Stovepipe Johnson

Adam Rankin "Stovepipe" Johnson (February 6, 1834 – October 20, 1922) was an antebellum Western frontiersman and later an officer in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Johnson obtained notoriety leading the Newburgh Raid using a force of only about 35 men. Johnson and his men confiscated supplies and ammunition without a shot being fired by tricking Newburgh's defenders into thinking the town was surrounded by cannons. In reality, the so-called cannons were an assemblage of a stove pipe, a charred log, and wagon wheels, forever giving the Confederate commander the nickname of Adam "Stovepipe" Johnson. Permanently blinded during a skirmish in 1864, Johnson in 1887 founded the town of Marble Falls, Texas, which became known as "the blind man's town."

Adam Rankin Johnson
ARJohnson
Nickname(s)"Stovepipe"
BornFebruary 6, 1834
Henderson, Kentucky
DiedOctober 20, 1922 (aged 88)
Burnet, Texas
Place of burial
AllegianceUnited States of America
Confederate States of America
Service/branchConfederate States Army
Years of service1861–1865
RankConfederate States of America Colonel.png Colonel
Brigadier General (appointment not confirmed)
Unit3rd Tennessee Cavalry (Forrest's)
Commands held10th Kentucky Partisan Rangers
Johnson's Cavalry Brigade
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War

Early life

Johnson was born in Henderson, Kentucky, a son of Thomas J. and Juliet (Rankin) Johnson. Educated in the local schools, he went to work at age 12 in a drugstore for the next eight years. In 1854 he moved to Hamilton Valley in Burnet County, Texas, and worked as a surveyor on the West Texas frontier. He was a noted Indian fighter and provided supplies and animals for the Butterfield Overland Mail stations. On January 1, 1861, he married Josephine Eastland of Austin, with whom he had nine children.

Civil War

When the Civil War began and his native Kentucky struggled to maintain its neutrality, Johnson returned home and joined Nathan B. Forrest's cavalry battalion as a scout, fighting with him at his first engagement at the Battle of Sacramento.[1] He escaped capture with Forrest after Fort Donelson, when the Confederate commanders decided to surrender their post to the Union besiegers. He later received a promotion to colonel in recognition of his exploits with his 10th Kentucky Partisan Rangers, a regiment he raised that often operated deep behind Federal lines in Kentucky. Johnson's men harassed Union supply lines and attacked isolated garrisons. In July 1862, in his Newburgh Raid, Johnson captured the town of Newburgh, Indiana, bluffing its sizable Union militia force into surrendering with only twelve of his men and a stovepipe mounted and a burnt black log on the running gears of an abandoned wagon to form a Quaker cannon. His capture of the first Northern city to fall to the Confederates made the news even in Europe, and Johnson's men thereafter nicknamed him "Stovepipe".

In 1863, Johnson assumed command of a brigade in the cavalry division of Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. He reluctantly participated in Morgan's Raid, though he was only supposed to raid on the Kentucky side of the river. Following the Confederate disaster at the Battle of Buffington Island, Johnson led nearly 350 of his men across the rain-swollen Ohio River to safety. The remainder of Morgan's division was trapped on the Ohio side of the river and eventually forced to surrender.

Johnson was appointed brigadier general on September 6, 1864, to rank from June 1, 1864, though his appointment was never confirmed by the Confederate Congress.[2] On August 21, 1864, he was blinded by an accidental shot from one of his own men during a skirmish at Grubb's Crossroads, near Princeton, Kentucky. Left behind because of his injuries, he was captured by the Federals and was a prisoner for much of the remainder of the war in Fort Warren. He was exchanged near the war's end, and despite his blindness attempted to return to active duty. However, the final surrender put a stop to that.

Postbellum

Adam R. Johnson returned to Texas after being exchanged and paroled in 1865. Despite being blind, he founded a town, established a company, and worked to harness the water power of the Colorado River. One of his sons was Rankin Johnson Sr., a former Major League pitcher for the Boston Red Sox and St. Louis Cardinals.

