Styria (German: Steiermark, German pronunciation: [ˈʃtaɪ̯ɐˌmaːk] (listen), Croatian and Slovene: Štajerska, Hungarian: Stájerország, Czech: Štýrsko; Slovak: Štajersko) is a state, or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest (after Lower Austria) of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km2 (6,332 sq mi). It borders Slovenia (Carinthia Statistical Region, Drava Statistical Region and Mura Statistical Region) and the Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The capital city is Graz which had 276,526 inhabitants at the beginning of 2015.
Coat of arms
|• Governor||Hermann Schützenhöfer (ÖVP)|
|• Total||16,401.04 km2 (6,332.48 sq mi)|
(1 January 2016)
|• Density||75/km2 (190/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||AT-6|
very high · 4th
|Votes in Bundesrat||9 (of 62)|
The March of Styria derived its name from the original seat of its ruling Otakar dynasty: Steyr, in today's Upper Austria. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark" while in English the Latin name "Styria" is used. The ancient link between Steyr and Styria is also apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white Panther on a green background.
The term "Upper Styria" (German: Obersteiermark) used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state (districts Liezen, Murau, Judenburg, Knittelfeld, Leoben, Bruck an der Mur, and Mürzzuschlag). The term "West Styria" (Weststeiermark) is used for the districts to the west of Graz (Voitsberg, Deutschlandsberg, western part of the district Leibnitz); the districts east of Graz (Weiz, Hartberg, Feldbach, Fürstenfeld, and Radkersburg) are referred to as "East Styria" (Oststeiermark). The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively. The southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Yugoslavia and later Slovenia since 1918 (with the exception of World War II), were (and sometimes colloquially still are) referred to as "Lower Styria" (Untersteiermark; Slovene: Štajerska).
During early Roman times, Styria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, and the Lombards. Slavs, who first were under the domination of the Avars, settled in the valleys of this country (around 600 and onwards). At the same time Bavarian people (under Frankish domination) began to expand their area to the south and east and absorbed the Slavic population.
In 1180 Styria separated from the Duchy of Carinthia and became a Duchy of its own; in 1192 the Austrian Duke Leopold V became also Duke of Styria. Later, Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria.
Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Austria between 1809 and 1859.
In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section (forming what is the current Austrian state), and a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited mostly by ethnic Slovenians, and which was annexed to Yugoslavia, and later became part of Slovenia.
As elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria. This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years.
In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then.
Styria is home to more than 150 clean technology companies, of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field. The revenue of Styrian cleantech companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals to 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product (GRP), and is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe. The companies have an average (real) growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created roughly 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone.
The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) since 1945. Graz however is a stronghold of the far left Communist Party (KPÖ). The governor (Austrian political term: Landeshauptmann) has usually been an ÖVP member.
In the 2005 elections for state parliament the Social Democrats (SPÖ) under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ also received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years. The two right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) and the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ), failed to win seats.
In subsequent elections in 2010 and 2015, the Social Democrats, the Austrian People's Party, and the Communist Party each lost between one fourth and one third of their shares of the vote relative to 2005. The Freedom Party grew from 4.6 percent to 26.8 percent. The current government of Styria is a coalition of Social Democrats and People's Party, with each party holding 4 seats of the 8 seats available. The governor, Hermann Schützenhöfer, is a representative of the People's Party. His deputy, Michael Schickhofer, is a Social Democrat.
Charles II Francis of Austria (German: Karl II. Franz von Innerösterreich) (3 June 1540 – 10 July 1590) was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia) from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg.City Municipality of Maribor
The City Municipality of Maribor (pronounced [ˈmaːɾibɔɾ]), also the City of Maribor (Slovene: Mestna občina Maribor, acronym MOM), is one of eleven city municipalities in Slovenia. Its center is Maribor, the second-largest city in Slovenia. The population of the municipality was 111,079 in 2017.Duchy of Styria
The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark; Slovene: Vojvodina Štajerska; Hungarian: Stájer Hercegség) was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary until its dissolution in 1918.Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637). He was the son of Archduke Charles II of Inner Austria, and Maria of Bavaria. In 1590, his parents, who were devout Catholics, sent him to study at the Jesuits' college in Ingolstadt, because they wanted to isolate him from the Lutheran nobles. In the same year, he inherited Inner Austria—Styria, Carinthia, Carniola and smaller provinces—from his father. Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the head of the Habsburg family, appointed regents to administer Inner Austria on behalf of the minor Ferdinand.
