Storm beach

A storm beach is a beach affected by particularly fierce waves, usually with a very long fetch. The resultant landform is often a very steep beach (up to 45°) composed of rounded cobbles, shingle and occasionally sand. The stones usually have an obvious grading of pebbles, from large to small, with the larger diameter stones typically arrayed at the highest beach elevations. It may also contain many small parts of shipwrecked boats.[1]

Chesil Beach in Dorset
Chesil Beach from the Isle of Portland.


A noted textbook example is the 18-mile (29 km) long Chesil Beach in Dorset, one of three major shingle structures in Britain. It is also connects the Isle of Portland to the mainland at Abbotsbury, west of the resort of Weymouth. Other examples appear in the Shetland and Orkney Islands, as well as the Scottish mainland at Caithness. The beaches of Lakshdweep Islands are also storm beaches.


Storm Beach - - 184493

These boulders, thrown up by the waves to form a storm beach 30 metres above the sea, demonstrate the power of the sea

Veantrow Bay, Shapinsay - - 485260

Shingly storm beach below a low cliff. The line of seaweed marks the high-water mark.

Storm Beach - - 1370159

The whole length of the beach here is backed by a berm of stones, some of considerable size, which have presumably been piled up by winter storms.

Laggan Sands - - 404249

Laggan Sands at Lochbuie has a sandy beach behind a storm beach of boulders.

Storm beach connecting Garbh Eilean and Eilean an Tigh - - 599496

Storm beach connecting Garbh Eilean and Eilean an Tigh. The narrow neck of pebbles is covered at spring tides and during storms.


  1. ^ Characterization of a storm beach

Ayre ( AIR; Manx: Inver Ayre) is one of the six sheadings of the Isle of Man.

It is located in the north of the island (part of the traditional North Side division) and consists of the three historic parishes of Andreas, Bride and (Kirk Christ) Lezayre.

The town of Ramsey, which is administered separately, covers areas of two historic parishes (Lezayre, and Maughold (parish) in the sheading of Garff). It is treated as part of Garff for most purposes, e.g. the coroner.Other settlements in the sheading include Glen Auldyn and Sulby (both in the parish of Lezayre).


Bryher (Cornish: Breyer, place of hills) is one of the smaller of the inhabited islands of the Isles of Scilly.

Cape Espenberg

Cape Espenberg is a cape located on the Seward Peninsula in Alaska, on the Chukchi Sea coast.

Cape Espenberg points northwards, 42 mi NW of Deering, Kotzebue-Kobuk Low. On its southeastern side there is the small Goodhope Bay, an inlet of the Kotzebue Sound.

Named in 1816 by Lt. Otto von Kotzebue (1821, p. 236) for Dr. Karl Espenberg, a surgeon who accompanied Captain (later Admiral, IRN) Adam Johann von Krusenstern on his voyage around the world in 1803-06.

Cape Espenberg lies on the Arctic Circle at the terminus of a 30 km long mainland attached beach ridge plain at the northern limit of Seward Peninsula, in western Alaska. At the entry of the shallow Kotzebue Sound embayment, Cape Espenberg faces a potential open water fetch of 1000 km across the Chukchi Sea, an impact that is restricted by a perennial ice cover decreasing in duration the last 10 years.

Cape Espenberg, located 40 km east of a pronounced easterly deflection in the coast, is the depositional sink of a 200 km long littoral transport system fostered by a dominant west to northwest wind regime. Due to an abundant offshore source, sandy barrier islands front most of the northwest facing Seward Peninsula from Bering Strait into Kotzebue Sound, enclosing several extensive lagoons. The Chukchi Sea is microtidal < 50 cm, and the prevailing westerly currents maintain a series of widely spaced offshore bars that typically damp onshore wave energy. Storm surges occur with some regularity in the fall, with the extreme events, attaining a maximum elevation of 3 to 4 meter.The beach is extremely planar and composed of comparatively well-sorted fine and medium sand, with a few stray cobbles of uncertain but probable ice-rafted origin. Dunes occur in the back beach, stabilized by grass, attaining a height of ca. 4 m. The sand is considered by geologists to reflect multiple sources. Its most common constituent, a fine quartose sand is most dense on the shallow shelf north of Bering Strait and reflects a complex history. A significant amount of Yukon River sand entered the southern Chukchi Sea during the Holocene transgression, hypothetically forming and reworking a series of early Holocene barriers into a retreat massif similar to that of the mid-Atlantic.

A secondary source of sand may be as a fluvial addition from south-trending paleo-Noatak and Kobuk rivers cross the exposed subcontinent of Beringia, and reworked into Pleistocene dunes during lower sea levels. The dark medium sand reflects updrift bluff erosion of a tephraeous maar eruption about 17,000 years ago. Sand supply is maintained by onshore transport during a five-month open water period from June to November. Although in the long-term, as established by geological 14C ages, over the last 4000 years, sand transport is onshore and progradational, in the short term, storms and transient current reversals lead to offshore transport and erosion of Espenberg beaches. Locally, beaches have witnessed significant width and depth reductions in the last five years; current reversals are also possibly more common.

A variety of clastic additions are common on the beach; these include the bones of Pleistocene megafauna (mostly horse, bison or mammoth), modern and ancient shell valves. Drift wood is concentrated in the storm beach and within the mouths of surge channels that cross cut the beach ridges. The wood, mostly spruce (Picea spp. ) is transported from the forested Yukon River drainage; cottonwood and birch are rare. Current reversals, resulting from easterly winds, lead to beach erosion, and are often coupled with the deposition of starfish and of eel grass from the enclosed lagoon.

