Streaming television

Streaming television (streaming TV or internet television) is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming video delivered over the Internet. Streaming TV stands in contrast to dedicated terrestrial television delivered by over-the-air aerial systems, cable television, and/or satellite television systems.

Sample Webcast Screenshot
A screenshot from a webcast.


The mid 2000s were the beginning of television programs becoming available via the Internet. iTunes began offering select television programs and series in 2005, available for download after direct payment.[1] The video-sharing site YouTube also launched in 2005 allowing users to share illegally posted television programs.[1] A few years later television networks and other independent services began creating sites where shows and programs could be streamed online. Amazon Video began in the United States as Amazon Unbox in 2006, but did not launch worldwide until 2016.[2] Netflix, a website originally created for DVD rentals and sales began providing streaming content in 2007.[3] In 2008 Hulu, owned by NBC and Fox, was launched, followed by in 2009 and owned by CBS. Digital media players also began to become available to the public during this time. The first generation Apple TV was released in 2007 and in 2008 the first generation Roku streaming device was announced.[4][5] Amazon's version of a digital media player, Amazon Fire TV, was not offered to the public until 2014.[6] These digital media players have continued to be updated and new generations released. Access to television programming has evolved from computer and television access, to also include mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Apps for mobile devices started to become available via app stores in 2008. These mobile apps allow users to view content on mobile devices that support the apps. In 2017 YouTube launched YouTube TV, a streaming service that allows users to watch live television programs from popular cable or network channels, and record shows to stream anywhere, anytime.[7] After 2010 traditional cable and satellite television providers began to offer services such as Sling TV, owned by Dish Network, which was unveiled in January 2015.[8] DirecTV, another satellite television provider launched their own streaming service, DirecTV Now, in 2016.[9] Smart TVs took over the television market after 2010. As of 2015 smart TVs are the only type of middle to high-end television being produced.[10] As of 2017, 28% of US adults cite streaming services as their main means for watching television, and 61% of those ages 18 to 29 cite it as their main method.[11] As of 2018, Netflix is the world's largest streaming TV network and also the world's largest Internet media and entertainment company with 117 million paid subscribers, and by revenue and market cap.[12][13]

Technologies used

The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) consortium of industry companies (such as SES, Humax, Philips, and ANT Software) is currently promoting and establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with a single-user interface.[14]

As of the 2010s, providers of Internet television use various technologies to provide VoD systems and live streaming. BBC iPlayer makes use of the Adobe Flash Player to provide streaming-video clips and other software provided by Adobe for its download service. CNBC, Bloomberg Television and Showtime use live-streaming services from BitGravity to stream live television to paid subscribers using the HTTP protocol.

BBC iPlayer originally incorporated peer-to-peer streaming, moved towards centralized distribution for their video streaming services. BBC executive Anthony rose cited network performance as an important factor in the decision, as well as the unhappiness among consumers unhappy with their own network bandwidth being consumed for transmitting content to other viewers.[15]

Samsung TV has also announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through their Explore 3D service.[16]

Access control

Some streaming services incorporate digital rights management. The W3C made the controversial decision to adopt Encrypted Media Extensions due in large part to motivations to provide copy protection for streaming content. Sky Go has software that is provided by Microsoft to prevent content being copied.[17]

Additionally, BBC iPlayer makes use of a parental control system giving parents the option to "lock" content, meaning that a password would have to be used to access it. Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it is intended for viewing post-watershed. Honour systems are also used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are able to view certain content.[18]


IPTV delivers television content using signals based on the Internet protocol (IP), through the open, unmanaged Internet with the "last-mile" telecom company acting only as the Internet service provider (ISP). As described above, "Internet television" is "over-the-top technology" (OTT). Both IPTV and OTT use the Internet protocol over a packet-switched network to transmit data, but IPTV operates in a closed system—a dedicated, managed network controlled by the local cable, satellite, telephone, or fiber-optic company.[19] In its simplest form, IPTV simply replaces traditional circuit switched analog or digital television channels with digital channels which happen to use packet-switched transmission. In both the old and new systems, subscribers have set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment that communicates directly over company-owned or dedicated leased lines with central-office servers. Packets never travel over the public Internet, so the television provider can guarantee enough local bandwidth for each customer's needs.