Ferdinand was installed as the actual ruler of the Inner Austrian provinces in 1596 and 1597. Rudolph II also charged him with the command of the defense of Croatia, Slavonia and southeastern Hungary against the Ottoman Empire. He regarded the regulation of religious issues as a royal prerogative and introduced strict Counter-Reformation measures from 1598. First, he ordered the expulsion of all Protestant pastors and teachers, then he established special commissions to restore the Catholic parishes. The Ottomans captured Nagykanizsa in Hungary in 1600, which enabled them to invade Styria. A year later, Ferdinand tried to recapture the fortress, but the action ended with a defeat due to the unprofessional command of his troops in November 1601. During the first stage of the family feud known as the Brothers' Quarrel, Ferdinand initially supported Rudolph II's brother, Maximilian, who wanted to convince the melancholic Emperor to abdicate, but Matthias' concessions to the Protestants in Hungary, Austria and Bohemia outraged him. He planned an alliance to strengthen the position of the Catholic Church in the Holy Roman Empire, but the Catholic princes established the Catholic League without his participation in 1610.
Philip III of Spain, who was the childless Matthias' nephew, acknowledged Ferdinand's right to succeed Matthias in Bohemia and Hungary in exchange for territorial concessions in 1617. Spain also supported Ferdinand against the Republic of Venice during the Uskok War in 1617–18. The Diets of Bohemia and Hungary confirmed Ferdinand's position as Matthias' successor only after he had promised to respect the Estates' privileges in both realms. The different interpretation of the Letter of Majesty, which summarized the Bohemian Protestants' liberties, gave rise to an uprising, known as the Second Defenestration of Prague on 23 May 1618. The Bohemian rebels established a provisional government, invaded Upper Austria and sought assistance from the Habsburgs' opponents. After Matthias' death on 20 March 1619, Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor, but the Protestant Bohemian Estates dethroned him and offered the crown to the Calvinist Frederick V of the Palatinate on 26 August.
The Thirty Years' War had begun in 1618 as a result of inadequacies of his predecessors Rudolf II and Matthias. But Ferdinand's acts against Protestantism caused the war to engulf the whole empire. As a zealous Catholic, Ferdinand wanted to restore the Catholic Church as the only religion in the Empire and to wipe out any form of religious dissent. The war left the Holy Roman Empire devastated, its cities in ruins, and its population took a century to recover.Graz
Graz (German pronunciation: [ɡʁaːt͡s]) is the capital city of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna. On 1 January 2019, it had a population of 328,276 (292,269 of whom had principal residence status). In 2015, the population of the Graz larger urban zone who had principal residence status stood at 633,168. Graz has a long tradition as seat of universities: its six universities have almost 60,000 students. Its historic centre is one of the best-preserved city centres in Central Europe.For centuries, Graz (Slovene: Gradec) was more important to Slovenes and Croats, both politically and culturally, than the capitals of Ljubljana, Slovenia and Zagreb, Croatia; it remains influential to this day. In 1999, Graz's historic centre was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites and in 2010, the site was extended with Eggenberg Palace (German: Schloss Eggenberg). Graz was the Cultural Capital of Europe in 2003 and became a City of Culinary Delights in 2008.Kapfenberg
Kapfenberg [ˈkapfənbɛʁk], with around 23,059 inhabitants, is the third largest city in Styria, Austria, near Bruck an der Mur. The town's landmark is Burg Oberkapfenberg. Its main employer is the steel manufacturer Böhler.
The town has a swimming complex, a football stadium (Franz Fekete Stadium) used by the club Kapfenberger SV, and an ice rink. The Kapfenberg Bulls is a team in the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga, the highest professional basketball league in Austria.
In 1970, Kapfenberg hosted the European Team Chess Championship, which was won by the Soviet Union.List of postal codes in Austria
Postal codes in Austria consist of four digits. They were introduced on 1 January 1966. Each code denotes a post office of the Österreichische Post company.
The first digit identifies a geographic delivery area within Austria. The second identifies a routing area. The third defines the route the mail takes either with the car/truck or with the train. The fourth stands for the post office outlet in the routing city.Lurgrotte
The Lurgrotte karst cave is the largest cave in the Eastern Alps of Styria, Austria. It is located about 16 km (9.9 mi) north of Graz and crosses the Tannenben karst region. The cave has two accessible entrances, one at the village of Semriach and the other at the village of Peggau. At the Semriach entrance, the Lur River sinks into the cave. At the Peggau entrance, the Schmelz River emerges from within the cave, flowing to the west and eventually joining the Mur River.Municipality of Ljutomer
The Municipality of Ljutomer (pronounced [ˈljuːtɔmɛɾ] (listen); Slovene: Občina Ljutomer) is a municipality in northeastern Slovenia, some 40 kilometers (25 mi) east of Maribor. Traditionally it was part of the region of Styria. It is now included in the Mura Statistical Region. Its largest settlement and the administrative center is Ljutomer.
