Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers. It is found on large landmasses, away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50° to 70°N poleward of the humid continental climates. These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd and Dsd. In very small areas at high altitudes around the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Alaska and other parts of the northwestern United States (Eastern Washington, Eastern Oregon and Southern Idaho) and Russian South-Eastern regions the climate is classified as Dsc with a dry summer climate, such as in Seneca, Oregon or Atlin, British Columbia.

Koppen World Map Dfc Dwc Dsc Dfd Dwd Dsd
Subarctic climate worldwide
  Dsc
  Dsd
  Dwc
  Dwd
  Dfc
  Dfd

Description

This type of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: in winter, temperatures can drop to below −40 °C (−40 °F) and in summer, the temperature may exceed 30 °C (86 °F). However, the summers are short; no more than three months of the year (but at least one month) must have a 24-hour average temperature of at least 10 °C (50 °F) to fall into this category of climate and the coldest month should average below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)). Record low temperatures can approach −70 °C (−94 °F).[1]

With 5–7 consecutive months where the average temperature is below freezing, all moisture in the soil and subsoil freezes solidly to depths of many feet. Summer warmth is insufficient to thaw more than a few surface feet, so permafrost prevails under most areas not near the southern boundary of this climate zone. Seasonal thaw penetrates from 2 to 14 ft (0.61 to 4.27 m), depending on latitude, aspect, and type of ground.[2] Some northern areas with subarctic climates located near oceans (southern Alaska, the northern fringe of Europe, Sakhalin Oblast and Kamchatka Oblast), have milder winters and no permafrost, and are more suited for farming unless precipitation is excessive. The frost-free season is very short, varying from about 45 to 100 days at most, and a freeze can occur during any month in many areas.

Precipitation

Most subarctic climates have very little precipitation, typically no more than 380 mm (15 in) over an entire year. Away from the coasts, precipitation occurs mostly in the warmer months, while in coastal areas with subarctic climates the heaviest precipitation is usually during the autumn months when the relative warmth of sea vis-à-vis land is greatest. Low precipitation, by the standards of more temperate regions with longer summers and warmer winters, is typically sufficient in view of the very low evapotranspiration to allow a water-logged terrain in many areas of subarctic climate and to permit snow cover during winter.

A notable exception to this pattern is that subarctic climates occurring at high altitudes in otherwise temperate regions have extremely high precipitation due to orographic lift. Mount Washington, with temperatures typical of a subarctic climate, receives an average rain-equivalent of 101.91 inches (2,588.5 mm) of precipitation per year.[3] Coastal areas of Khabarovsk Krai also have much higher precipitation in summer due to orographic influences (up to 175 millimetres (6.9 in) in July in some areas), whilst the mountainous Kamchatka peninsula and Sakhalin island are even wetter since orographic moisture is not confined to the warmer months and creates large glaciers in Kamchatka. Labrador, in eastern Canada, is similarly wet throughout the year due to the semi-permanent Icelandic Low and can receive up to 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rainfall equivalent per year, creating a snow cover of up to 1.5 metres (59 in) that does not melt until June.

Vegetation and land use

Vegetation in regions with subarctic climates is generally of low diversity, as only hardy species can survive the long winters and make use of the short summers. Trees are mostly limited to conifers, as few broadleaved trees are able to survive the very low temperatures in winter. This type of forest is also known as taiga, a term which is sometimes applied to the climate found therein as well. Even though the diversity may be low, numbers are high, and the taiga (boreal) forest is the largest forest biome on the planet, with most of the forests located in Russia and Canada. The process by which plants become acclimated to cold temperatures is called hardening.