The Internet protocol is a cheap, standardized way to enable two-way communication and simultaneously provide different data (e.g., TV-show files, email, Web browsing) to different customers. This supports DVR-like features for time shifting television: for example, to catch up on a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago, or to replay the current TV show from its beginning. It also supports video on demand—browsing a catalog of videos (such as movies or television shows) which might be unrelated to the company's scheduled broadcasts.

IPTV has an ongoing standardization process (for example, at the European Telecommunications Standards Institute).

IPTV Over-the-top technology
Content provider Local telecom Studio, channel, or independent service
Transmission network Local telecom - dedicated owned or leased network Public Internet + local telecom
Receiver Local telecom provides (set-top box) Purchased by consumer (box, stick, TV, computer, or mobile)
Display device Screen provided by consumer Screen provided by consumer
Examples AT&T U-verse, Bell Fibe TV, Verizon Fios (IPTV service now discontinued) Video on demand services like fuboTV, PlayStation Vue, Sky Go, YouTube, Netflix, Amazon, DittoTV, YuppTV, Lovefilm, BBC iPlayer, Hulu, Sony Liv, myTV, Now TV, Emagine, SlingTV, KlowdTV

Stream quality

Stream quality refers to the quality of the image and audio transferred from the servers of the distributor to the user's home screen. Higher-quality video such as video in high definition (720p+) requires higher bandwidth and faster connection speeds. The generally accepted kbit/s download rate needed to stream high-definition video that has been encoded with H.264 is 3500 kbit/s, whereas standard-definition television can range from 500 to 1500 kbit/s depending on the resolution on screen. In the UK, the BBC iPlayer deals with the largest amount of traffic yet it offers HD content along with SD content. As more people have gotten broadband connections which can deal with streaming HD video over the Internet, the BBC iPlayer has tried to keep up with demand and pace. However, as streaming HD video takes around 1.5 GB of data per hour of video the BBC has had to invest a lot of money collected from License Fee payers to implement this on a large scale.[20]

For users who do not have the bandwidth to stream HD video or even high-SD video, which requires 1500 kbit/s, the BBC iPlayer offers lower bitrate streams which in turn lead to lower video quality. This makes use of an adaptive bitrate stream so that if the user's bandwidth suddenly drops, iPlayer will lower its streaming rate to compensate. A diagnostic tool offered on the BBC iPlayer site measures a user's streaming capabilities and bandwidth.[21]

In the last few years, Channel 4 has started providing HD content on its On Demand platforms such as iOS App, Android App and website. Although competitors in the UK such as Demand Five have not yet offered HD streaming, the technology to support it is fairly new and widespread HD streaming is not an impossibility. The availability of Channel 4 and Five content on YouTube is predicted to prove incredibly popular as series such as Skins, Green Wing, The X Factor and others become available in a simple, straightforward format on a website which already attracts millions of people every day.


Internet television is common in most US households as of the mid 2010s. About one in four new televisions being sold is now a smart TV.[22]

Considering the vast popularity of smart TVs and devices such as the Roku and Chromecast, much of the US public can watch television via the internet. Internet-only channels are now established enough to feature some Emmy-nominated shows, such as Netflix's House of Cards.[23] Many networks also distribute their shows the next day to streaming providers such as Hulu[24] Some networks may use a proprietary system, such as the BBC utilizes their iPlayer format. This has resulted in bandwidth demands increasing to the point of causing issues for some networks. It was reported in February 2014 that Verizon is having issues coping with the demand placed on their network infrastructure. Until long-term bandwidth issues are worked out and regulation such at net neutrality Internet Televisions push to HDTV may start to hinder growth.[25]

Aereo was launched in March 2012 in New York City (and subsequently stopped from broadcasting in June 2014). It streamed network TV only to New York customers over the Internet. Broadcasters filed lawsuits against Aereo, because Aereo captured broadcast signals and streamed the content to Aereo's customers without paying broadcasters. In mid-July 2012, a federal judge sided with the Aereo start-up. Aereo planned to expand to every major metropolitan area by the end of 2013.[26] The Supreme Court ruled against Aereo June 24, 2014.[27]

Market competitors

Many providers of Internet television services exist—including conventional television stations that have taken advantage of the Internet as a way to continue showing television shows after they have been broadcast, often advertised as "on-demand" and "catch-up" services. Today, almost every major broadcaster around the world is operating an Internet television platform.[28] Examples include the BBC, which introduced the BBC iPlayer on 25 June 2008 as an extension to its "RadioPlayer" and already existing streamed video-clip content, and Channel 4 that launched 4oD ("4 on Demand") (now All 4) in November 2006 allowing users to watch recently shown content. Most Internet television services allow users to view content free of charge; however, some content is for a fee.

