Striped hyena

The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It is listed by the IUCN as near-threatened, as the global population is estimated to be under 10,000 mature individuals which continues to experience deliberate and incidental persecution along with a decrease in its prey base such that it may come close to meeting a continuing decline of 10% over the next three generations.[1]

It is the smallest of the true hyenas and retains many primitive viverrid characteristics lost in larger species,[4] having a smaller and less specialised skull.[5][6] Though primarily a scavenger, large specimens have been known to kill their own prey,[7] and attacks on humans have occurred on rare instances.[8] The striped hyena is a monogamous animal, with both males and females assisting one another in raising their cubs.[9] A nocturnal animal, the striped hyena typically only emerges in complete darkness, and is quick to return to its lair before sunrise.[10] Although it has a habit of feigning death when attacked, it has been known to stand its ground against larger predators in disputes over food.[11]

The striped hyena features prominently in Middle Eastern and Asian folklore. In some areas, its body parts are considered magical, and are used as charms or talismans.[12] It is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, where it is referred to as tzebua or zevoa, though the species is absent in some Bible translations into English.[13] Ancient Greeks knew it as γλάνος (glanos) and ύαινα (iena-hyena) and were familiar with it from the Aegean coast of Asia Minor.[14]

Striped hyenas
Temporal range: 0.7–0 Ma
Middle Pleistocene – Recent
Iena Striata
Striped hyena at a zoo in Nepal
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Hyaenidae
Genus: Hyaena
Species:
H. hyaena
Binomial name
Hyaena hyaena
Striped Hyaena area
Striped hyena range
Synonyms[3]
Canis hyaena Linnaeus, 1758
(numerous others)

Evolution

The species may have evolved from H. namaquensis of Pliocene Africa. Striped hyena fossils are common in Africa, with records going back as far as the Middle Pleistocene and even to the Villafranchian. As fossil striped hyenas are absent from the Mediterranean region, it is likely that the species is a relatively late invader to Eurasia, having likely spread outside Africa only after the extinction of spotted hyenas in Asia at the end of the last glacial period. The striped hyena occurred for some time in Europe during the Pleistocene, having been particularly widespread in France and Germany. It also occurred in Montmaurin, Hollabrunn in Austria, the Furninha Cave in Portugal and the Genista Caves in Gibraltar. The European form was similar in appearance to modern populations, but was larger, being comparable in size to the brown hyena.[4]

Description

Build

MSU V2P2 - Hyaena hyaena skull
Skull, as drawn by V. N. Lyakhov.
Animaldentition hyaenahyaena
Dentition, as illustrated in Knight's Sketches in Natural History
Die vergleichende Osteologie (1821) Hyaena hyaena
Skeleton.

The striped hyena has a fairly massive, but short torso set on long legs. The hind legs are significantly shorter than the forelimbs, thus causing the back to slope downwards. The legs are relatively thin and weak, with the forelegs being bent at the carpal region. The neck is thick, long and largely immobile, while the head is heavy and massive with a shortened facial region. The eyes are small, while the sharply pointed ears are very large, broad and set high on the head. Like all hyenas, the striped hyena has bulky pads on its paws, as well as blunt but powerful claws. The tail is short and the terminal hairs do not descend below the achilles tendon.[15] The striped hyena lacks the enlarged clitoris and false scrotal sack noted in the female genitalia of the spotted hyena.[16] The female has 3 pairs of nipples.[17] Adult weight can range from 22 to 55 kg (49 to 121 lb), averaging at about 35 kg (77 lb). Body length can range from 85 to 130 cm (33 to 51 in), not counting a tail of 25 to 40 cm (9.8 to 15.7 in), and shoulder height is between 60–80 cm (24–31 in).[18][19][20][21] The male has a large pouch of naked skin located at the anal opening. Large anal glands open into it from above the anus. Several sebaceous glands are present between the openings of the anal glands and above them.[22] The anus can be everted up to a length of 5 cm, and is everted during social interaction and mating. When attacked, the striped hyena everts its rectum and sprays a pungent smelling liquid from its anal glands.[23] Its eyesight is acute, though its senses of smell and hearing are weak.[24]

The skull is entirely typical of the genus, having a very high sagittal crest, a shortened facial region and an inflated frontal bone.[25] The skull of the striped hyena differs from that of the brown[6] and spotted hyena by its smaller size and slightly less massive build. It is nonetheless still powerfully structured and well adapted to anchoring exceptionally strong jaw muscles[5] which give it enough bite-force to splinter a camel's thigh bone.[24] Although the dentition is overall smaller than that of the spotted hyena, the upper molar of the striped hyena is far larger.[5] The dental formula is 3.1.4.0–13.1.3.010.

Fur

The winter coat is unusually long and uniform for an animal its size, with a luxuriant mane of tough, long hairs along the back from the occiput to the base of the tail. The coat is generally coarse and bristly, though this varies according to season. In winter, the coat is fairly dense, soft, and has well-developed underfur. The guard hairs are 50–75 mm long on the flanks, 150–225 mm long on the mane and 150 mm on the tail. In summer, the coat is much shorter and coarser, and lacks underfur, though the mane remains large.[15]

In winter, the coat is usually of a dirty-brownish grey or dirty grey colour. The hairs of the mane are light grey or white at the base, and black or dark brown at the tips. The muzzle is dark, greyish brown, brownish-grey or black, while the top of the head and cheeks are more lightly coloured. The ears are almost black. A large black spot is present on the front of the neck, and is separated from the chin by a light zone. A dark field ascends from the flanks ascending to the rear of the cheeks. The inner and outer surface of the forelegs are covered with small dark spots and transverse stripes. The flanks have four indistinct dark vertical stripes and rows of diffused spots. The outer surface of the thighs has 3–4 distinct vertical or oblique dark bands which merge into transverse stripes in the lower portion of the legs. The tip of the tail is black with white underfur.[15]

Geographic variation

It was proposed that there are five subspecies of the striped hyenas in Africa and Asia:

