Stromboli

Stromboli (Italian pronunciation: [ˈstromboli]; Sicilian: Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongúlē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. It is one of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic arc north of Sicily. This name is derived from the Ancient Greek name Strongúlē, which was derived from στρογγύλος (strongúlos, "round"), after the volcano's round, conical appearance when seen from a distance.[3] The island's population is about 500.[4] The volcano has erupted many times and is constantly active with minor eruptions, often visible from many points on the island and from the surrounding sea, giving rise to the island's nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".[5]

Stromboli's most recent major eruption was on April 13, 2009. Stromboli stands 926 m (3,038 ft) above sea level,[2] and over 2,700 m (8,860 ft) on average above the sea floor.[6] There are three active craters at the peak. A significant geological feature of the volcano is the Sciara del Fuoco ("stream of fire"), a big horseshoe-shaped depression generated in the last 13,000 years by several collapses on the northwestern side of the cone. Approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) to the northeast lies Strombolicchio, the volcanic plug remnant of the original volcano.

Mt. Stromboli
DenglerSW-Stromboli-20040928-1230x800
Highest point
Elevation924 m (3,031 ft) [1]
Prominence924 m (3,031 ft) [1]
Coordinates38°47′38″N 15°12′40″E / 38.79389°N 15.21111°ECoordinates: 38°47′38″N 15°12′40″E / 38.79389°N 15.21111°E
Geography
Mt. Stromboli is located in Italy
Mt. Stromboli
Mt. Stromboli
Aeolian Islands, north of Sicily (Italy)
Geology
Age of rockUnknown
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Last eruption1934 to present [2]
Climbing
Easiest routeHike

Volcano

Stromboli animiert 800x600
Eruption of Stromboli (animated)

Mount Stromboli has been in almost continuous eruption for the past 2,000 years.[5] A pattern of eruption is maintained in which explosions occur at the summit craters, with mild to moderate eruptions of incandescent volcanic bombs, at intervals ranging from minutes to hours. This Strombolian eruption, as it is known, is also observed at other volcanoes worldwide. Eruptions from the summit craters typically result in a few short, mild, but energetic bursts, ranging up to a few hundred meters in height, containing ash, incandescent lava fragments and stone blocks. Stromboli's activity is almost exclusively explosive, but lava flows do occur at times when volcanic activity is high: an effusive eruption occurred in 2002, the first in 17 years, and again in 2003, 2007, and 2013–14. Volcanic gas emissions from this volcano are measured by a multi-component gas analyzer system, which detects pre-eruptive degassing of rising magma, improving prediction of volcanic activity.[7]

Settlements

Strombolielicottero
From a helicopter

The two villages San Bartolo and San Vincenzo lie in the northeast while the smaller village Ginostra lies in the southwest.[8] Administratively, they are one of the frazione of Lipari, Messina.

In the early 1900s a few thousand people inhabited the island,[9] but after several emigrations the population numbered a few hundred by the mid-1950s.[10]

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Stromboli, Italy". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2013-07-20.
  2. ^ a b "Stromboli". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2009-01-01.
  3. ^ See:
    • Strabo; Hamilton, H.C., tr.; Falconer, W., tr. (1892). The Geography of Strabo. vol. 1. London, England: George Bell & Sons. p. 419. See footnote 4 of Book VI, Chapter II, §11.
    • Bunbury, Edward Herbert (1856). "Aeoliae Insulae". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. vol. 1. London, England: Walton and Maberly. pp. 51–52.
  4. ^ "Isola di Stromboli (in Italian)". Comune di Lipari. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  5. ^ a b Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. pp. 360–361. ISBN 0-89577-087-3.
  6. ^ Tibaldi, A., Corazzato, C., Marani, M., Gamberi, F. (2009). Subaerial-submarine evidence of structures feeding magma to Stromboli Volcano, Italy, and relations with edifice flank failure and creep. Tectonophysics, 469(1), 112–136.
  7. ^ Aiuppa, Alessandro; Federico, Cinzia; Giudice, Geatano; Papale, Paolo (2008-10-11). "The 2007 eruption of Stromboli volcano: Insights from real-time measurement of the volcanic gas plume CO2/SO2 ratio". Elsevier. Retrieved 2016-09-27.
  8. ^ Alean, Jürg; Roberto Carniel; Marco Fulle (2005-05-21). "Stromboli 1952–1953 – The village and the land". Stromboli online. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  9. ^ Loschiavo, LindaAnn. "Return of the Native to Stromboli". Retrieved 31 August 2010. high point of 2,100 citizens in 1891
  10. ^ Alean, Jürg; Roberto Carniel; Marco Fulle (2005-05-21). "Stromboli 1952–1953 – Stromboli in 1952 and 53". Stromboli online. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  11. ^ Kilby, Clyde S; Plotz, Dick (1968). "TSA Meeting". Niekas. Niekas Publications, New Hampshire, United States (19): 39–40. Referred to at tolkienguide.com and by another publication of the Niekas editor.