Since 2012 around 200 over-the-top (OTT) platforms providing streamed and downloadable content have emerged[29]. Investment by Netflix in new original content for its OTT platform reached $13bn in 2018.[30]

Broadcasting rights

Broadcasting rights vary from country to country and even within provinces of countries. These rights govern the distribution of copyrighted content and media and allow the sole distribution of that content at any one time. An example of content only being aired in certain countries is BBC iPlayer. The BBC checks a user's IP address to make sure that only users located in the UK can stream content from the BBC. The BBC only allows free use of their product for users within the UK as those users have paid for a television license that funds part of the BBC. This IP address check is not foolproof as the user may be accessing the BBC website through a VPN or proxy server. Broadcasting rights can also be restricted to allowing a broadcaster rights to distribute that content for a limited time. Channel 4's online service All 4 can only stream shows created in the US by companies such as HBO for thirty days after they are aired on one of the Channel 4 group channels. This is to boost DVD sales for the companies who produce that media.

Some companies pay very large amounts for broadcasting rights with sports and US sitcoms usually fetching the highest price from UK-based broadcasters. A trend among major content producers in North America is the use of the "TV Everywhere" system. Especially for live content, the TV Everywhere system restricts viewership of a video feed to select Internet service providers, usually cable television companies that pay a retransmission consent or subscription fee to the content producer. This often has the negative effect of making the availability of content dependent upon the provider, with the consumer having little or no choice on whether they receive the product.

Profits and costs

With the advent of broadband Internet connections multiple streaming providers have come onto the market in the last couple of years. The main providers are Netflix, Hulu and Amazon. Some of these providers such as Hulu advertise and charge a monthly fee. Other such as Netflix and Amazon charge users a monthly fee and have no commercials. Netflix is the largest provider; it has over 43 million members and its membership numbers are growing. The rise of internet TV has resulted in cable companies losing customers to a new kind of customer called "cord cutters". Cord cutters are consumers who are cancelling their cable TV or satellite TV subscriptions and choosing instead to stream TV shows, movies and other content via the Internet. Cord cutters are forming communities. With the increasing availability of video sharing websites (e.g., YouTube) and streaming services, there is an alternative to cable and satellite television subscriptions. Cord cutters tend to be younger people.

Overview of platforms and availability

Service Supporting company/companies Regional availability Website-based Windows application Mac application Linux application iOS application Android application Console application TV set application Set Top Box application Free
BBC iPlayer BBC UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[31] Wii, PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Sony, Panasonic, Philips Virgin Media On Demand, Freesat, Roku Yes
NBC NBC Yes No No No Yes Yes[32] PS3, Xbox 360 Yes[33]
Jio TV LYF India Yes Yes Yes Yes LYF Android Player No No Jio on Demand Yes
Tivibu Argela TR Yes Yes Yes Yes Argela Android Player Pending None Ttnet on Demand No
Sky Go Sky UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Xbox 360 No
Eros Now Eros India Yes Yes Yes Yes Eros Android Player No Yes Bollywood on Demand Yes
ITV Hub ITV UK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3 Virgin Media On Demand Yes
ABC iview Australian Broadcasting Corporation Australia Yes iPad PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Sony Yes
All 4 Channel 4 UK & Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, Xbox 360 Virgin Media On Demand Yes
SeeSaw Arqiva UK Yes Yes Yes No
Hulu FOX, NBC Universal, ABC, Time Warner US & Japan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Vizio Roku No[34]
RTÉ Player RTÉ Ireland Yes Yes Yes Yes
TG4 Beo TG4 Ireland and Worldwide/International Yes Yes
TV3 Catch Up TV3 Ireland Yes Yes Yes
Global Video Global Canada Yes Yes No
Global Video SBNTV1, The Sumlin Broadcasting Network, Classic Soul Channel..... US Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PS3, Xbox 360 Samsung, Vizio Yes
myTV OSN, Rotana Group, SNA Corp..... North America, Canada, South America, New Zealand, Australia No Not Yet Not Yet No Yes Yes Not Yet Samsung Smart TV, LG Smart TV, Google TV Western Digital, Boxee Box, Netgear NTV 300, Google TV devices, Samsung and Android tablets No
PTCL Smart TV App PTCL Pakistan Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No None Standalone PTCL Smart Settop Box No