As of 2005,[3] no subspecies are recognised. The striped hyena is nonetheless a geographically varied animal. Hyenas in the Arabian peninsula have an accentuated blackish dorsal mane, with mid-dorsal hairs reaching 20 cm in length. The base colour of Arabian hyenas is grey to whitish grey, with dusky grey muzzles and buff yellow below the eyes. Hyenas in Israel have a dorsal crest which is mixed grey and black in colour, rather than being predominantly black.[18] The largest striped hyenas come from the Middle East, Asia Minor, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, while those of East Africa and the Arabian peninsula are smaller.[7][27]

Behaviour

Striped hyenas fighting
A pair of striped hyenas fighting at the Colchester Zoo

Social and territorial behaviours

The striped hyena is a primarily nocturnal animal, which typically only leaves its den at the onset of total darkness, returning before sunrise.[10] Striped hyenas typically live alone or in pairs, though groups of up to seven animals are known in Libya. They are generally not territorial animals, with home ranges of different groups often overlapping each other. Home ranges in the Serengheti have been recorded to be 44 km2 (17 sq mi)-72 km2 (28 sq mi), while one in the Negev was calculated at 61 km2 (24 sq mi). When marking their territory, striped hyenas use the paste of their anal pouch (hyena butter) to scent mark grass, stalks, stones, tree trunks and other objects. In aggressive encounters, the black patch near the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is erected. When fighting, striped hyenas will bite at the throat and legs, but avoid the mane, which serves as a signalling device. When greeting each other, they lick the mid-back region, sniff each other's noses, extrude their anal pouch or paw each other's throats.[28] The species is not as vocal as the spotted hyena, its vocalisations being limited to a chattering laugh and howling.[24]

Winifred austen hyena
Illustration from Frank Finn's Wild Beasts of the World (1909)

Reproduction and development

The striped hyena is monogamous, with the male establishing the den with the female, helping her raise and feed when cubs are born. The mating season varies according to location; in Transcaucasia, hyenas breed in January–February, while those in southeast Turkmenia breed in October–November. In captivity, breeding is non-seasonal. Mating can occur at any time of the day, during which the male grips the skin of the female's neck.[9]

The gestation period lasts 90–91 days. Striped hyena cubs are born with adult markings, closed eyes and small ears. This is in marked contrast to newborn spotted hyena cubs which are born almost fully developed, though with black, unmarked coats.[29] Their eyes open after 7–8 days, and the cubs leave their dens after one month. Cubs are weaned at the age of 2 months, and are then fed by both parents. By autumn, the cubs are half the size of their parents. In the wild, striped hyenas can live for 12 years, while in captivity they have been known to reach 23.[9]

Burrowing behaviours

The striped hyena may dig its own dens, but it also establishes its lairs in caves, rock fissures, erosion channels and burrows formerly occupied by porcupines, wolves, warthogs and aardvarks. Hyena dens can be identified by the presence of bones at their entrances. The striped hyena hides in caves, niches, pits, dense thickets, reeds and plume grass during the day to shelter from predators, heat or winter cold. The size and elaboration of striped hyena dens varies according to location ; dens in the Karakum have entrances 0.67–0.72 m wide and are extended over a distance of 4.15–5 m, with no lateral extensions or special chambers. In contrast, hyena dens in Israel are much more elaborate and large, exceeding 27 m in length.[28][30]

Diet

Stripedhyenacrows
Stuffed striped hyena defending a sheep carcass from hooded crows, as shown in The Museum of Zoology, St. Petersburg

The striped hyena is primarily a scavenger which feeds mainly on ungulate carcasses in different stages of decomposition, fresh bones, cartilages, ligaments and bone marrow. It crushes long bones into fine particles and swallows them, though sometimes entire bones are eaten whole.[31] The striped hyena is not a fussy eater, though it has an aversion to vulture flesh.[32] It will occasionally attack and kill any animal it can overcome.[11] It hunts prey by running it down, grabbing its flanks or groin and inflicting mortal wounds by tearing out the viscera.[33] In Turkmenistan, the species is recorded to feed on wild boar, kulan, porcupines and tortoises. A seasonal abundance of oil willow fruits is an important food source in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, while in the Caucasus, it is grasshoppers.[31] In Israel, the striped hyena feeds on garbage, carrion and fruits. In eastern Jordan, its main sources of food are feral horse and water buffalo carcasses and village refuse. It has been suggested that only the large hyenas of the Middle East, Asia minor, central Asia and the Indian subcontinent attack large prey, with no evidence of their smaller Arabian and east African cousins doing so.[7] Because of its scavenging diet, the striped hyena requires more water to survive than most other carnivores.[31] When eating, the striped hyena gorges itself until satisfied, though hyenas with cubs will transport food to their dens.[32] Because of the high content of calcium in its diet, the feces of the striped hyena becomes white very rapidly, and can be visible from long distances.[30]

Relationships with other predators

Rosevear spotted & striped hyena
Illustration of striped hyena (top) and spotted hyena (bottom)

The striped hyena competes with the gray wolf in the Middle East and central Asia. In the latter area, a great portion of the hyena's diet stems from wolf-killed carcasses. The striped hyena is dominant over the wolf on a one-to-one basis, though wolves in packs can displace single hyenas from carcasses.[28] Both species have been known to share dens on occasion.[34] On rare occasions, Striped Hyenas are also known to travel with and live amongst wolf packs, with each doing the other no harm. Both predators may benefit from this unusual alliance, as the hyenas have better senses of smell and greater strength, and the wolves may be better at tracking large prey.[35] Red foxes may compete with striped hyenas on large carcasses. Red foxes may give way to hyenas on unopened carcasses, as the latter's stronger jaws can easily tear open flesh which is too tough for foxes. Foxes may harass hyenas, using their smaller size and greater speed to avoid the hyena's attacks. Sometimes, foxes seem to deliberately torment hyenas even when there is no food at stake. Some foxes may mistime their attacks, and are killed.[36]