Agricultural potential is generally poor, due to the natural infertility of soils and the prevalence of swamps and lakes left by departing ice sheets, and short growing seasons prohibit all but the hardiest of crops. (Despite the short season, the long summer days at such latitudes do permit some agriculture.) In some areas, ice has scoured rock surfaces bare, entirely stripping off the overburden. Elsewhere rock basins have been formed and stream courses dammed, creating countless lakes.[2]

Distribution

The Dfc climate, by far the most common subarctic type, is found in the following areas:[4][5]

In parts of East Asia, like China, the Siberian High makes the winters colder than places like Scandinavia or Alaska interior but extremely dry (typically with around 5 millimeters (0.20 in) of rainfall equivalent per month) that snow cover is very limited, creating a Dwc climate in:

Further north in Siberia, continentality increases so much that winters can be exceptionally severe, averaging below −38 °C (−36 °F), even though the hottest month still averages more than 10 °C (50 °F). This creates Dfd, Dwd and Dsd climates.

The Southern Hemisphere, which has no large landmasses in the upper-middle latitudes that can have both the short but well-defined summers and severe winters that characterize this climate, has very few locations with this climate. One example is parts of the Snowy Mountains in Australia, although they're more alpine than true subarctic.

Should one go poleward or even toward a polar sea, one finds that the warmest month has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F), and the subarctic climate grades into a tundra climate even less suitable for trees. Equatorward or toward a lower altitude, this climate grades into the humid continental climates with longer summers (and usually less-severe winters); in a few locations close to a temperate sea (as in North Norway and southern Alaska), this climate can grade into a short-summer version of an oceanic climate, the subpolar oceanic climate, as the sea is approached. In China and Mongolia, as one moves southwestwards or towards lower altitudes, temperatures increase but precipitation is so low that the subarctic climate grades into a cold semi-arid climate.

Charts of selected sites

Anchorage, Alaska, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
19
 
 
−5
−12
 
 
19
 
 
−3
−10
 
 
15
 
 
1
−7
 
 
12
 
 
7
−2
 
 
19
 
 
14
4
 
 
24
 
 
18
9
 
 
46
 
 
19
11
 
 
82
 
 
18
10
 
 
76
 
 
13
5
 
 
52
 
 
5
−2
 
 
30
 
 
−2
−9
 
 
28
 
 
−4
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
14
 
 
−23
−31
 
 
13
 
 
−19
−28
 
 
13
 
 
−11
−23
 
 
11
 
 
0
−11
 
 
19
 
 
11
1
 
 
27
 
 
18
9
 
 
35
 
 
21
12
 
 
41
 
 
18
10
 
 
33
 
 
10
4
 
 
35
 
 
1
−4
 
 
24
 
 
−10
−18
 
 
16
 
 
−20
−28
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[6]
Moosonee, Ontario, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
34
 
 
−15
−27
 
 
23
 
 
−12
−26
 
 
32
 
 
−5
−20
 
 
39
 
 
4
−9
 
 
54
 
 
12
−1
 
 
71
 
 
18
5
 
 
101
 
 
22
8
 
 
76
 
 
20
8
 
 
90
 
 
15
4
 
 
73
 
 
8
−1
 
 
54
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
35
 
 
−11
−22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada[7]
Samedan, Graubünden, Switzerland
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
30
 
 
−2
−18
 
 
25
 
 
0
−17
 
 
31
 
 
3
−12
 
 
44
 
 
6
−6
 
 
81
 
 
12
−1
 
 
87
 
 
16
2
 
 
89
 
 
18
3
 
 
99
 
 
18
3
 
 
72
 
 
15
0
 
 
59
 
 
11
−4
 
 
54
 
 
4
−11
 
 
31
 
 
−2
−16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MeteoSchweiz[8]
Luleå, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
32
 
 
−7
−13
 
 
26
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
23
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
18
 
 
4
−3
 
 
23
 
 
11
2
 
 
32
 
 
17
9
 
 
42
 
 
20
12
 
 
42
 
 
18
11
 
 
31
 
 
12
6
 
 
34
 
 
6
0
 
 
31
 
 
−2
−6
 
 
27
 
 
−6
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information[9]
Nerdal/Mo i Rana, Norway
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
146
 