See also


  1. ^ a b Waterman, D., Sherman, R., & Ji, S. W. (2013). The economics of online television: Industry development, aggregation, and “TV Everywhere”. Telecommunications Policy, 37(9), 725-736.
  2. ^ "Amazon - Press Room - Press Release". Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  3. ^ "About Netflix". Netflix Media Center. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  4. ^ "How Apple's iTV Media Strategy Works". Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  5. ^ "Inside The Tech Of The Netflix Player With Roku | HotHardware". HotHardware. HotHardware. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  6. ^ Horn, Leslie. "Fire TV: Everything You Need to Know About Amazon's $100 Streaming Box". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  7. ^ "YouTube TV - Watch & DVR Live Sports, Shows & News". YouTube TV - Watch & DVR Live Sports, Shows & News. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  8. ^ Joshua Brustein (January 5, 2015). "Dish's New Sling TV Service Could Free You From Cable". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg LP. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
  9. ^ Spangler, Todd (2016-11-18). "AT&T Sets DirecTV Now Launch Event for Nov. 28". Variety. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  10. ^ "LG to show off webOS 2.0 smart TV at CES 2015". CNET. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  11. ^ "About 6 in 10 young adults in U.S. primarily use online streaming to watch TV". Pew Research Center. 2017-09-13. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  12. ^ "Bloomberg - Are you a robot?".
  13. ^ Balakrishnan, Anita (22 January 2018). "Netflix jumps more than 8% after adding more subscribers than expected".
  14. ^ "New European Initiative Merges Television with the Power of the Internet" (PDF) (Press release). HbbTV Consortium. August 27, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 7, 2009.
  15. ^ "iPlayer uncovered: What powers the BBC's epic creation?". November 18, 2009. CNet interview with iPlayer boss Anthony Rose, mostly on iPlayer 3.0
  16. ^ Samsung To Do 3D VOD Streaming, May 24, 2011
  17. ^ Gibbs, Samuel (6 September 2018). "Microsoft Surface Go review: tablet that's better for work than play". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  18. ^ "Internet en TV Vergelijken: Vandaag nog de goedkoopste aanbieding". (in Dutch). Roza Sinensis. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  19. ^ Narang, Nitin. "Concept Series : What is the Difference between OTT and IPTV". Researcher on TV technology. Media Entertainment Info. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  20. ^ BBC iPlayer goes HD, adds higher quality streams, releases iPlayer Desktop out of Labs, BBC Internet Blog, 20/04/2009
  21. ^ "BBC web page which runs a diagnostic of Internet download speeds for streaming remotely". Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  22. ^ "Connected TVs Reach One in Four Homes". January 3, 2013.
  23. ^ Dominguez, Robert (February 18, 2014). "'House of Cards' season 2 sees surge of Netflix viewers over first season". NY Daily News. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  24. ^ "Watch TV and movies on Xbox, PS3, Apple TV, and more - Hulu". Hulu.
  25. ^ "Why Netflix streaming is getting slower, and probably won't get better any time soon". ExtremeTech.
  26. ^ "Aereo Threatens Broadcasters By Streaming Network TV Online". July 20, 2012.
  27. ^ Stelter, Brian (June 25, 2014). "Supreme Court rules against Aereo". CNNMoney.
  28. ^ Internet television platforms around the world International TV Explorer
  29. ^ "Parks Associates Announces 2017 Top 10 U.S. Subscription OTT Video Services". Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  30. ^ "Netflix Is Expected to Spend up to $13 Billion on Original Programming This Year". Fortune. Retrieved 2018-11-07.
  31. ^ "BBC iPlayer – Apps op Android Market". Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  32. ^ "NBC Apps -". NBC.
  33. ^ "NBC TV Network - Shows, Episodes, Schedule". NBC.
  34. ^ "Watch TV and movies via Xbox, PS3, Wii and more - Hulu". Hulu.