The species frequently scavenges from the kills of felids such as tigers, leopards, cheetahs and caracals. A caracal can drive a subadult hyena from a carcass. The hyena usually wins in one-to-one disputes over carcasses with leopards, cheetahs and tiger cubs, but is dominated by adult tigers.[11][28] In addition, the hyena is sympatric with the Asiatic lion in Gir Forest National Park,[37] and the sloth bear in Balaram Ambaji Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Indian State of Gujarat.[38]

Range and population

The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa north of and including the Sahel zone, eastern Africa south into Tanzania, the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East up to the Mediterranean shores, Turkey, Iraq, the Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia), Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan (excluding the higher areas of Hindukush) and the Indian Subcontinent. Today the species' distribution is patchy in most ranges, thus indicating that it occurs in many isolated populations, particularly in most of west Africa, most of the Sahara, parts of the Middle East, the Caucasus and central Asia. It does however have a continuous distribution over large areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. Its modern distribution in Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan is unknown with some sizable large number in India in open areas of Deccan Peninsula.[39] During the recent Afghanistan conflict, periodic sightings were reported in Kandahar Province although not definitive.

Relationships with humans

In folklore, religion, and mythology

Hyaena pugmark
Striped hyena pugmark/track in wet clay. Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Hyenamosaic
A striped hyena, as depicted on the Nile mosaic of Palestrina

Striped hyenas are frequently referenced in Middle Eastern literature and folklore, typically as symbols of treachery and stupidity.[46] In the Near and Middle East, striped hyenas are generally regarded as physical incarnations of jinns.[12] Zakariya al-Qazwini (1204–1283) wrote in Arabic of a tribe of people called "Hyena People". In his book Marvels of Creatures and the Strange Things Existing (عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات), he wrote that should one of this tribe be in a group of 1000 people, a hyena could pick him out and eat him.[46] A Persian medical treatise written in 1376 tells how to cure cannibalistic people known as kaftar who are said to be "half-man, half-hyena".[12] Al-Doumairy in his writings in Hawayan Al-Koubra (1406) wrote that striped hyenas were vampiric creatures that attacked people at night and sucked the blood from their necks. He also wrote that hyenas only attacked brave people. Arab folklore tells of how hyenas can mesmerise victims with their eyes or sometimes with their pheromones.[46] Until the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the bodies of werewolves, if not destroyed, would haunt battlefields as vampiric hyenas which drank the blood of dying soldiers.[47] The image of striped hyenas in Afghanistan, India and Palestine is more varied. Though feared, striped hyenas were also symbolic for love and fertility, leading to numerous varieties of love medicine derived from hyena body parts. Among the Baloch people and in North India, witches or magicians are said to ride striped hyenas at night.[12]

The Arabic word for striped hyenas is alluded in a valley in Israel known as Shaqq al-Diba (meaning "cleft of the hyenas") and Wadi Abu Diba (meaning "valley of the hyenas"). Both places have been interpreted by some scholars as being the Biblical Valley of Zeboim mentioned in 1 Samuel 13:18. The Hebrew word for hyena is tzebua or zevoa, which literally means "howling creature". Though the King James Version of the Bible interprets this word (which appears in the Book of Jeremiah 12:9) as referring to a "speckled bird", Henry Baker Tristram argued that it was most likely a hyena being mentioned.[13]

In Gnosticism, the Archon Astaphaios is depicted with a hyena face.[48]

Striped Hyena - Dahod, Gujarat
Striped Hyena feeding on poultry waste in Dahod district, Gujarat, India

Livestock and crop predation

The striped hyena is sometimes implicated in the killing of livestock, particularly goats, sheep, dogs and poultry. Larger stock is sometimes reportedly taken, though it is possible that these are cases of scavenging mistaken for actual predation. Although most attacks occur at low densities, a substantial number reputedly occur in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, and possibly Morocco. In Turkmenistan, striped hyenas kill dogs, while they also kill sheep and other small animals in the Caucasus, and were event reported to have killed horses and donkeys in Iraq during the mid-twentieth century. Sheep, dogs, horses, and goats are also preyed upon in North Africa, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, and India.[49]

Striped hyenas also cause damage on occasion to melon fields and to date palms in date plantations in Israel and Egypt, and to water and honey melon plantations in Turkmenistan.[49]

Attacks on humans and grave desecration

Striped hyena shot
Engraving of a striped hyena attacking a man in The Naturalist's Cabinet (1806)

In ordinary circumstances, striped hyenas are extremely timid around humans, though they may show bold behaviours toward people at night.[10] On rare occasions, striped hyenas have preyed on humans. In the 1880s, a hyena was reported to have attacked humans, especially sleeping children, over a three-year period in the Erivan Governorate, with 25 children and 3 adults being wounded in one year. The attacks provoked local authorities into announcing a reward of 100 rubles for every hyena killed. Further attacks were reported later in some parts of Transcaucasia, particularly in 1908. Instances are known in Azerbaijan of striped hyenas killing children sleeping in courtyards during the 1930s and 1940s. In 1942, a guard sleeping in his hut was mauled by a hyena in Golyndzhakh. Cases of children being taken by hyenas by night are known in southeast Turkmenia's Bathyz Nature Reserve. A further attack on a child was reported around Serakhs in 1948.[8] Several attacks have occurred in India; in 1962, nine children were thought to have been taken by hyenas in the town of Bhagalpur in the Bihar State in a six-week period[13] and 19 children up to the age of four were killed by hyenas in Karnataka, Bihar in 1974.[50] A census on wild animal attacks during a five-year period in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh showed that hyenas had only attacked three people, the lowest figure when compared to deaths caused by wolves, gaur, boar, elephants, tigers, leopards and sloth bears.[51]

Though attacks on live humans are rare, striped hyenas will scavenge on human corpses. In Turkey, stones are placed on graves to stop hyenas digging the bodies out. In World War I, the Turks imposed conscription (safar barlek) on mount Lebanon; people escaping from the conscription fled north, where many died and were subsequently eaten by hyenas.[46]