 
−3
−8
 
 
117
 
 
−2
−7
 
 
112
 
 
2
−4
 
 
74
 
 
5
−1
 
 
64
 
 
12
4
 
 
70
 
 
16
8
 
 
97
 
 
18
10
 
 
110
 
 
16
9
 
 
155
 
 
11
6
 
 
186
 
 
6
2
 
 
136
 
 
1
−4
 
 
163
 
 
−1
−6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: met.no/klimastatistikk/eklima
Tromsø, Norway
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
95
 
 
−2
−7
 
 
87
 
 
−2
−7
 
 
72
 
 
0
−5
 
 
64
 
 
3
−2
 
 
48
 
 
8
2
 
 
59
 
 
13
6
 
 
77
 
 
15
9
 
 
82
 
 
14
8
 
 
102
 
 
9
4
 
 
131
 
 
5
1
 
 
108
 
 
1
−3
 
 
106
 
 
−1
−5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information Service
Kiruna, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
30
 
 
−11
−22
 
 
25
 
 
−9
−20
 
 
26
 
 
−5
−18
 
 
27
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
34
 
 
8
−2
 
 
49
 
 
15
5
 
 
86
 
 
18
7
 
 
74
 
 
15
5
 
 
49
 
 
10
1
 
 
47
 
 
−2
−11
 
 
42
 
 
−7
−13
 
 
34
 
 
−9
−20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SMHI[10]
Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic, Russia
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
6
 
 
−43
−49
 
 
6
 
 
−37
−46
 
 
5
 
 
−20
−39
 
 
6
 
 
−3
−22
 
 
12
 
 
10
−3
 
 
23
 
 
20
6
 
 
33
 
 
23
9
 
 
32
 
 
18
4
 
 
14
 
 
9
−3
 
 
13
 
 
−9
−19
 
 
10
 
 
−32
−40
 
 
8
 
 
−40
−47
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Pogoda.ru.net
Mohe, Heilongjiang, China
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5
 
 
−22
−36
 
 
4.4
 
 
−13
−33
 
 
6.9
 
 
−3
−24
 
 
24
 
 
8
−8
 
 
33
 
 
18
0
 
 
68
 
 
24
8
 
 
99
 
 
26
12
 
 
107
 
 
23
9
 
 
50
 
 
16
1
 
 
16
 
 
5
−10
 
 
13
 
 
−11
−25
 
 
7.4
 
 
−21
−34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Weather China[11]
Lukla, Nepal
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
11
 
 
1
−18
 
 
18
 
 
2
−16
 
 
22
 
 
5
−12
 
 
28
 
 
8
−7
 
 
34
 
 
12
−3
 
 
96
 
 
15
2
 
 
154
 
 
14
4
 
 
145
 
 
13
4
 
 
81
 
 
13
1
 
 
37
 
 
9
−7
 
 
6.2
 
 
6
−13
 
 
13
 
 
3
−16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: weatherbase.com[12]
Crater Lake, Oregon, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
267
 
 
1
−8
 
 
205
 
 
2
−8
 
 
196
 
 
3
−7
 
 
123
 
 
6
−5
 
 
84
 
 
10
−2
 
 
57
 
 
15
2
 
 
20
 
 
21
5
 
 
25
 
 
21
5
 
 
52
 
 
17
3
 
 
127
 
 
11
−1
 
 
239
 
 
4
−5
 
 
290
 
 
2
−7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SHMI[13]
Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
22
 
 
−25
−34
 
 
17
 
 
−24
−33
 
 
20
 
 
−17
−29
 
 
21
 
 
−9
−21
 
 
21
 
 
−1
−10
 
 
45
 
 
9
1
 
 
52
 
 
17
8
 
 
61
 
 
14
5
 
 
64
 
 
6
0
 
 
44
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
35
 
 
−18
−26
 
 
34
 
 
−22
−31
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SHMI[14]
Östersund, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
19
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
16
 