External links

Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands () (Italian: Isole Eolie, pronounced [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje], Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli, Greek: Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually.

The largest island is Lipari and the islands are sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo.

Battle of Stromboli

The naval Battle of Stromboli took place on 8 January 1676 during the Franco-Dutch War between a French fleet of 20 ships under Abraham Duquesne and a combined fleet of 19 Dutch and one Spanish ship under Lieutenant-Admiral-General Michiel de Ruyter that lasted eight hours and ended inconclusively. The fleets fought again at the Battle of Augusta.

Geppetto (film)

Geppetto is a 2000 made-for-television musical remake of the popular Italian children's book The Adventures of Pinocchio and the original 1940 Disney film, starring Drew Carey and Julia Louis-Dreyfus debuting on The Wonderful World of Disney. It featured original songs written by Stephen Schwartz. Schwartz had developed the songs as a reunion for Mary Poppins stars Julie Andrews and Dick Van Dyke, but Andrews was undergoing throat surgery so the idea was dropped.

Carey's role in the film became a recurring butt of jokes on his series Whose Line is it Anyway?.

Ingrid Bergman

Ingrid Bergman (29 August 1915 – 29 August 1982) was a Swedish actress who starred in a variety of European and American films. She won many accolades, including three Academy Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a Tony Award, four Golden Globe Awards, and a BAFTA Award. She is best remembered for her roles as Ilsa Lund in Casablanca (1942), and Alicia Huberman in Notorious (1946).

Bergman was born in Stockholm to a Swedish father and a German mother, and started her career as an actress in Swedish and German films in the 1930s. Her introduction to American audiences came with her starring role in the English-language remake of Intermezzo (1939). At her insistence, producer David O. Selznick agreed not to sign her to a contract—for four films, rather than the then-standard seven-year period, also at her insistence—until after Intermezzo had been released. Selznick's financial problems meant that Bergman was often loaned to other studios. Apart from Casablanca, her performances from this period include Victor Fleming's remake of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (1941), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), Gaslight (1944), and The Bells of St. Mary's (1945). Her last films for Selznick were Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945) and Notorious (1946). Her final film for Hitchcock was Under Capricorn (1949).

After a decade in American films, she starred in Roberto Rossellini's Stromboli (1950), following the revelation that she was having an extramarital affair with the director. The affair and then marriage to Rossellini created a scandal in the U.S. that forced her to remain in Europe for several years, after which she made a successful return to working for a Hollywood studio in Anastasia (1956), for which she won her second Academy Award. Although she starred in a bunch of Hollywood films in subsequent years, they were all shot in Europe, and she did not film in Hollywood again until 1969.

According to the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, Bergman quickly became "the ideal of American womanhood" and a contender for Hollywood's greatest leading actress. In the United States, she is considered to have brought a "Nordic freshness and vitality" to the screen, along with exceptional beauty and intelligence; David O. Selznick once called her "the most completely conscientious actress" he had ever worked with. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Bergman as the fourth-greatest female screen legend of Classic Hollywood Cinema.

Italian cruiser Stromboli

Stromboli was a protected cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) built in the 1880s. She was the second member of the Etna class, which included three sister ships. She was named for the volcanic island of Stromboli, and was armed with a main battery of two 10-inch (254 mm) and six 6-inch (152 mm) guns, and could steam at a speed of 17 knots (31 km/h; 20 mph). Her career was relatively uneventful; the only significant action in which she took part was the campaign against the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. She returned to Italy in 1901 and spent the rest of her career in reserve or as an ammunition ship, apart from a brief stint in active service in 1904. Stromboli was stricken from the naval register in 1907 and sold for scrapping in 1911.

Mangiafuoco

Mangiafuoco ( MAHN-jə-FWOH-koh; Italian: [ˌmandʒaˈfwɔːko], literally "Fire-Eater") is the fictional director and puppet master of the Great Marionette Theatre (Gran Teatro dei Burattini), who appears in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio (Le avventure di Pinocchio). He is described as "... a large man so ugly, he evoked fear by simply being looked at. He had a beard as black as a smudge of ink and so long that it fell from his chin down to the ground: enough so that when he walked, he stepped on it. His mouth was as wide as an oven, his eyes were like two red tinted lanterns with the light turned on at the back, and with his hands, he sported a large whip made of snakes and fox tails knotted together." Though imposing, Mangiafuoco is portrayed as easily moved to compassion, which he expresses by sneezing.