Hunting

OudryHyena
Hyena (1739) by Jean-Baptiste Oudry
Speared hyena
A striped hyena being speared in British India, as illustrated in the Illustrated London News

Striped hyenas were hunted by Ancient Egyptian peasants for duty and amusement along with other animals that were a threat to crops and livestock.[52] Algerian hunters historically considered the killing of striped hyenas as beneath their dignity, due to the animal's reputation for cowardice.[53] A similar attitude was held by British sportsmen in British India.[11] Although striped hyenas are capable of quickly killing a dog with a single bite,[34] they usually feign death when escape from hunting dogs is impossible, and will remain in this state for long periods, even when badly bitten.[24] On some rare occasions, hyenas were ridden down and speared by men on horseback. Although hyenas were generally not fast enough to outrun horses, they had the habit of doubling and turning frequently during chases, thus ensuring long pursuits. Generally though, hyenas were hunted more as pests than sporting quarries; their scavenging damages skulls, skins and other articles from hunter's camps, which made them unpopular among sportsmen.[54] In the Soviet Union, hyena hunting was not specially organised. Most hyenas were caught incidentally in traps meant for other animals.[55] Some hunters in southern Punjab, Kandahar and Quetta, catch striped hyenas to use them in hyena-baiting. The hyenas are pitted against specially trained dogs, and are restrained with ropes in order to pull them away from the dogs if necessary.[12] In Kandahar, hunters locally called payloch (naked foot) hunt striped hyenas by entering their dens naked with a noose in hand. When the hyena is cornered at the end of its lair, the hunter murmurs the magic formula "turn into dust, turn into stone," which causes the animal to enter a hypnotic state of total submission, by which point the hunter can slip a noose over its forelegs and, finally, drag it out of the cave.[12] A similar method was once practised by Mesopotamian Arab hunters, who would enter hyena dens and "flatter" the animal, which they believed could understand Arabic. The hunter would murmur "You are very nice and pretty and quite like a lion; indeed, you are a lion". The hyena would then allow the hunter to place a noose around its neck and pose no resistance on being dragged out of its lair.[53]

The fur is coarse and sparse, with the few skins sold by hunters often being marketed as poor quality dog or wolf fur. Hyena skins were however once used in preparing chamois leather. The selling price of hyena pelts in the Soviet Union ranged from 45 kopeks to 1 ruble, 80 kopeks.[55]

Striped hyenas as food

A mural depicted on Mereruka's tomb in Sakkara indicates that Old Kingdom Egyptians forcefed hyenas in order to fatten them up for food, though certain scholars have argued that the depicted animals were really aardwolves. Striped hyenas are still eaten by Egyptian peasants, Arabian Bedouins, Palestinian laborers, Sinai Bedouins, Tuaregs,[52] and in Somalia.[56] Among the Bedouins of Arabia, hyena meat is generally considered medicine, rather than food.[12]

Striped hyenas in folk magic

The Ancient Greeks and Romans believed the blood, excrement, rectum, genitalia, eyes, tongue, hair, skin, and fat, as well as the ash of different parts of the striped hyena's body, were effective means to ward off evil and to ensure love and fertility. The Greeks and Romans believed that the genitalia of a hyena "would hold a couple peaceably together" and that a hyena anus worn as an amulet on the upper arm would make its male possessor irresistible to women. In West and South Asia, hyena body parts apparently play an important role in love magic and in the making of amulets. In Iranian folklore, it is mentioned that a stone found in the hyenas body can serve as a charm of protection for whoever wears it on his upper arm. In the Pakistani province of Sindh, the local Muslims place the tooth of a striped hyena over churns in order not to lose the milk's baraka. In Iran, a dried striped hyena pelt is considered a potent charm which forces all to succumb to the possessors attraction. In Afghanistan and Pakistan striped hyena hair is used either in love magic or as a charm in sickness. Hyena blood has been held in high regard in northern India as potent medicine, and the eating of the tongue helps fight tumors. In the Khyber area, burned striped hyena fat is applied to a man's genitals or sometimes taken orally to ensure virility, while in India the fat serves as a cure for rheumatism. In Afghanistan, some mullahs wear the vulva (kus) of a female striped hyena wrapped in silk under their armpits for a week. If a man peers through the vulva at the woman of his desire, he will invariably get hold of her. This has led to the proverbial expression in Dari of kus-e kaftar bay, as well as in Pashto of kus-e kaftar which literally mean "it happens as smoothly as if you would look through the vulva of a female striped hyena". In the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan, the Pakhtun keep the vulva in vermilion powder, itself having aphrodesic connotations. The rectum of a freshly killed striped hyena is likewise used by homosexuals and bisexuals to attract young men. This has led to the expression "to possess the anus of a [striped] hyena" which denotes somebody who is attractive and has many lovers. A striped hyena's penis kept in a small box filled with vermilion powder can be used for the same reasons.[12]

Tameability

Striped hyena at Jungle Cat World 1
A tame striped hyena

The striped hyena is easily tamed and can be fully trained, particularly when young. Although the Ancient Egyptians did not consider striped hyenas sacred, they supposedly tamed them for use in hunting. When raised with a firm hand, they may eventually become affectionate and as amenable as well-trained dogs,[52][57] though they emit a strong odour which no amount of bathing will cover.[58] Although they kill dogs in the wild, striped hyenas raised in captivity can form bonds with them.[24]