He died in Burnet, Texas in 1922 at the age of 88, and is interred at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin, Texas. He rests beside his wife Josephine and near his grandson, Judge George Christian Sr., and a great-grandson, former White House Press Secretary George Christian Jr.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Davison, E. W. and D. Foxx (2007). Nathan Bedford Forrest: In Search of the Enigma. Pelican Publishing. pp. 36–41. ISBN 1589804155.
  2. ^ Eicher, p. 601; United States War Department, The Military Secretary's Office, Memorandum relative to the general officers appointed by the President in the armies of the Confederate States--1861-1865 (1908) (Compiled from official records), p. 32. Caption shows 1905 but printing date is February 11, 1908. https://archive.org/details/memorandumrelati01unit, retrieved August 5, 2010..

References

Adam (given name)

Adam is a common masculine given name.

The personal name Adam derives from the Hebrew noun ha adamah meaning "the ground" or "earth". Its Quranic and Biblical usage has ensured that it is also a common name in all countries which draw on these traditions. It is particularly common in Christian and Muslim majority countries. In most languages its spelling is the same, although the pronunciation varies somewhat. Adán is the Spanish form of this name.

Adam is also a surname in many countries, although it is not as common in English as its derivative Adams (sometimes spelled Addams). In other languages there are similar surnames derived from Adam, such as Adamo, Adamov, Adamowicz, Adamski etc.

In Arabic, Adam (آدم) means "made from the earth/mud/clay".

Adam Johnson

Adam Johnson may refer to:

Adam Johnson (ice hockey) (born 1994), American ice hockey player

Adam Johnson (writer) (born 1967), American author

Adam Johnson (baseball) (born 1979), American baseball player

Adam Johnson (footballer) (born 1987), English footballer

Adam Johnson (conductor), British classical pianist and conductor

Adam Johnson (musician), American musician, sound designer and visual artist

Stovepipe Johnson (Adam Rankin Johnson, 1834–1922), Brigadier general of the Confederate States of America

Basil W. Duke

Basil Wilson Duke (May 28, 1838 – September 16, 1916) was a Confederate general officer during the American Civil War. His most noted service in the war was as second-in-command for his brother-in-law John Hunt Morgan; Duke would later write a popular account of Morgan's most famous raid: 1863's Morgan's Raid. He took over Morgan's command after Morgan was shot by Union soldiers in 1864. At the end of the war, Duke was among Confederate President Jefferson Davis's bodyguards after his flight from Richmond, Virginia, through the Carolinas.

Duke's lasting impact was as a historian and communicator of the Confederate experience. As a historian he helped to found the Filson Club Historical Society and started the preserving of the Shiloh battlefield. He wrote numerous books and magazine articles, most notably in the Southern Bivouac. When he died, he was one of the few high-ranking Confederate officers still alive. Historian James A. Ramage said of Duke, "No Southerner was more dedicated to the Confederacy than General Basil W. Duke."

Battle of Buffington Island

The Battle of Buffington Island, also known as the St. Georges Creek Skirmish, was an American Civil War engagement in Meigs County, Ohio, and Jackson County, West Virginia, on July 19, 1863, during Morgan's Raid. The largest battle in Ohio during the war, Buffington Island contributed to the capture of the famed Confederate cavalry raider, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan, who was seeking to escape Union army pursuers across the Ohio River at a ford opposite Buffington Island.

Delayed overnight, Morgan was almost surrounded by Union cavalry the next day, and the resulting battle ended in a Confederate rout, with over half of the 1,700-man Confederate force being captured. General Morgan and some 700 men escaped, but the daring raid finally ended on July 26 with his surrender after the Battle of Salineville. Morgan's Raid was of little military consequence, but it did spread terror among much of the population of southern and eastern Ohio, as well as neighboring Indiana.

Battle of Corydon

The Battle of Corydon was a minor engagement that took place July 9, 1863, just south of Corydon, which had been the original capital of Indiana until 1825, and was the county seat of Harrison County. The attack occurred during Morgan's Raid in the American Civil War as a force of 2,500 cavalry invaded the North in support of the Tullahoma Campaign. It was the only pitched battle of the Civil War that occurred in Indiana, and no battle has occurred within Indiana since.As news of an impending raid spread across the state, Governor Oliver P. Morton called out the state's militia force, the Indiana Legion, to defend against the threat. Unaware of the size of the invading army, four companies of the 6th and 8th Regiments of the Legion, totaling about one hundred men, attempted to prevent the Confederates from crossing the Ohio River into Indiana, but were overcome by superior artillery fire, killing two of the defenders. The units retreated northward where they met with the main body of the 6th Regiment under the command of Col. Lewis Jordan. Along with the townspeople, they constructed breastworks that formed a defensive line south of Corydon. Despite promises of reinforcements from regional Legion commanders in New Albany, only about 450 men (consisting almost entirely of locals) were defending the town.