 
−4
−12
 
 
14
 
 
1
−8
 
 
20
 
 
5
−3
 
 
23
 
 
13
3
 
 
47
 
 
18
8
 
 
61
 
 
19
10
 
 
48
 
 
17
9
 
 
34
 
 
12
5
 
 
25
 
 
6
1
 
 
19
 
 
0
−5
 
 
18
 
 
−3
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: yr.no
Oulu, Finland
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
33
 
 
−6
−14
 
 
28
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
23
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
34
 
 
6
−3
 
 
32
 
 
13
3
 
 
49
 
 
18
9
 
 
70
 
 
21
12
 
 
65
 
 
18
10
 
 
57
 
 
13
5
 
 
46
 
 
6
1
 
 
41
 
 
0
−6
 
 
36
 
 
−4
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Tilastokeskus: Tilastoja Suomen ilmastosta 1981-2010

See also

References

  1. ^ Stepanova, N.A. (1958). "On the Lowest Temperatures on Earth" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 86 (1): 6. Bibcode:1958MWRv...86....6S. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1958)086<0006:OTLTOE>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b Subarctic Division Archived 2010-01-05 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Mount Washington Observatory: Normals, Means, and Extremes, Retrieved July 1, 2009.
  4. ^ Geography of climate Archived 2012-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Updated Köppen-Geiger Climate Map of the World by Murray Peel
  6. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2009-10-14.
  7. ^ "Moosonee UA Station". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Environment Canada. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  8. ^ "Normwert-Tabellen 1961–1990" (in German, French, and Italian). MeteoSchweiz. Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
  9. ^ "Luleå, SWE". World Weather Information. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
  10. ^ "Nederbörd, normalvärden 1961–90". SMHI. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2009-10-17.
  11. ^ "Mohe County, 1971-2000". Weather.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-09-12.
  12. ^ "Lukla, Nepal Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Retrieved 2015-08-11.
  13. ^ "Crater Lake Nat'l Park H, Oregon Period of Record Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2012-04-17.
  14. ^ "Norilsk Weather Averages and Climate". weather2travel. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
Abies sibirica

Abies sibirica, the Siberian fir, is a coniferous evergreen tree native to the taiga east of the Volga River and north of 67°40' North latitude in Siberia through Turkestan, northeast Xinjiang, Mongolia and Heilongjiang.

Alnus viridis

Alnus viridis (green alder) is an alder distributed widely across the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere.

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is a plant species of the genus Arctostaphylos (manzanita). Its common names include kinnikinnick and pinemat manzanita, and it is one of several related species referred to as bearberry.Its specific name uva-ursi means "grape of the bear" in Latin (ūva ursī), just as the generic epithet Arctostaphylos means in Greek ("bear-grape").

Betula papyrifera

Betula papyrifera (paper birch, also known as white birch and canoe birch) is a short-lived species of birch native to northern North America. Paper birch is named due to the thin white bark which often peels in paper like layers from the trunk. Paper birch is often one of the first species to colonize a burned area within the northern latitudes and an important species for moose browse. The wood is often used for pulpwood and firewood.

Betula pendula

Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch, warty birch, European white birch, or East Asian white birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia, China and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran. It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in the United States and in parts of Canada. The tree can also be found in more temperate regions of Australia.

The silver birch is a medium-sized deciduous tree that owes its common name to the white peeling bark on the trunk. The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. The flowers are catkins and the light, winged seeds get widely scattered by the wind. The silver birch is a hardy tree, a pioneer species, and one of the first trees to appear on bare or fire-swept land. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps and brooms. Various parts of the tree are used in traditional medicine and the bark contains triterpenes which have been shown to have medicinal properties.

Betula platyphylla

Betula platyphylla, the Japanese white birch or Siberian silver birch, is a tree species belonging to the genus Betula. It can be found in temperate or subarctic places of Asia: Japan, China, Korea, and Siberia. The Japanese White Birch can grow to be 20 m to 30 m tall.

Betula pumila

Betula pumila (dwarf birch or bog birch) is a deciduous shrub native to North America. Bog birch occurs over a vast area of northern North America, from Yukon in the west to New England in the east and all the way to Washington and Oregon, inhabiting swamps and riparian zones in the boreal forests.