References

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  43. ^ Ö. Emre Can, Yıldıray Lise Striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) trapped in Hatay, Turkey Archived 2012-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. WWF Turkey
  44. ^ Kasparek, Max; Kasparek, Aygün; Gözcelioğlu, Bülent; Çolak, Ercüment; Yiğit, Nuri (2004). "On the status and distribution of the Striped Hyaena, Hyaena hyaena, in Turkey" (PDF). Zoology in the Middle East. 33: 93. doi:10.1080/09397140.2004.10638068.
  45. ^ Özgün Emre Can (October 2004) Status, Conservation and Management of Large Carnivores in Turkey, WWF-Turkey, p. 11.
  46. ^ a b c d Mounir R. Abi-Said (2006) Reviled as a grave robber: The ecology and conservation of striped hyaenas in the human dominated landscapes of Lebanon Ph.D. thesis, University of Kent (Biodiversity management)
  47. ^ Woodward, Ian (1979). The Werewolf Delusion. p. 256. ISBN 0-448-23170-0.
  48. ^ The Apocryphon of John. Gnosis.org. Retrieved on 2013-03-21.
  49. ^ a b Mills & Hofer 1998, pp. 23–24
  50. ^ Mills & Hofer 1998, p. 25
  51. ^ Linnel, J.D.C.; et al. (January 2002). The Fear of Wolves: A Review of Wolf Attacks on Humans (PDF). Norsk Institutt for Naturforskning. ISBN 82-426-1292-7. Archived from the original on February 11, 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-26.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  52. ^ a b c Osborn & Helmy 1980, p. 431
  53. ^ a b Kingsley, John Sterling (1884) The Standard Natural History, Vol. V: Mammals, Boston: S. E. Cassino and Co.
  54. ^ Lydekker, Richard (1907), The game animals of India, Burma, Malaya, and Tibet, p. 354, London, R. Ward, limited
  55. ^ a b Heptner & Sludskii 1992, p. 45
  56. ^ Islamists authorise hyena meat in Southern Somalia. SomalialandPress (12 August 2012)
  57. ^ Rosevear 1974, pp. 351–352
  58. ^ Smith, A. Mervyn (1904), Sport and adventure in the Indian jungle, p. 292, London : Hurst and Blackett

Bibliography

External links

Aardwolf

The aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a small, insectivorous mammal, native to East and Southern Africa. Its name means "earth-wolf" in Afrikaans and Dutch. It is also called "maanhaar-jackal" (Afrikaans for "mane-jackal") or civet hyena, based on its habit of secreting substances from its anal gland, a characteristic shared with the African civet. The aardwolf is in the same family as the hyena. Unlike many of its relatives in the order Carnivora, the aardwolf does not hunt large animals. It eats insects and their larvae, mainly termites; one aardwolf can lap up as many as 250,000 termites during a single night using its long, sticky tongue.The aardwolf lives in the shrublands of eastern and southern Africa – open lands covered with stunted trees and shrubs. It is nocturnal, resting in burrows during the day and emerging at night to seek food.

Achanakamar

Achanakamar wildlife sanctuary falls in Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve which is one of the eighteen biosphere reserves located in India. Achanakamar falls in the Anuppur and Dindori districts of Madhya Pradesh and Bilaspur district, Chhattisgarh. Established in 1975, this sanctuary is home to leopards, Bengal tigers, gaur, chital, striped hyena, jackals, nilgai, sambhar, chinkara and many others.

Animal print

Animal print is a clothing and fashion style in which the garment is made to resemble the pattern of the skin and fur of an animal such as a leopard, cheetah, jaguar, zebra, tiger, spotted hyena, striped hyena, African wild dog, constrictor snake, giraffe or monkey. Animal print is also used for room decoration, handbags and footwear and even some jewelry. A major difference between animal prints and fur clothing is that animal prints today very often use fake fur instead of animal coat.

Arabian Desert

The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia. It stretches from Yemen to the Persian Gulf and Oman to Jordan and Iraq. It occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula, with an area of 2,330,000 square kilometers (900,000 sq mi). It is the fifth largest desert in the world, and the largest in Asia. At its center is the Rub'al-Khali, one of the largest continuous bodies of sand in the world.

Gazelles, oryx, sand cats, and spiny-tailed lizards are just some of the desert-adapted species that survive in this extreme environment, which features everything from red dunes to deadly quicksand. The climate is mostly dry (the major part receives around 100 mm of rain per year but some very rare places receives down to 50 mm), and temperatures oscillate between very high heat and seasonal night time freezes. It is part of the deserts and xeric shrublands biome and the Palearctic ecozone.

The Arabian desert ecoregion holds little biodiversity, although a few endemic plants grow here. Many species, such as the striped hyena, jackal and honey badger have become extirpated due to hunting, human encroachment and habitat destruction. Other species have been successfully re-introduced, such as the sand gazelle, and are protected at a number of reserves. Overgrazing by livestock, off-road driving, and human destruction of habitat are the main threats to this desert ecoregion.

Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar

Blackbuck National Park at Velavadar is situated in the Bhavnagar District of Gujarat state, India.

Established in 1976 in the Bhal region of Saurashtra, the park is located around 42 km from the district headquarters city of Bhavnagar. Hugging the coasts of the Gulf of Khambhat on the south, it is spread over an area of 34.08 km2, which was primarily a "vidi" (grassland) of the maharaja of the princely state of Bhavnagar for hunting the blackbucks with his famous hunting cheetahs. On the northern side, it is surrounded by wastelands and agriculture fields. The national park has been classified as 4B Gujarat-Rajwada biotic province of semi-arid bio-geographical zone.

Flat land, dry grasses and herds of antelope have always attracted visitors to this park which has a grassland ecosystem. Successful conservation programs for the blackbuck, wolf and lesser florican (a bustard) are ongoing. Considered to be an endemic Indian species, the lesser florican, which once lived throughout the country, has become endangered in recent decades. Today, the largest population is in this park. Local wolf numbers are increasing, as are striped hyena, with sightings quite frequent during daylight in winter 2012-2013.

Carrion

Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.