The municipality includes Ljutomer Ponds–Jeruzalem Hills Nature Park (Slovene: Krajinski park Ljutomerski ribniki – Jeruzalemske gorice), which covers 1,346 hectares (3,330 acres).The Ljutomer area was the birthplace of the ethnologist and Romantic poet Stanko Vraz (1810–1851), linguist Franz Miklosich (1813–1891), pioneer of film making Karol Grossmann (1864–1929), and painter Ante Trstenjak (1894–1970).Ormož
Ormož (pronounced [ˈoːɾmɔʃ] (listen); Hungarian: Ormosd, German: Friedau, Prekmurje Slovene: Ormošd) is a town in the traditional region of Prlekija, part of Styria, in northeastern Slovenia. It lies on the left bank of the Drava River and borders with Croatia on the opposite bank of the river. It is the administrative centre of the Municipality of Ormož. The municipality includes Jeruzalem–Ormož Hills Nature Park (Slovene: Krajinski park Jeruzalemsko - ormoške gorice), which covers 1,911 hectares (4,720 acres).Ptuj
Ptuj (pronounced [ˈptuːi̯] (listen); German: Pettau; Latin: Poetovium/Poetovio) is a town in northeastern Slovenia that is the seat of the Municipality of Ptuj. Ptuj, the oldest recorded city in Slovenia, has been inhabited since the late Stone Age and developed from a Roman military fort. Ptuj was located at a strategically important crossing of the Drava River, along a prehistoric trade route between the Baltic Sea and the Adriatic. Traditionally the area was part of the Styria region and became part of the Austria-Hungarian Empire. In the early 20th century the majority of the residents were ethnic Germans, but today the population is largely Slovene. Residents of Ptuj are known as Ptujčani in Slovene.Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport race track in Spielberg, Styria, Austria.The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years, from 1970 to 1987. It was later shortened, rebuilt and renamed the A1-Ring (A Eins-Ring), and it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout. Parts of the circuit, including the pits and main grandstand, were demolished, but construction work was stopped and the circuit remained unusable for several years before it was purchased by Red Bull's Dietrich Mateschitz and rebuilt. Renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season.Salzofen cave
Salzofen cave is an archaeological site in Styria, Austria. It is located in the municipality of Grundlsee at an altitude of approximately 2,000 m (6,600 ft), about sixty meters below the summit. It is known for its Neolithic and Middle Paleolithic finds of fireplaces, stone tools, and bone tools, the latter dating from 65000 to 31000 BCE.Schladming
Schladming (Austro-Bavarian: Schlaming) is a small former mining town in the northwest of the Austrian state of Styria that is now a popular tourist destination. It has become a large winter-sports resort and has held various skiing competitions, including most notably the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1982 and the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 2013. The shopping area has many cafes and restaurants, and a variety of shops that cater to tourists.Slovenska Bistrica
Slovenska Bistrica (pronounced [slɔˈʋeːnska ˈbiːstɾitsa] (listen); German: Windisch-Feistritz) is a town south of Maribor in eastern Slovenia. It is centre of the Municipality of Slovenska Bistrica, one of the largest municipalities in Slovenia. Traditionally the area was part of the Styria region. The town is included in the Drava Statistical Region.Spielberg, Styria
Spielberg bei Knittelfeld is a city located in the Bezirk Murtal in Styria, Austria.Stephen V of Hungary
Stephen V (Hungarian: V. István, Croatian: Stjepan V., Slovak: Štefan V; before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272, Csepel Island) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1270 and 1272, and Duke of Styria from 1258 to 1260. He was the oldest son of King Béla IV and Maria Laskarina. King Béla had his son crowned king at the age of six and appointed him Duke of Slavonia. Still a child, Stephen married Elizabeth, a daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans whom his father settled in the Great Hungarian Plain.
King Béla appointed Stephen Duke of Transylvania in 1257 and Duke of Styria in 1258. The local noblemen in Styria, which had been annexed four years before, opposed his rule. Assisted by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, they rebelled and expelled Stephen's troops from most parts of Styria. After Ottokar II routed the united army of Stephen and his father in the Battle of Kressenbrunn on 12 July 1260, Stephen left Styria and returned to Transylvania.
Stephen forced his father to cede all the lands of the Kingdom of Hungary to the east of the Danube to him and adopted the title of junior king in 1262. In two years, a civil war broke out between father and son, because Stephen accused Béla of planning to disinherit him. They concluded a peace treaty in 1266, but confidence was never restored between them. Stephen succeeded his father, who died on 3 May 1270, without difficulties, but his sister Anna and his father's closest advisors fled to the Kingdom of Bohemia. Ottokar II invaded Hungary in the spring of 1271, but Stephen routed him. In next summer, a rebellious lord captured and imprisoned Stephen's son, Ladislaus. Shortly thereafter, Stephen unexpectedly fell ill and died.Styria (Slovenia)
Styria (Slovene: Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; German: Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria. The population of Styria in its historical boundaries amounts to around 705,000 inhabitants, or 34.5% of the population of Slovenia. The largest city is Maribor.