It reaches 1–4 m (3–13 ft) in height. Like other birches, it is monoecious and its reproductive structures are catkins. Leaves are alternate but close together, especially on slow growing individuals. Leaves are coarsely dentate and rounded at the base.

Boreal ecosystem

A boreal ecosystem is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate located in the Northern Hemisphere, approximately between 50° to 70°N latitude. These ecosystems are located in Boreal forests which are commonly known as the taiga, particularly in Europe and Asia. The ecosystems that lie immediately to the south of boreal zones are often called hemiboreal.

The Köppen symbols of boreal ecosystems are Dfc, Dwc, Dfd, and Dwd.

Climate of Alaska

The climate of Alaska is determined by average temperatures and precipitation received statewide over many years. The extratropical storm track runs along the Aleutian Island chain, across the Alaska Peninsula, and along the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska which exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific. The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (similar to Scotland, or Haida Gwaii), (Köppen Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) in the northern parts. The climate in Southcentral Alaska is a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) due to its short, cool summers. The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate, as the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska have both occurred in the interior. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is an Arctic climate (Köppen ET) with long, cold winters, and cool summers where snow is possible year-round.

Hylocomium splendens

Hylocomium splendens, commonly known as glittering woodmoss, splendid feather moss, stairstep moss, and mountain fern moss, is a perennial clonal moss with a widespread distribution in Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. It is commonly found in Europe, Russia, Alaska and Canada, where it is often the most abundant moss species. It also grows in the Arctic tundra and further south at higher elevations in, for example, northern California, western Sichuan, East Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the West Indies. In Scotland it is a characteristic species of the Caledonian Forest. Under the UK's national vegetation classification system, pinewood community W18 is named as "Pinus sylvestris-Hylocomium splendens woodland", indicating its significance in this ecosystem.

Larix gmelinii

Larix gmelinii, the Dahurian larch, is a species of larch native to eastern Siberia and adjacent northeastern Mongolia, northeastern China (Heilongjiang) and North Korea.

Larix sibirica

Larix sibirica, the Siberian larch or Russian larch, is a frost-hardy tree native to western Russia, from close to the Finnish border east to the Yenisei valley in central Siberia, where it hybridises with the Dahurian larch L. gmelinii of eastern Siberia; the hybrid is known as Larix × czekanowskii.

Picea mariana

Picea mariana, the black spruce, is a North American species of spruce tree in the pine family. It is widespread across Canada, found in all 10 provinces and all 3 Arctic territories. Its range extends into northern parts of the United States: in Alaska, the Great Lakes region, and the upper Northeast. It is a frequent part of the biome known as taiga or boreal forest.The Latin specific epithet mariana means “of the Virgin Mary”.

Pinus koraiensis

Pinus koraiensis is a species of pine known commonly as the Korean pine. It is native to eastern Asia: Korea, northeastern China, Mongolia, the temperate rainforests of the Russian Far East, and central Japan. In the north of its range, it grows at moderate altitudes, typically 600 metres (2,000 ft) to 900 metres (3,000 ft), whereas further south, it is a mountain tree, growing at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) to 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) altitude in Japan. Other common names include Chinese pinenut.

Pinus sibirica

Pinus sibirica, or Siberian pine, in the family Pinaceae is a species of pine tree that occurs in Siberia from 58°E in the Ural Mountains east to 126°E in the Stanovoy Range in southern Sakha Republic, and from Igarka at 68°N in the lower Yenisei valley, south to 45°N in central Mongolia.

Populus tremula

Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British Isles east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria. In the south of its range, it occurs at high altitudes in mountains.The English name Waverly, meaning "quaking aspen", is both a surname and unisex given name.

Pyramid Mountain (Alberta)

Pyramid Mountain is a mountain in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada, named for its pyramid-like shape. James Hector named the mountain in 1859 due to its appearance from the Athabasca River valley on the eastern side of the peak.Part of the Victoria Cross Ranges in the Athabasca River Valley the mountain is in the major headwater for the Athabasca River. The peak is just under 10 km (6 mi) north-west of the town of Jasper.