Geography of Dubai

Dubai is situated on the Persian Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates. Apart from being a city, it also forms one of the seven emirates of the country. It is roughly at sea level (16 m or 52 ft above). The emirate of Dubai shares borders with Abu Dhabi in the south, Sharjah in the northeast, and the Sultanate of Oman in the southeast. Hatta, a minor exclave of the emirate, is surrounded on three sides by Oman and by the emirates of Ajman (in the west) and Ras Al Khaimah (in the north). The Persian Gulf borders the western coast of the emirate. Dubai is positioned at 25.2697°N 55.3095°E / 25.2697; 55.3095 and covers an area of 4,114 km2 (1,588 mi2), which represents a significant expansion beyond its initial 1,500 mi2 designation due to land reclamation from the sea.

Dubai lies directly within the Arabian Desert. However, the topography of Dubai is significantly different from that of the southern portion of the UAE in that much of Dubai's landscape is highlighted by sandy desert patterns, while gravel deserts dominate much of the southern region of the country. The sand consists mostly of crushed shell and coral and is fine, clean and white. East of the city, the salt-crusted coastal plains, known as sabkha, give way to a north-south running line of dunes. Farther east, the dunes grow larger and are tinged red with iron oxide.

The flat sandy desert gives way to the Western Hajar Mountains, which run alongside Dubai's border with Oman at Hatta. The Western Hajar chain has an arid, jagged and shattered landscape, whose mountains rise to about 1,300 meters in some places. Dubai has no natural river bodies or oases; however, Dubai does have a natural inlet, Dubai Creek, which has been dredged to make it deep enough for large vessels to pass through. Dubai also has multiple gorges and waterholes which dot the base of the Western Al Hajar mountains. A vast sea of sand dunes covers much of southern Dubai, and eventually leads into the desert known as The Empty Quarter. Seismically, Dubai is in a very stable zone—the nearest seismic fault line, the Zagros Fault, is 200 km (124.27 mi) from the UAE and is unlikely to have any seismic impact on Dubai. Experts also predict that the possibility of a tsunami in the region is minimal because the Persian Gulf waters are not deep enough to trigger a tsunami.

The sandy desert surrounding the city supports wild grasses and occasional date palms. Desert hyacinths grow in the sabkha plains east of the city, while acacia and ghaf trees grow in the flat plains within the proximity of the Western Al Hajar mountains. Several indigenous trees such as the Date palm and neem as well as imported trees like the eucalypts grow in Dubai's natural parks. The houbara bustard, striped hyena, caracal, desert fox, falcon and Arabian oryx are common in Dubai's desert. Dubai is on the migration path between Europe, Asia and Africa, and more than 320 migratory bird species pass through the emirate in spring and autumn. The waters of Dubai are home to more than 300 species of fish, including the hammour. The typical marine life off the Dubai coast includes tropical fish, jellyfish, coral, dugong, dolphins, whales and sharks. Various types of turtles can also be found in the area including the hawksbill turtle and green turtle which are listed as endangered species.Dubai Creek runs northeast-southwest through the city. The eastern section of the city forms the locality of Deira and is flanked by the emirate of Sharjah in the east and the town of Al Aweer in the south. The Dubai International Airport is located south of Deira, while the Palm Deira is located north of Deira in the Persian Gulf. Much of Dubai's real-estate boom is concentrated to the west of the Dubai Creek, on the Jumeirah coastal belt. Port Rashid, Jebel Ali, Burj Al Arab, the Palm Jumeirah and theme-based free-zone clusters such as Business Bay are all located in this section.

Gugamal National Park

Gugamal National Park has an area of 1673.93 square kilometers. Built in 22 february 1974, this park is located in Chikhaldara and Dharni Tehsils of Amravati District, Maharashtra, India. It is part of Melghat Tiger Reserve.

Flora3

The forest in rugged and hilly area of Melghat is typical southern dry deciduous forest. This consist mainly of Tectona grandis, Ain, Tiwas, Aola, Lendia, Dhawada, Kusum are the important tree species. Bamboo is widely spread in the forests. Some orchids and strobilanthes in the upper hills. The area is rich in medicinal plants.

Fauna

The area is rich in wild mammals including Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, sloth bear, Ussuri dhole, Indian jackal, striped hyena, chausinga, sambar (largest Deer on earth) gaur, barking deer, ratel, flying squirrel, cheetal (type of deer), nilgai, wild boar, langur, rhesus monkey, and macaque. Also found here are 25 types of fishes and many varieties of butterflies.

Crocodiles were re-introduced in a systematic manner in March 1990 and February 1991 in Siddu Kund in Gadga river near Dhakna and Hathikund in the Dolar river in the Gugamal National Park.

Hackles

Hackles are the erectile plumage or hair in the neck area of some birds and mammals.

In birds, the hackle is the group of feathers found along the back and side of the neck. The hackles of some types of chicken, particularly roosters, are long, fine, and often brightly coloured. These hackles may be used in fly fishing as lures.

In mammals, the hackles are the hairs of the neck and back which become erect when the animal is fearful, as part of the fight-or-flight response, or to show dominance over subordinate animals. Raising the hackles causes the animal to appear larger, and acts as a visual warning to other animals. Raised hackles are used by grey wolves as a dominance behavior, by moose preparing to attack, and by cats and striped hyena which are fearful or threatened. The process by which the hair is raised is called piloerection. The contraction of the arrector pili muscle associated with each hair follicle causes the hair to become erect.

Hyaena

Hyaena is a genus comprising two of the living species of hyenas: the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) from western Asia and northern Africa and the brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea) from southern Africa. The brown hyena has sometimes been placed in a separate genus Parahyaena, or even included in the otherwise fossil genus Pachycrocuta, but recent sources have tended to place it in Hyaena.

The brown hyena's skull is larger than that of the striped hyena. The male brown hyena is slightly larger than the female, while the sexes of the striped hyena are equally sized. Both species are smaller than the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), but larger than the aardwolf (Proteles cristata). They are predominantly scavengers.