As the raiders approached from the south, the advance elements formed a battle line and launched a frontal attack and an unsuccessful flanking movement against the east side of the Legion's works. Reinforcements and artillery soon arrived with the main body of Confederate troops, giving the attackers a strong numerical superiority. With the support of the artillery, a pincer movement caused the Legion to abandon their position to avoid being surrounded. A large part of the Legion were captured as they attempted to escape from the town, while Col. Jordon and others regrouped downtown. Confederates then seized the Legion's commissary supplies on the edge of town, and fired two warning shots into the downtown from their artillery, convincing Jordan that continued resistance was futile and leading him to surrender his force and Corydon. Although the short battle cost the cavalry twice as many casualties as the outnumbered militia units, the battle resulted in a Confederate victory, which enabled Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan to secure supplies and money before continuing his raid through Indiana and into Ohio. The delay, however, proved critical in helping the pursuing Union army overtake and later capture Morgan and his forces.

Battle of Sacramento (Kentucky)

The Battle of Sacramento was an engagement of the American Civil War that took place in Sacramento, Kentucky on December 28, 1861. Confederate cavalry under Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest, numbering between 200 and 300, attacked, encircled and defeated a Union force of 500 under Major Eli H. Murray which had been watering south of the town after moving across the bank of the Green River. Though exact casualty information is disputed, with differing accounts from each side, several eyewitnesses attested to the personal courage of Forrest, and the Confederate commander was praised by his superiors for his bravery.

The engagement was one of the earliest of Forrest's career as a commander of the cavalry, and it featured several examples of tactics and traits which would become hallmarks of his military career, including the division of his forces, outflanking and encirclement, concealment, and personally leading cavalry charges. It was also an early battle for Brigadier-General Stovepipe Johnson, who was then a private. The Union force was decisively routed, and the battle became known as "Forrest's First Fight" and is annually re-enacted by local residents.

Battle of Salineville

The Battle of Salineville occurred July 26, 1863, near Salineville, Ohio during Morgan's Raid in the American Civil War. Except for the St. Albans (Vermont) Raid, it was the northernmost military action involving the Confederate States Army. The Union victory shattered John Hunt Morgan's remaining Confederate cavalry and led to his capture later that day.

Burnet County, Texas

Burnet County ( BUR-nit) is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,750. Its county seat is Burnet. The county was founded in 1852 and later organized in 1854. It is named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. The name of the county is pronounced with the emphasis or accent on the first syllable, just as its namesake David Burnet.

Fort Warren (Massachusetts)

Fort Warren is a historic fort on the 28-acre (110,000 m2) Georges Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor. It is not to be confused with Fort Winthrop, which was named Fort Warren from 1808 to 1833.

Fort Warren is a pentagonal bastion fort, made with stone and granite, and was constructed from 1833–1861, completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War. Fort Warren defended the harbor in Boston, Massachusetts, from 1861 through the end of World War II, and during the Civil War served as a prison for Confederate officers and government officials. The fort remained active through the Spanish–American War and World War I, and was re-activated during World War II. It was permanently decommissioned in 1947, and is now a tourist site. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970 as a masterpiece of coastal engineering of the pre-Civil War period, and for its role in the Civil War.

The fort is named for Revolutionary War hero Dr. Joseph Warren, who sent Paul Revere on his famous ride, and was later killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill. The name was transferred from the first Fort Warren in 1833, which was renamed Fort Winthrop.