Nervures Stromboli

The Nervures Stromboli is a French two-place paraglider that was designed by Xavier Demoury and produced by Nervures of Soulom. It is now out of production.

Stromboli-class replenishment oiler

The Stromboli class is a series of two replenishment oilers used by the Marina Militare since 1975. They are to be replaced by the Vulcano class beginning in 2019.The ships are capable of loading:

4.000 t (3.937 long tons) of NATO F76 diesel fuel

400 t (390 long tons) of NATO F44/JP5 aviation fuel

300 t (300 long tons) of solid goods

Stromboli (film)

Stromboli, also known as Stromboli, Land of God (Italian: Stromboli, terra di Dio), is a 1950 Italian-American film directed by Roberto Rossellini and featuring Ingrid Bergman. The drama is considered a classic example of Italian neorealism.

Stromboli (food)

Stromboli is a type of turnover filled with various Italian cheeses (typically mozzarella) and cold cuts (typically Italian meats such as salami, capocollo and bresaola) or vegetables. The dough used is either Italian bread dough or pizza dough.

Stromboli was likely invented by Italian-Americans or Italian immigrants in the United States in Philadelphia, though it may have similar counterparts originating in Italy. It is believed to be named after the Italian film Stromboli or the island of Stromboli.

A stromboli is somewhat similar to a calzone. A calzone is a baked turnover stuffed with pizza ingredients. A stromboli is usually made by rolling up dough with cheese and meat ingredients and is then baked, but it does not generally contain pizza ingredients aside from cheese and Italian meats. Generally, strombolis do not usually contain tomato sauce, unlike calzones. A calzone is crescent-shaped, and a stromboli is usually shaped like a long cylinder. The distinction between the two is complicated because there is some variation in what constitutes a stromboli.

Strombolian eruption

Strombolian eruptions are relatively mild blasts with a volcanic explosivity index of about 1 to 3. They are named for the Italian volcano Stromboli. Strombolian eruptions consist of ejection of incandescent cinder, lapilli, and lava bombs, to altitudes of tens to a few hundreds of metres. The eruptions are small to medium in volume, with sporadic violence.

The Italian vulcanologist Giuseppe Mercalli studied eruptions at Stromboli and Vulcano in 1888–1890, and observed that the characteristic features of eruptions were different between the two. To distinguish between them, Mercalli defined Strombolian eruptions as "Mildly explosive at discrete but fairly regular intervals of seconds to minutes".The tephra typically glows red when leaving the vent, but its surface cools and assumes a dark to black colour and may significantly solidify before impact. The tephra accumulates in the vicinity of the vent, forming a cinder cone. Cinder is the most common product; the amount of volcanic ash is typically rather minor.

The lava flows are more viscous, and therefore shorter and thicker, than the corresponding Hawaiian eruptions; it may or may not be accompanied by production of pyroclastic rock.

Instead the gas coalesces into bubbles, called gas slugs, that grow large enough to rise through the magma column, bursting near the top due to the decrease in pressure and throwing magma into the air. Each episode thus releases volcanic gases, sometimes as frequently as a few minutes apart. Gas slugs can form as deep as 3 kilometers, making them difficult to predict.Strombolian eruptive activity can be very long-lasting because the conduit system is not strongly affected by the eruptive activity, so that the eruptive system can repeatedly reset itself.

Monogenetic cones usually erupt in the Strombolian style. For example, the Parícutin volcano erupted continuously between 1943–1952, Mount Erebus, Antarctica has produced Strombolian eruptions for at least many decades, and Stromboli itself has been producing Strombolian eruptions for over two thousand years. The Romans referred to Stromboli as the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".

Tinicum Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania

Tinicum Township, more popularly known as "Tinicum Island" or "The Island", is a township in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 4,091 at the 2010 census, down from 4,353 at the 2000 census. Included within the township's boundaries are the communities of Essington and Lester. One of the island's notable aspects is the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, attracting visitors to the island year-round. The international terminal, the western end of the airfield, and runways 9L/27R and 9R/27L of Philadelphia International Airport are located in Tinicum Township.

USS Stromboli (1846)

USS Stromboli was a bomb brig of the United States Navy used in the Mexican–American War.