Hyena

Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae . With only four extant species (in three genera), it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora, and one of the smallest in the class Mammalia. Despite their low diversity, hyenas are unique and vital components of most African ecosystems.Although phylogenetically they are closer to felines and viverrids, and belong to the feliform category, hyenas are behaviourally and morphologically similar to canines in several elements of convergent evolution; both hyenas and canines are non-arboreal, cursorial hunters that catch prey with their teeth rather than claws. Both eat food quickly and may store it, and their calloused feet with large, blunt, nonretractable claws are adapted for running and making sharp turns. However, the hyenas' grooming, scent marking, defecating habits, mating and parental behaviour are consistent with the behaviour of other feliforms.Spotted hyenas may kill as many as 95% of the animals they eat, while striped hyenas are largely scavengers. Generally, hyenas are known to drive off larger predators, like lions, from their kills, despite having a reputation in popular culture for being cowardly. Hyenas are primarily nocturnal animals, but sometimes venture from their lairs in the early-morning hours. With the exception of the highly social spotted hyena, hyenas are generally not gregarious animals, though they may live in family groups and congregate at kills.Hyenas first arose in Eurasia during the Miocene period from viverrid-like ancestors, and diversified into two distinct types: lightly built dog-like hyenas and robust bone-crushing hyenas. Although the dog-like hyenas thrived 15 million years ago (with one taxon having colonised North America), they became extinct after a change in climate along with the arrival of canids into Eurasia. Of the dog-like hyena lineage, only the insectivorous aardwolf survived, while the bone-crushing hyenas (including the extant spotted, brown and striped hyenas) became the undisputed top scavengers of Eurasia and Africa.Hyenas feature prominently in the folklore and mythology of human cultures that live alongside them. Hyenas are commonly viewed as frightening and worthy of contempt. In some cultures, hyenas are thought to influence people’s spirits, rob graves, and steal livestock and children. Other cultures associate them with witchcraft, using their body parts in traditional African medicine.

Hyena-baiting

Hyena-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of hyenas.

Indus Valley Desert

The Indus Valley Desert is an almost uninhabited desert ecoregion of northern Pakistan.

Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests

The Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests is a mostly arid ecoregion in northwestern India that stretches over 103,100 sq mi (267,000 km2) across Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. The dry deciduous forests in the region are dominated by teak, and thorny trees and scrub in drier areas.

Kheoni Sanctuary

Kheoni Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Kannod Tehsil of Dewas district of Madhya Pradesh. It is spread over an area of 132 square kilometers. It is connected to Ratapani Tiger Reserve through corridors. The dry deciduous forest consists of teak, tendu and bamboo.

It has a presence of tigers, which have apparently migrated from Ratapani and colonized Kheoni. Leopards are present in significant numbers. Other commonly found carnivores are jungle cats, jackals and striped hyena. The dominant herbivore species are nilgai, blackbuck, chinkara and chital (spotted deer). Sambar, wild boar, barking deer, four-horned antelope, and palm civet are also present but rarely sighted.

According to the recent bird survey concluded in April, 2018, in which around 32 participants from Indore, Dewas, Ujjain and Bhopal, Kheoni has around 125 species of birds, including the state bird of Madhya Pradesh Indian paradise flycatcher.. The other birds in abundance are plum-headed parakeet, Eurasian collared dove, laughing dove, chestnut shouldered petronia, common crow and black drongo.

Ranthambore National Park

Ranthambhore National Park (Hindi: रणथंभौर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान) or Ranthambhore is a national park in northern India, covering 392 km². Ranthambhore was established as the Sawai Madhopur Game Sanctuary in 1955 by the Government of India and was declared one of the Project Tiger reserves in 1973. Ranthambhore became a national park in 1980. In 1984, the adjacent forests were declared the Sawai Man Singh Sanctuary and Keladevi Sanctuary, and in 1991 the tiger reserve was enlarged to include the Sawai Man Singh and Keladevi sanctuaries.

Ranthambhore wildlife sanctuary is known for its Bengal tigers, and is a popular place in India to see these animals in their natural jungle habitat. Tigers can be easily spotted even in the daytime. The best times for tiger sightings at Ranthambhore National Park are deemed to be in November and May. The park's deciduous forests are characteristic examples of the type of jungle found in Central India. Other fauna include the Indian leopard, nilgai, wild boar, sambar, striped hyena, sloth bear, southern plains gray langur, rhesus macaque, mugger crocodile and chital. The sanctuary is home to a wide variety of trees, plants, birds and reptiles, as well as one of the largest banyan trees in India.

It is situated in the Sawai Madhopur district of southeastern Rajasthan, about 110 km northeast of Kota and 140 km southeast of Jaipur, which is also the nearest airport. The nearest town and railway station is at Sawai Madhopur, about 11 km away. The park is also close to the Kota railway station. RIDCOR operates a mega-highway between Kota and Ranthambhore. Ranthambhore National Park lies at the edge of a plateau and is bounded to the north by the Banas River and to the south by the Chambal River. It is named after the historic Ranthambhore fortress, which lies within the park.

Vashlovani Strict Nature Reserve

Vashlovani Strict Nature Reserve (Georgian: ვაშლოვანის სახელმწიფო ნაკრძალი) is a protected area in Dedoplistsqaro Municipality, Kakheti region of Georgia on Shiraqi mountain range and Georgian bank of Alazani River.The total protected area is 10,143 hectares, with forest at 4.032 ha, and the rest are fields, desert, ravines.

Protected forest mostly has pine tree and juniper. There are also Celtis, Pyrus salicifolia, pomegranate, Prunus mahaleb, Spiraea, Paliurus and others.

There are many types of birds: Rock partridge, Griffon vulture, Eurasian golden oriole, Mistle thrush.

Mammals are represented by wild boar, rabbits , fox, wolf, Caucasian bear, striped hyena, European badger and others. The purpose of the Nature Reserve is to protect and preserve rare species of rare forest flora and fauna.

Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve

The Yotvata Hai-Bar Nature Reserve is a 3,000-acre (12 km2) breeding and reacclimation center administered by the Israel Nature Reserves & National Parks Authority, situated in the Southern Arabah near Yotvata.

