of the Netherlands until 1825, when it was relinquished to the British according to the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Dutch presence in the region started by the establishment of a trading post at Pipili in the mouth of Subarnarekha river in Odisha. The former colony is part of what is today called Dutch India.

Getalsud Dam

Getalsud Dam is an artificial reservoir situated in Ormanjhi, Ranchi, Jharkhand. It was constructed across the Subarnarekha River and was opened in 1971. It is a popular picnic spot for the residents of Ranchi and Ramgarh District. The dam provides a small-scale fishing opportunity to the local people of Rukka. The main purpose of the dam is to fulfill the drinking water requirements of the residents of Ranchi. Apart from that, it is also used for industrial purposes and generating electricity.

Ghatshila

Ghatshila, also spelt as Ghatsila, is a town Situated in East Singhbhum. It is 45 km from Jamshedpur. The town is located on the bank of the Subarnarekha River, and it is situated in a forested area. It contains a railway station on the main line of the South Eastern Railway. Ghathsila was formerly the headquarters of the kingdom of Dhalbhum.

Hundru Falls

The Hundru Falls (Hindi: हुन्डरु जलप्रपात) is a waterfall located in Ranchi district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is the 34th highest waterfall in India. It's one of the most famous tourist place near Ranchi in jharkhand.

Jangalkanya Setu

Jangalkanya Setu or Bavsaraghat Bridge is a bridge located in Nayagram in Jhargram district, West Bengal.This bridge was launched in 2016. The bridge is about 1.47 km (0.915 mi) long built on Subarnarekha river. It is the longest bridge in West Bengal. On this day, about 95 kilometers of road to reach Kharagpur via Gobibalppur from Nayagram.To reach Kharagpur via the Nayagram-Keshiariyi, it is only 45 km to reach the 1.47 km long junctional bridge.

Jhargram district

Jhargram district (Bengali: ঝাড়গ্রাম জেলা )is a district in the state of West Bengal, India. It is known for its "wooded beauty" and hill ranges of Belpahari, Kankrajhor to the north and Subarnarekha to the south. It is a destination for tourists who visit its forests, ancient temples, royal palaces, and folk music sites.

The district was formed on 4 April 2017, after bifurcation from the Paschim Medinipur district as the 22nd district of West Bengal. The district has its headquarters at Jhargram.

Kharkai River

The Kharkai River is a river in eastern India. It is one of the major tributaries of the Subarnarekha River. It flows through Adityapur region of Jamshedpur

It arises in Mayurbhanj district, Odisha, on the north slopes of Darbarmela Parbat and the western slopes of Tungru Pahar, of the Simlipal Massif. It flows past Rairangpur and heads north to about Saraikela and then east, entering the Subarnarekha in northwestern Jamshedpur. Its tributaries in Orissa include the Kardkai, on the left; the Kandria, Nusa and Barhai on the right; and the Karanjia on the left. For about 9 kilometres (6 mi) below the junction with the Karanjia, the Kharkai forms the boundary between Odisha and Jharkhand State. After entering Jharkhand its tributaries include the Torlo and Ili Gara on the left. Its last major tributary is the Sanjai, entering from the left, 17 kilometres (11 mi), as the river flows, above its mouth.The valley of the lower Kharkai is quite wide and rice is the primary crop. Iron ore is mined in the mountains of the headwaters of the Kharkai, and there is a steel plant at Jamshedpur. The Kharkai Dam is located at Ichha, Odisha.

Kirtania port

Kirtania port (Odia: କିର୍ତାନିଆ ବନ୍ଦର) is a deep-water, all-weather port proposed to be constructed at the mouth of Subarnarekha River in Balasore district in the Indian state of Odisha.

Mango (Jamshedpur)

Mango is a suburb of Jamshedpur city. It is situated across the Subarnarekha River and is connected to Jamshedpur via three bridges laid side by side. It is a huge and growing residential area. Once a backward little town, it is now a booming suburb and real estate hotbed.