The mountain is a relatively easy scramble on the eastern slopes. These slopes can be reached by following a steep fire road from the parking lot at Pyramid Lake, 4.5 km (3 mi) South-East of the peak.

Based on the Köppen climate classification, Pyramid Mountain is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, and mild summers. Temperatures can drop below -20 C with wind chill factors below -30 C.

Rubus chamaemorus

Rubus chamaemorus is a rhizomatous herb native to cool temperate regions, alpine and arctic tundra and boreal forest, producing amber-colored edible fruit similar to the raspberry or blackberry. English common names include cloudberry, nordic berry, bakeapple (in Newfoundland and Labrador), knotberry and knoutberry (in England), aqpik or low-bush salmonberry (in Alaska – not to be confused with true salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis), and averin or evron (in Scotland).

Salix herbacea

Salix herbacea, the dwarf willow, least willow or snowbed willow, is a species of tiny creeping willow (family Salicaceae) adapted to survive in harsh arctic and subarctic environments. Distributed widely in alpine and arctic environments around the North Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the smallest of woody plants.

Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
23
11
 
 
0.7
 
 
27
14
 
 
0.6
 
 
35
19
 
 
0.5
 
 
45
29
 
 
0.7
 
 
57
39
 
 
0.9
 
 
64
47
 
 
1.8
 
 
66
52
 
 
3.2
 
 
64
50
 
 
3
 
 
55
42
 
 
2
 
 
41
29
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
17
 
 
1.1
 
 
24
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.6
 
 
−9
−24
 
 
0.5
 
 
−1
−19
 
 
0.5
 
 
12
−10
 
 
0.4
 
 
33
12
 
 
0.8
 
 
51
33
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
48
 
 
1.4
 
 
70
54
 
 
1.6
 
 
65
51
 
 
1.3
 
 
51
39
 
 
1.4
 
 
34
24
 
 
0.9
 
 
14
0
 
 
0.6
 
 
−3
−18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
5
−16
 
 
0.9
 
 
11
−15
 
 
1.2
 
 
24
−4
 
 
1.5
 
 
38
16
 
 
2.1
 
 
53
31
 
 
2.8
 
 
65
40
 
 
4
 
 
71
47
 
 
3
 
 
69
46
 
 
3.5
 
 
58
39
 
 
2.9
 
 
46
31
 
 
2.1
 
 
31
16
 
 
1.4
 
 
12
−8
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
0
 
 
1
 
 
32
1
 
 
1.2
 
 
37
11
 
 
1.7
 
 
44
22
 
 
3.2
 
 
53
30
 
 
3.4
 
 
60
35
 
 
3.5
 
 
65
37
 
 
3.9
 
 
64
37
 
 
2.8
 
 
59
32
 
 
2.3
 
 
51
24
 
 
2.1
 
 
38
13
 
 
1.2
 
 
29
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
19
9
 
 
1
 
 
21
9
 
 
0.9
 
 
30
16
 
 
0.7
 
 
39
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
52
36
 
 
1.3
 
 
63
48
 
 
1.7
 
 
68
54
 
 
1.7
 
 
64
52
 
 
1.2
 
 
54
43
 
 
1.3
 
 
43
32
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
21
 
 
1.1
 
 
21
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.7
 
 