General Johnson

General Johnson may refer to:

General Norman Johnson (1941–2010), American musicianGeneral Johnson may also refer to generals with the surname of Johnson:

Charles B. Bulkeley-Johnson (1867 ––1917), British Army Brigadier General

Adam R. "Stovepipe" Johnson (1834–1922), Confederate States Army Brigadier General

Sir Allen Johnson (1829-1907), British Indian Army General

Andrew Johnson (1808–1875), United States Union Army Brigadier General

Bradley T. Johnson (1829–1903), Confederate States Army Brigadier General

Bushrod Johnson (1817–1880), Confederate States Army Major General

Sir Charles C. Johnson, British Army General

Dean Johnson (born 1947), United States Army National Guard Brigadier General

Dudley G. Johnson (1884–1975), British Army Major General

Edward Johnson (1816–1873), Confederate States Army Major General

Sir Edwin B. Johnson (1825–1893), British Army General

Sir Garry Johnson (1937– ), British Army General

Gerald W. Johnson (1919–2002), United States Air Force Lieutenant General

Sir George F.Johnson (1903–1980), British Army Major General

Hansford T. Johnson (born 1936), United States Air Force General

Harold K. Johnson (1912–1983), United States Army General

Herbert T. Johnson (1872–1942), Vermont National Guard Brigadier General

Harry H. Johnson (1895–1987), United States Army Major General

Hazel Johnson-Brown (1927–2011), United States Army Brigadier General

Sir Henry Johnson (1748–1835), British Army General

Hugh S. Johnson (1881–1942), United States Army Brigadier General

James A. Johnson, United States Army Major General

John D. Johnson, United States Army Lieutenant General

Kermit D. Johnson (born 1928), United States Army Major General

Leon W. Johnson (1904–1997), United States Air Force General

Michelle D. Johnson, United States Air Force Lieutenant General

Paul T. Johnson (1958– ), United States Air Force Major General

Richard W. Johnson (1827–1897), United States Union Army Brigadier General

Rodney L. Johnson (born 1955), United States Army Brigadier General

Thomas Johnson (1732–1819), Maryland Militia Brigadier General

Sir William Johnson (c.1715–1774), British Army Major General

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War

Guerrilla warfare in the American Civil War followed the same general patterns of irregular warfare conducted in 19th century Europe. Structurally, they can be divided into three different types of operations—the so-called 'People's War', 'partisan warfare', and 'raiding warfare'. Each has distinct characteristics that were common practice during the Civil War years (1861–1865).

John Y. Brown (politician, born 1835)

John Young Brown (June 28, 1835 – January 11, 1904) was a politician from the U.S. Commonwealth of Kentucky. He represented the state in the United States House of Representatives and served as its 31st governor. Brown was elected to the House of Representatives for three non-consecutive terms, each of which was marred by controversy. He was first elected in 1859, despite his own protests that he was not yet twenty-five years old; the minimum age set by the Constitution for serving in the legislature. The voters of his district elected him anyway, but he was not allowed to take his seat until the Congress' second session, after he was of legal age to serve. After moving to Henderson, Kentucky, Brown was elected from that district in 1866. On this occasion, he was denied his seat because of alleged disloyalty to the Union during the Civil War. Voters in his district refused to elect another representative, and the seat remained vacant throughout the term to which Brown was elected. After an unsuccessful gubernatorial bid in 1871, Brown was again elected to the House in 1872 and served three consecutive terms. During his final term, he was officially censured for delivering a speech excoriating Massachusetts Representative Benjamin F. Butler. The censure was later expunged from the congressional record.

After his service in the House, Brown took a break from politics, but re-entered the political arena as a candidate for governor of Kentucky in 1891. He secured the Democratic nomination in a four-way primary election, then convincingly won the general election over his Republican challenger, Andrew T. Wood. Brown's administration, and the state Democratic Party, were split between gold standard supporters (including Brown) and supporters of the free coinage of silver. Brown's was also the first administration to operate under the Kentucky Constitution of 1891, and most of the legislature's time was spent adapting the state's code of laws to the new constitution. Consequently, little of significance was accomplished during Brown's term.

Brown hoped the legislature would elect him to the U.S. Senate following his term as governor. Having already alienated the free silver faction of his party, he backed "Goldbug" candidate Cassius M. Clay, Jr. for the Democratic nomination in the upcoming gubernatorial election. However, the deaths of two of Brown's children ended his interest in the gubernatorial race and his own senatorial ambitions. At the Democratic nominating convention of 1899, candidate William Goebel used questionable tactics to secure the gubernatorial nomination, and a disgruntled faction of the party held a separate nominating convention, choosing Brown to oppose Goebel in the general election. Goebel was eventually declared the winner of the election, but was assassinated. Brown became the legal counsel for former Kentucky Secretary of State Caleb Powers, an accused conspirator in the assassination. Brown died in Henderson on January 11, 1904.