External links


CCTV-4 is a Chinese free-to-air television channel. It is one of six China Central Television channels that broadcasts outside the People's Republic of China.

This channel contains a variety of programs including documentaries, music, news, drama series, sports and children shows for Mainland China including China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.

Crow's Blood

Crow's Blood (stylized as CROW'S BLOOD) is a Japanese horror streaming television drama miniseries with an original story concept written by Yasushi Akimoto and executive produced by Darren Lynn Bousman.It stars Mayu Watanabe (at the time a member of AKB48), Sakura Miyawaki (at the time a member of HKT48), Takahiro Miura and Tetsuya Bessho, along with many other then-members of AKB48 Group in supporting roles, and the series was directed by Ryo Nishimura and written by Clint Sears and additional screenplay cooperation by Satoshi Oshio.

Episodes also feature cameo appearances by performers including Lily Franky and Shota Sometani. It was marketed in Japan with the slogan "Yasushi Akimoto × Hollywood × AKB48", reflecting the collaboration between Akimoto (noted as both a writer of horror and founder of AKB48 Group), lead staff drawn from the United States film and television industry, and members of AKB48 Group.The first episode premiered on Nippon TV on July 23, 2016, while all six episodes were released for streaming on Hulu in Japan the same day.In December 2016, Miramax acquired the worldwide sales rights for the series, excluding Japan. The series made its English-language debut in the United States on El Rey Network, which aired all six episodes on October 28, 2017.In the United Kingdom, the series has been licensed by Channel Four Television Corporation. The first episode was broadcast on Film4 on Wednesday 31 October 2018 and all six episodes were released for advertising-supported streaming on All 4 the same day. Unlike in the United States, in both instances the episodes have only been made available in Japanese with English subtitles.

DirecTV Now

DirecTV Now (also known simply as DTV Now) is a subscription streaming television service owned by AT&T, which allows subscribers in the United States to stream programming from cable channels without the long term commitment. The service was launched on November 30, 2016. As of January 2019, the service has 1.6 million subscribers. The data used by the service is zero rated for AT&T Wireless customers while on the AT&T network, as well as T-Mobile US customers who have the carrier's "Binge On" feature enabled.On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T was going to introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon.

Girl/Girl Scene

Girl/Girl Scene is an American comedy-drama streaming television series. It was created and written by Tucky Williams, who also stars as Evan, a sexually promiscuous, androgynous, lesbian. The first episode premiered on Blip (now defunct), on September 6, 2010, and the last episode premiered on January 5, 2015. The story features several LGBT women struggling with romantic relationships. The series now airs on Amazon Video.

La Première (France)

La Première is a French network of radio and television stations operating France's overseas departments and territories around the world.

La 1ère network includes:

Television and radio services under the [name of department or territory] La 1ère name

France Ô – a satellite channel featuring programming from all the Outre-Mer 1ère services; produced chiefly for viewing in mainland France, it is also available in the overseas areas.

Radio La 1ère is available only in overseas territories/departments and on Internet on the website . The contents changes depending what radio you're listening to on Internet or depending on where you live in the overseas territories/departments just like France 3 does with the regional news bulletins such as the 12/13 or Soir 3 or other regional shows.La 1re also offers free streaming television just like what they do with the radio on the internet. The television broadcast on the website is only for those who live in the overseas territories/departments.

List of Internet television providers

This article lists Internet television providers - broadcasters of Internet television using digital distribution - by region and by country. Internet TV is typically transmitted wirelessly, or through hard-wired devices, via an over-the-top programming platform to enabled SmartTVs, set-top-boxes, personal computers, smartphones, tablet computers, and digital media receivers such as GoogleTV, AppleTV, Hotstar, Bioscope, Roku, and Boxee.

Live television

Live television is a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. In a secondary meaning, it may refer to streaming television over the internet. In most cases live programming is not being recorded as it is shown on TV, but rather was not rehearsed or edited and is being shown only as it was recorded prior to being aired. Shows broadcast live include newscasts, morning shows, awards shows, sports programs, reality programs and, occasionally, episodes of scripted television series.