In 1846, the United States Navy purchased the brig Howard at Boston, Massachusetts to strengthen its forces for the Mexican–American War. Commissioned on 18 March 1847 Stromboli, named for the island of Stromboli in the Tyrrhenian Sea, the ship sailed for the Gulf of Mexico under the command of Commander William S. Walker.

Stromboli performed blockade duty in the Bay of Campeche, especially off the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos River. In mid-June, she sailed to the mouth of the Tabasco River. On 14 June, she and Bonito were towed across the bar into the river as Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry's squadron occupied Frontera. The force then moved upstream and took Tabasco the following day.

Stromboli later returned to blockade duty off the mouth of the Coatzacoalcos. That summer, the ship's crew was stricken by yellow fever, but she continued to help guard the U.S. Army water communications through the winter and spring.

In July 1848, Stromboli sailed home, and she was decommissioned on 6 September 1848. She was sold later that year.

USS Wassuc (1865)

USS Wassuc — a single-turreted, twin-screw monitor — was built by the George W. Lawrence & Co., Portland, ME, and launched 25 July 1865, and completed 28 October 1865.

Wassuc was a Casco-class, light-draft monitor intended for service in the shallow bays, rivers, and inlets of the Confederacy. These warships sacrificed armor plate for a shallow draft and were fitted with a ballast compartment designed to lower them in the water during battle.

Via Napoli Pizzeria e Ristorante

Via Napoli Pizzeria e Ristorante is one of two restaurants in the Italy Pavilion at Epcot's World Showcase at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. Via Napoli is one of two Epcot eateries operated by the Patina Restaurant Group, the other being Tutto Italia Ristorante. The menu is curated by chef Joachim Splichal. The restaurant was inspired by the dining/architecture trademarks of Naples and Florence, with the house speciality being Neapolitan pizza. The restaurant trio of brick ovens are named Vesuvius, Etna, and Stromboli.

Volcano (1950 film)

Volcano (Italian title Vulcano) is a 1950 Italian drama film directed by William Dieterle and starring Anna Magnani, Rossano Brazzi, and Geraldine Brooks. "Vulcano" was filmed on location on Salina Island, in the Aeolian Islands, and in the city of Messina on Sicily.

Vulcano has been seen by some as a vehicle of revenge by Anna Magnani against her estranged lover at the time, the Italian film director Roberto Rossellini who had chosen Ingrid Bergman to star in his film series about marriage - instead of her. Rossellini made his film Stromboli

on the nearby volcanic island of Stromboli at the same time as Volcano was being made on Salina.

Both films were shot in similar locales in the Aeolian Islands only 40 kilometres apart; both actresses played independent-minded roles in a neorealist fashion; and both films were shot simultaneously. Life magazine wrote, "... in an atmosphere crackling with rivalry... Reporters were accredited, like war correspondents, to one or the other of the embattled camps.... Partisanship infected the Via Veneto (boulevard in Rome), where Magnaniacs and Bergmaniacs clashed frequently." However, Magnani still considered Rossellini the "greatest director she ever acted for".

Volcanology of Italy

Italy is a volcanically active country, containing the only active volcanoes in mainland Europe. The country's volcanism is due chiefly to the presence, a short distance to the south, of the boundary between the Eurasian Plate and the African Plate. The magma erupted by Italy's volcanoes is thought to result from the subduction and melting of one plate below another.

Three main clusters of volcanism exist: a line of volcanic centres running northwest along the central part of the Italian mainland (see: Campanian volcanic arc); a cluster in the northeast of Sicily; and another cluster around the Mediterranean island of Pantelleria.

Vulcanian eruption

A Vulcanian eruption is a type of volcanic eruption characterized by a dense cloud of ash-laden gas exploding from the crater and rising high above the peak. They usually commence with phreatomagmatic eruptions which can be extremely noisy due the rising magma heating water in the ground. This is usually followed by the explosive clearing of the vent and the eruption column is dirty grey to black as old weathered rocks are blasted out of the vent. As the vent clears, further ash clouds become grey-white and creamy in colour, with convolutions of the ash similar to those of Plinian eruptions.

The term Vulcanian was first used by Giuseppe Mercalli, witnessing the 1888–1890 eruptions on the island of Vulcano. His description of the eruption style is now used all over the world. Mercalli described Vulcanian eruptions as "...Explosions like cannon fire at irregular intervals..." Their explosive nature is due to increased silica content of the magma. Almost all types of magma can be involved, but magma with about 55% or more silica (e.g. basaltic andesite) is most common. Increasing silica levels increase the viscosity of the magma which means increased explosiveness.

Main islands
Islets and skerries

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