Marble Falls, Texas

Marble Falls is a city in Burnet County, Texas, United States. As of the 2016 United States Census, the city population was 7,154. It is about 58 miles (93 km) northwest of downtown Austin and 85 miles (137 km) north of San Antonio.

Lake Marble Falls is part of the Highland Lakes on the Colorado River, the largest chain of lakes in Texas. It hosts one of the largest drag boat races in the United States each August.

Morgan's Raid

Morgan's Raid was a diversionary incursion by Confederate cavalry into the northern U.S. states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War. The raid took place from June 11–July 26, 1863, and is named for the commander of the Confederates, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan. Although it caused temporary alarm in the North, the raid was ultimately classed as a failure.

The raid covered more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km), beginning in Tennessee and ending in northern Ohio. It coincided with the Vicksburg Campaign and the Gettysburg Campaign, and it was meant to draw U.S. troops away from these fronts by frightening the North into demanding their troops return home. Despite his initial successes, Morgan was thwarted in his attempts to recross the Ohio River and eventually was forced to surrender what remained of his command in northeastern Ohio near the Pennsylvania border. Morgan and other senior officers were kept in the Ohio state penitentiary, but they tunneled their way out and took a train to Cincinnati, where they crossed the Ohio River to safety.

Newburgh, Indiana

Newburgh is a town in Ohio Township, Warrick County, Indiana, United States, located just east of Evansville, Indiana, along the Ohio River. The population was 3,325 at the 2010 census, although the town is part of the larger Evansville metropolitan area which recorded a population of 342,815, and Ohio Township, which Newburgh shares with nearby Chandler, has a population of 37,749 in the 2010 Census.The area has been inhabited by various cultures for millennia dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD. By 1850 Newburgh was one of the larger riverports between Cincinnati and New Orleans, and it was the first town north of the Mason–Dixon line to be captured by Confederate forces during the Newburgh Raid as part of the American Civil War. Shortly after the mid-nineteenth century Newburgh's growth leveled off until an economic boom of the 1960s and 1970s resulted in substantial growth as a bedroom community for families looking for new housing developments near Evansville.

Today, Newburgh is locally known for its charming, historic downtown district that features a number of specialty stores, antique shops, and quaint dining establishments along its riverfront. Due to its top-rated schools and family-friendly atmosphere, the town remains a popular residential community for people working in or near Evansville.

Newburgh Raid

The Newburgh Raid was a successful raid by Confederate partisans on Newburgh, Indiana, on July 18, 1862, making it the first town in a northern state to be captured during the American Civil War. Confederate colonel Adam Rankin Johnson led the raid by using a force of only about 35 men he had recruited from nearby Henderson, Kentucky. They confiscated supplies and ammunition without a shot being fired by tricking Newburgh's defenders into thinking the town was surrounded by cannons. In reality, the so-called cannons were an assemblage of a stove pipe, a charred log, and wagon wheels, forever giving the Confederate commander the nickname of Adam "Stovepipe" Johnson.

The raid convinced the federal government to supply Indiana with a permanent force of regular Union Army soldiers to counter future raids and proved to be a significant boost for Union recruiting in Indiana.

Rankin Johnson Sr.

Adam Rankin "Tex" Johnson Sr. (February 4, 1888 in Burnet, Texas – July 2, 1972 in Williamsport, Pennsylvania) was a pitcher in Major League Baseball. His son, Rankin Johnson, Jr., was also a Major League pitcher. His father was the Civil War military leader Stovepipe Johnson

He began his professional career with the Austin Senators of the Texas League in 1908. His best season pitching was in 1916 with the Fort Worth Panthers of the Texas League. His record was 15-12 in 35 appearances that year. Later in his minor league career he was a player/coach for four seasons (1923-1926). His last professional season was in 1926 for the Chambersburg Maroons of the Blue Ridge League.

Stovepipe

Stovepipe may refer to:

Exhaust pipe

Morgan's Raiders
People
Places
Battles/Raids

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