Live television was more common until the late 1950s, when videotape technology was invented. Because of the prohibitive cost, adoption was slow, and some television shows remained live until the 1970s, such as soap operas. To prevent unforeseen issues, live television programs may be delayed, which allows censors to edit the program. Some programs may be broadcast live in certain time zones and delayed in others.

Mega TV (Malaysia)

Mega TV was Malaysia's first ever subscription-based pay television service. It was incorporated on 18 October 1994 and began transmissions on 1 November 1995 and was operated by TV3. It was particularly noted for its failure to break into the pay television market.

Mega TV was transmitted from its headquarters in Bandar Utama, in the northern fringes of Petaling Jaya, Selangor.

Rachael Taylor

Rachael May Taylor (born 11 July 1984) is an Australian actress and model. Her first leading role was in the Australian series headLand (2005–2006). She then made the transition to Hollywood, appearing in films including Man-Thing (2005), See No Evil (2006), Transformers (2007), Bottle Shock (2008), Cedar Boys (2009), Splinterheads (2009), Shutter (2008), Red Dog (2011) and Any Questions for Ben? (2012).

She has also starred as Dr. Lucy Fields on Grey's Anatomy, as one of the Angels on the short-lived reboot Charlie's Angels (both 2011), as the main character on the ABC show 666 Park Avenue (2012–2013), and in the NBC action/thriller series Crisis (2014). She currently stars as Trish Walker in the Netflix exclusive Marvel Cinematic Universe streaming television shows Jessica Jones (2015–present), Luke Cage (2016), and The Defenders (2017).

Red by HBO

Red by HBO (formerly Screen Red) is a Southeast Asian pay television movie channel. It is a joint venture between HBO Asia and the Hong Kong studio Mei Ah Entertainment. Launched in 2010, the channel focuses primarily on films from Asian countries, all of which are presented in their original language and with localized subtitles available. Unlike other HBO Asia channels, Red by HBO has a commercial break on their movies and series.

In October 2015, the network re-branded as Red by HBO; the rebranding signified a widening in the channel's scope to cover all of Southeast Asia (in addition to China, Japan, and South Korea), and a new on-air appearance meant to evoke contemporary interpretations of Asian imagery.

Scene statistics

Scene statistics is a discipline within the field of perception. It is concerned with the statistical regularities related to scenes. It is based on the premise that a perceptual system is designed to interpret scenes.

Biological perceptual systems have evolved in response to physical properties of natural environments. Therefore natural scenes receive a great deal of attention.Natural scene statistics are useful for defining the behavior of an ideal observer in a natural task, typically by incorporating signal detection theory, information theory, or estimation theory.

One of the most successful applications of Natural Scenes Statistics Models has been perceptual picture and video quality prediction. For example, the Visual Information Fidelity (VIF) algorithm, which is used to measure the degree of distortion of pictures and videos, is used extensively by the image and video processing communities to assess perceptual quality, often after processing, such as compression, which can degrade the appearance of a visual signal. The premise is that the scene statistics are changed by distortion, and that the visual system is sensitive to the changes in the scene statistics. VIF is heavily used in the streaming television industry. Other popular picture quality models that use natural scene statistics include BRISQUE, and NIQE both of which are no-reference, since they do not require any reference picture to measure quality against.

Sky España

Sky España is a subsidiary of Sky and supplies digital Pay Television and video on demand service accessible only through the Internet created to compete with Movistar+, Netflix, HBO Spain and Amazon Prime Video in Spain.Yoigo is an operator of Internet and mobile services which maintains an exclusive agreement that allows customers to the rate into Fibra + la Sinfín with unlimited fibre access to Sky España service for €9 per month.

Steven Furtick

Steven Furtick Jr. (born February 19, 1980) is a pastor, songwriter, and New York Times best-selling author. As founder and lead pastor, he has helped grow the multi-site Elevation Church into a global ministry through online streaming, television, and the music of Elevation Worship. He holds a Master of Divinity degree from Southern Baptist Theological Seminary and is the author of Crash the Chatterbox, Greater, Sun Stand Still, (Un)Qualified, and Seven-Mile Miracle. Pastor Furtick and his wife Holly live in Charlotte, North Carolina, with their two sons, Elijah and Graham, and daughter, Abbey.