Mango has the status of a 'city' according to the government though being part of the main city Jamshedpur. It is a notified area and is run by its own notified area committee, namely, Mango Notified Area Committee (MNAC). The electricity services are provided by state run electricity board, JSEB. There is no household water delivery system presently but MNAC has recently entered into an agreement with JUSCO to provide tap water services to the area.

It is primarily a residential area and is now witnessing a real estate boom. Many developers are developing residential colonies in the area.

It has two hospitals, namely, MGM Medical hospital and the newly opened Brahmananda Hospital. The MGM Hospital also has a college associated with it. Two new private engineering colleges have also been set up in the area.

Muri, Ranchi

Muri is a census town in Ranchi district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Muri is also divided into two parts Chota Muri and Bara Muri. It is an important railway junction. It is located on the bank of Subarnarekha River and it's tributary river Orang Gadda. Connected with Ranchi city by State Highway No. 1. Muri is famous for Silli AstroTurf Stadium. There are many parks like Muri Tungri Park, Deer Park, Audio Visual Park, Ambedkar Park are located here. A well known famous school of Muri is Ursuline English Medium School Muri. Muri is well known for being the hometown of Hindi Blogger Pawan Belala, who panned his writing at Pawan Belala Says.

Ong River

Ong River is a tributary of Mahanadi river. It flows across Odisha and joins Mahanadi 240 km (150 mi) upstream of Sonepur where Tel merges. The river rises at an elevation of 457 m (1,499 ft) and runs 204 km (127 mi) before it meets Mahanadi. It drains an area of about 5,128 km2 (1,980 sq mi).

Nearby cities to river Ong: Bolangir (39 km or 24 mi), Sohela (40 km or 25 mi), Saraipali (45 km or 28 mi), Bargarh (59 km or 37 mi), Sonepur (70 km or 43 mi), Burla (89 km or 55 mi), Sambalpur (94 km or 58 mi) and some others cities also.

Nearby rivers to Ong river: Tel Nadi 76 km (47 mi), Gorkha Nadi 171 km (106 mi), Subarnarekha River/Swarnarekha River 431 km (268 mi), Godavari 485 km (301 mi), Manairu Vagu 508 km (316 mi).

Pachakhali

Pachakhali is a small village in the Ghritagram-I No. Gram Panchayat Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. It is located about 18 kilometres (11 mi) WSW of Keshiary, across the Subarnarekha River. There are more than 1000 people live.A primary school located in this village.The PIN Code of the village is 721135.

Rani Rashmoni

Rani Rashmoni (28 September 1793 – 19 February 1861) was the founder of the Dakshineswar Kali Temple, Kolkata, and remained closely associated with Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa after she appointed him as the priest of the temple. Her other construction works include the construction of a road from Subarnarekha River to Puri for the pilgrims, Babughat (also known as Babu Rajchandra Das Ghat), Ahiritola Ghat and Nimtola Ghat for the everyday bathers at the Ganges. She also offered considerable charity to the Imperial Library (now the National Library of India), the Hindu College (now Presidency University).Presently, the Lokamata Rani Rashmoni Mission is situated at Nimpith, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, 743338, India.

Rohini, West Bengal

Rohini is a village and gram panchayat located in the Sankrail block in Jhargram subdivision of Jhargram district, in the state of West Bengal, India.

The local persons bilieve that Lord Rama king of Ayodhya once came here and established a Shiv linga to worship in ´Rameshwar ` , A herbal plant Ramdatun spread from Rameshwar.

Talasari Beach

Talasari Beach is a beach in the Baleswar district of Odisha, India. It lies on the north-eastern coast of India.

The name Talasari is derived from the two words Tala (ତାଳ) (meaning Palm) and Sari/Sarani (ସାରି/ସାରଣୀ) (meaning row). The palm trees surrounding the place gives such a name to it. The word Tala also means rhythm, which is reflected in the sea waves lapping against the shore.

Tulin

Tulin a village at Jhalda Block of Purulia District in the state of West Bengal situated beside the Subarnarekha River.

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