The Yotvata Hai-Bar is the desert counterpart of the Carmel Hai-Bar Nature Reserve which operates in the country's Northern Mediterranean forest.

Endangered and locally extinct animals mentioned in the Bible are bred here for possible reintroduction to the Negev desert. The Asian wild ass has already been reintroduced in the Makhtesh Ramon into the wild. In addition the park has some rare desert animals, which are not native to Israel, like the scimitar oryx and the Red-necked ostrich from northern Africa.

Some of the species bred here are:

Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx)

Scimitar oryx (Oryx dammah)

Red-necked ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus)

Addax (Addax nasomaculatus)

Asian wild ass (hybrids of Equus hemionus kulan and Equus hemionus onager)

Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis)

Caracal (Caracal caracal schmitzi)

Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita harrisoni)

Arabian leopard (Panthera pardus nimr)

South African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus)

Arabian wolf (Canis lupus arabs)

Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas)

Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana)

Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica)

Striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena)

Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a Russian museum devoted to zoology. It is located in Saint Petersburg, on Universitetskaya Embankment. It is one of the ten largest nature history museums in the world.Peter the Great's Kunstkamera collections included zoological specimens. In 1724, the museum became a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A printed catalogue of the contents was published in 1742. It listed the zoology, botany, geology and anthropology specimens and contained an album of etchings of the building and plan of some of its parts.

In 1766, Peter Simon Pallas, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was appointed curator of Zoology. In 1832, the zoological collection was split from the Kunstkamera and, in 1896, moved nearby to its present location in the former southern warehouse of the Saint Petersburg bourse (constructed in 1826-1832). In 1931, the Zoological Institute was established within the Academy of Sciences, which included the museum.

In the front hall of the museum is a monument to Karl Ernst von Baer by the entrance, as well as skeletons of cetaceans, including the enormous 27-metre-long (89 ft) blue whale, and mounted pinnipeds. In the gallery above the front hall, the entomological collection is displayed. The second and third halls form a long passage with systematic collections and dioramas dating back to the early 20th century. The second hall hosts the collection of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and invertebrates, mounted or preserved in formalin, and their skeletons or shells. The collection of mammals, including woolly mammoths, is displayed in the third hall.

Country Population Status Threats/Protection
Afghanistan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are caught, either for hyena-baiting or for medicinal purposes[41]
Algeria 50–100[40] Threatened[41] Although protected by décret no. 83-509, striped hyenas are declining in Algeria due to poaching, forest fires and the disturbing of den sites[41]
Burkina Faso 100-1,000[40] Data deficient[41] Burkina Faso's striped hyena population is low but stable, with hunting only being permitted outside national parks and in retaliation to livestock losses[41]
Cameroon 100-1,000[40] Data deficient[41] Cameroon's striped hyenas are afforded no protection or special attention[41]
Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) 150–200[40] Threatened[41] Declining in all three countries due to hunting for fur and in retaliation to attacks on humans.Other factors include habitat loss, a reduction in large herbivore populations and changes in livestock management[41]
Chad Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Egypt 1,000–2,000[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are offered no protection, and are hunted and poisoned as pests. There is also a reduced availability of animal carcasses for them to feed on[41]
Ethiopia, Djibouti, Eritrea Unknown[40] Lower risk in Ethiopia and data deficient in Eritrea, with no records in Djibouti[41] Ethiopian hyenas are specially protected under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife Conservation Amendment Regulations (1974), though they may be hunted under special permit for EtBirr 40 (equivalent to US$20) for science, education or zoology[41]
India 1,000–3,000[40] Data deficient[41] Although India's hyenas are protected, this is given only within conservation areas, and the population is in decline due to poaching, competition with leopards over shelter and diminishing food stocks[41]
Iran Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas are protected by law[41]
Iraq 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Iraqi hyena populations are decreasing, though wildlife laws regulate their hunting[41]
Israel 100–170[40] Threatened[41] Although hyenas have largely recovered from the strychnine poisoning campaigns of 1918–1948, and are protected by law, the current nature reserves housing them may be too small to ensure viable populations. Road accidents are their most serious threat[41]
Jordan Unknown[40] Threatened[41] Hyenas are actively hunted, as they are considered threats to human life[41]
Kenya 1,000–2,000[40] Lower risk[41] Striped hyenas are likely to decrease in Kenya because of accelerated habitat destruction and poaching[41]
Kuwait 0[40] Probably extinct[41]
Lebanon Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Libya Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Mali Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Mauritiana Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Morocco 50–500[40] Threatened[41] Though protected by law, the hyena population is in drastic decline, with the remaining individuals now having withdrawn to the southern mountains[41]
Nepal 10–50[40] Data deficient[41] Although a small population of hyenas is confirmed, it is not considered a priority for protection by the government[41]
Niger 100–500[40] Threatened[41] Declining due to officially sanctioned hunting and persecution campaigns, as well as habitat loss and overgrazing[41]
Nigeria Unknown[40] Threatened[41]
Oman 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Although not protected, striped hyenas are not officially persecuted, and are considered useful scavengers[41]
Pakistan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Saudi Arabia 100-1,000[40] Threatened[41] Though not officially persecuted, Arabian hyenas are not offered protection, and are severely poached[41]
Senegal 50–100[40] Threatened[41]
Somalia Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Sudan Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Syria Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Tajikistan Unknown[40] Threatened[41]
Tanzania Unknown[40] Data deficient[41] Striped hyenas can be hunted, though they are not usually a target species. Road accidents are the most frequently recorded cause of mortality[41]
Tunisia Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Turkey Small isolated populations[42] Threatened[43][44][45]
Turkmenistan 100–500[40] Threatened[41] Declining from hunting, though listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenia[41]
United Arab Emirates 0[40] Probably extinct[41]
Uzbekistan 25–100[40] Threatened[41] Striped hyena populations have declined over decades from active hunting and habitat loss, though they are listed in the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan and are protected[41]
Western Sahara Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Yemen Unknown[40] Data deficient[41]
Extant Carnivora species

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