Subscription television in Australia

Subscription television in Australia consists of a dominant cable and satellite television provider Foxtel, with several smaller cable and satellite service providers operating in limited geographic areas. Other providers of Internet television in Australia offer free content or pay-per-view, but do not offer a subscription service.

In 2012, only about 28% of Australian homes had a pay TV subscription, which is one of the lowest subscriber rates in the developed world. However, this rate is expected to rise from new delivery methods IPTV and streaming television services, including Apple TV, Netflix, Presto, Stan and Quickflix.

TCL Corporation

TCL Corporation (simplified Chinese: TCL集团; traditional Chinese: TCL集團; pinyin: TCL jí tuán) (originally an abbreviation for Telephone Communication Limited) is a Chinese multinational electronics company headquartered in Huizhou, Guangdong Province. It designs, develops, manufactures and sells products including television sets, mobile phones, air conditioners, washing machines, refrigerators and small electrical appliances. In 2010 it was the world's 25th-largest consumer electronics producer. Since 2015, it remains the third-largest television manufacturer by market share.TCL comprises four listed companies: TCL Corporation which is listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange, and TCL Multimedia Technology Holdings, Ltd. (SEHK: 1070), TCL Communication Technology Holdings, Ltd.(former code SEHK: 2618; delisted in 2016), TCL Display Technology (SEHK: 334) and Tonly Electronics (SEHK: 1249) which are listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.TCL's corporate slogan is "The Creative Life".

TV Sarawak

TV Sarawak or is a streaming television channel which provides news from the region of Sarawak and also Malaysia as a whole.

The Code Room

The Code Room is a half-hour-long reality game show produced by Microsoft. The show was conceptualized and executive produced by Paul Murphy and hosted by Jessi Knapp, accompanied by a varying project expert. Each episode consists of a number of MSDN Developer Event attendees who team up to complete a project, with given specifications, in a limited amount of time. It should not be confused with The Code Room from DMD and the group that introduced the world to the "Hybrid Hostel".

The Code Room was filmed at an MSDN Developer Event and shown on several cable television stations, as well as other streaming television stations like MSDN TV. The show could also be watched for free through the Channel 9 community, and was additionally included in several MSDN CDs and DVDs.

The "Code Room" was typically an enclosed room with one or more desks, whiteboards and computers. All required programming tools were installed, along with other stationery. However, no internet connection was available and contestants could not bring their own notes. Contestants had to use preselected development environments which were typically new to them, having only been given a quick crash course about the environment in a presentation before the contest began.

Teams that were able to complete the project within the required time were eligible for prizes and to be part of "Team Code FF". At the end of the series, the two top "Team Code FF" teams (determined by their performance, as well as community ranking) competed in the Final Code Room challenge for the ultimate "Code Room Champion" title.

The program won a Telly Award in 2004.

U Television

U Television Sdn. Bhd. (formerly known as U Telecom Media Holdings Sdn. Bhd. and MiTV Corporation Sdn. Bhd.) is Malaysia's third pay television operator. It was launched on 5 September 2005 after having obtained all the necessary approvals from the censorship board on its broadcast contents. The company initially offered 40 channels from content providers worldwide.


VIETV is an American Vietnamese-language broadcast television network based in Houston, Texas. The network began broadcasting over-the-air in Houston in 2011, and has since started affiliates broadcasting in Los Angeles, California, Orange County, California, San Francisco, California, San Jose, California, Dallas, Texas, Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Boston, Massachusetts, and Washington, D.C. The Houston, Dallas, Los Angeles, and San Jose affiliates are also available in live streaming video on the website, and the network has created the UNO IP IPTV set-top box for viewing their content on televisions outside their broadcast area.VIETV has six studios, including their headquarters in Houston and locations in Southern California, Northern California, Boston, and Philadelphia. Original programming on VIETV includes the Evening NEWS and NEWS @ Nite programs, the It's Your Birthday children's show, Cooking with Chef Cam-Yuet, Beauty by Tiffani, World Travel, and The Law & Legal Issues, hosted by VIETV president Robert Pham.

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