27
17
 
 
4.6
 
 
29
19
 
 
4.4
 
 
35
24
 
 
2.9
 
 
42
30
 
 
2.5
 
 
53
38
 
 
2.8
 
 
61
46
 
 
3.8
 
 
64
51
 
 
4.3
 
 
62
49
 
 
6.1
 
 
52
42
 
 
7.3
 
 
43
35
 
 
5.4
 
 
34
26
 
 
6.4
 
 
30
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.7
 
 
28
20
 
 
3.4
 
 
28
20
 
 
2.8
 
 
31
23
 
 
2.5
 
 
37
28
 
 
1.9
 
 
46
36
 
 
2.3
 
 
55
43
 
 
3
 
 
60
48
 
 
3.2
 
 
57
46
 
 
4
 
 
49
40
 
 
5.2
 
 
40
33
 
 
4.3
 
 
33
27
 
 
4.2
 
 
30
22
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
12
−7
 
 
1
 
 
16
−4
 
 
1
 
 
23
−1
 
 
1.1
 
 
30
15
 
 
1.3
 
 
47
29
 
 
1.9
 
 
59
41
 
 
3.4
 
 
64
45
 
 
2.9
 
 
59
42
 
 
1.9
 
 
49
33
 
 
1.9
 
 
28
13
 
 
1.7
 
 
20
8
 
 
1.3
 
 
16
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
−45
−56
 
 
0.2
 
 
−34
−51
 
 
0.2
 
 
−4
−37
 
 
0.2
 
 
26
−8
 
 
0.5
 
 
50
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
68
43
 
 
1.3
 
 
74
48
 
 
1.3
 
 
65
40
 
 
0.6
 
 
47
27
 
 
0.5
 
 
16
−3
 
 
0.4
 
 
−26
−40
 
 
0.3
 
 
−40
−52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
−7
−33
 
 
0.2
 
 
9
−28
 
 
0.3
 
 
26
−12
 
 
0.9
 
 
46
19
 
 
1.3
 
 
64
33
 
 
2.7
 
 
76
46
 
 
3.9
 
 
78
53
 
 
4.2
 
 
74
49
 
 
2
 
 
62
35
 
 
0.6
 
 
41
14
 
 
0.5
 
 
13
−14
 
 
0.3
 
 
−6
−29
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
34
−1
 
 
0.7
 
 
35
3
 
 
0.9
 
 
40
10
 
 
1.1
 
 
47
19
 
 
1.4
 
 
53
26
 
 
3.8
 
 
58
35
 
 
6.1
 
 
58
39
 
 
5.7
 
 
56
38
 
 
3.2
 
 
55
33
 
 
1.5
 
 
48
20
 
 
0.2
 
 
42
10
 
 
0.5
 
 
38
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
11
 
 
34
18
 
 
8.1
 
 
35
18
 
 
7.7
 
 
37
19
 
 
4.8
 
 
43
23
 
 
3.3
 
 
50
29
 
 
2.2
 
 
58
35
 
 
0.8
 
 
69
41
 
 
1
 
 
69
41
 
 
2
 
 
63
37
 
 
5
 
 
52
31
 
 
9.4
 
 
40
24
 
 
11
 
 
35
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.9
 
 
−13
−29
 
 
0.7
 
 
−11
−27
 
 
0.8
 
 
1
−20
 
 
0.8
 
 
16
−6
 
 
0.8
 
 
30
14
 
 
1.8
 
 
48
34
 
 
2
 
 
63
46
 
 
2.4
 
 
57
41
 
 
2.5
 
 
43
32
 
 
1.7
 
 
21
9
 
 
1.4
 
 
0
−15
 
 
1.3
 
 
−8
−24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
22
9
 
 
0.6
 
 
25
11
 
 
0.6
 
 
33
18
 
 
0.8
 
 
42
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
55
37
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
46
 
 
2.4
 
 
66
50
 
 
1.9
 
 
63
48
 
 
1.3
 
 
53
41
 
 
1
 
 
44
34
 
 
0.7
 
 
32
23
 
 
0.7
 
 
26
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
21
8
 
 
1.1
 
 
22
8
 
 
0.9
 
 
30
16
 
 
1.3
 
 
42
27
 
 
1.3
 
 
55
38
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
48
 
 
2.8
 
 
70
54
 
 
2.6
 
 
65
50
 
 
2.2
 
 
55
42
 
 
1.8
 
 
42
33
 
 
1.6
 
 
31
22
 
 
1.4
 
 
25
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.