Lying wholly within tundra, dune formation is furthered along the Espenberg beach by the winter drying of beach sand, onshore winds in late spring, and the dominance of sand-burial tolerant beach grass (Elymus spp.). High dunes correlate with heightened storm events during the Little Ice Age and contain evidence of shell beds emplaced during storm surges. Intense storms produced erosional truncations across the spit between 1000 BC and AD 200 and during the Little Ice Age.

The beach featured lies about 1 km Northwest from the navigational light at the Cape and can be considered unaffected by human processes, since the National Park Service restricts the use of motor vehicles and the region is nearly uninhabited. The closest settlement is ca. 10 km away and consists only of several cabins used seasonally by Inupiat hunters and fishers.

Coastal geography

Coastal geography is the study of the constantly changing region between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology and oceanography) and the human geography (sociology and history) of the coast. It includes understanding coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weather, and the ways in which humans interact with the coast

George Dorr

George Bucknam Dorr (December 29, 1853 – August 5, 1944) was an American preservationist. Known as the "father of Acadia National Park," he spent most of his adult life overseeing the park's formation and expansion.

Charles William Eliot called the first meeting of what would evolve into the Hancock County Trustees of Public Reservations in 1901, but it was Dorr's vision that ensured the lands would be protected and preserved for future generations.

Hawar Islands

The Hawar Islands (Arabic: جزر حوار‎; transliterated: Juzur Ḩawār) are an archipelago of desert islands owned by Bahrain, situated off the west coast of Qatar in the Gulf of Bahrain of the Persian Gulf.


An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines.

An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.

There are two main types of islands in the sea: continental and oceanic. There are also artificial islands.

Jurassic Coast

The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England. It stretches from Exmouth in East Devon to Studland Bay in Dorset, a distance of about 96 miles (154 km), and was inscribed on the World Heritage List in mid-December 2001.The site spans 185 million years of geological history, coastal erosion having exposed an almost continuous sequence of rock formation covering the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. At different times, this area has been desert, shallow tropical sea and marsh, and the fossilised remains of the various creatures that lived here have been preserved in the rocks.

Natural features seen on this stretch of coast include arches, pinnacles and stack rocks. In some places the sea has broken through resistant rocks to produce coves with restricted entrances, and in one place, the Isle of Portland is connected to the land by a narrow spit. In some parts of the coast, landslides are common. These have exposed a wide range of fossils, the different rock types each having its own typical fauna and flora, thus providing evidence of how animals and plants evolved in this region.

The area around Lulworth Cove contains a fossil forest, and 71 different rock strata have been identified at Lyme Regis, each with its own species of ammonite. The fossil collector Mary Anning lived here and her major discoveries of marine reptiles and other fossils were made at a time when the study of palaeontology was just starting to develop. The Charmouth Heritage Coast Centre provides information on the heritage coast, and the whole length of the site can be visited via the South West Coast Path.

Kamilo Beach

Kamilo Beach (literally, the twisting or swirling currents in Hawaiian), is a beach located on the southeast coast of the island of Hawaii. It is known for its accumulation of plastic marine debris from the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

Langland Bay

Langland Bay is a popular coastal holiday resort in Gower, Swansea in south Wales. It is a popular surfing beach which regularly meets the European Blue Flag award for quality.


Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form in intertidal areas where sediments have been deposited by tides or rivers. A recent global analysis suggested they are as extensive globally as mangroves. They are found in sheltered areas such as bays, bayous, lagoons, and estuaries. Mudflats may be viewed geologically as exposed layers of bay mud, resulting from deposition of estuarine silts, clays and marine animal detritus. Most of the sediment within a mudflat is within the intertidal zone, and thus the flat is submerged and exposed approximately twice daily.

In the past tidal flats were considered unhealthy, economically unimportant areas and were often dredged and developed into agricultural land. Several especially shallow mudflat areas, such as the Wadden Sea, are now popular among those practising the sport of mudflat hiking.

On the Baltic Sea coast of Germany in places, mudflats are exposed not by tidal action, but by wind-action driving water away from the shallows into the sea. These wind-affected mudflats are called windwatts in German.


Mānana Island is an uninhabited islet located 0.75 mi (1.21 km) off Kaupō Beach, near Makapuʻu at the eastern end of the Island of Oʻahu in the Hawaiian Islands. In the Hawaiian language, mānana means "buoyant". The islet is commonly referred to as Rabbit Island, because its shape as seen from the nearby Oʻahu shore looks something like a rabbit's head and because it was once inhabited by introduced rabbits. The rabbit colony was established by John Adams Cummins in the 1880s when he ran the nearby Waimānalo plantation.

The rabbits were eradicated about a hundred years later because they were destroying the native ecosystem, an important seabird breeding area.

Mānana is a tuff cone with two vents or craters. The highest point on the islet rises to 361 ft (110 m). The island is 2,319 ft (707 m) long and 2,147 ft (654 m) wide and has an area of about 63 acres (25 ha). Mānana's only sand beach is a small storm beach on the west to south-west (leeward) side of the islet. This sand deposit, located above the reach of the normal waves, is about 30 ft (9.1 m) wide and curves around to the western side of the island.

Manana was formed by the Honolulu Volcanic Series. These series of eruptions are responsible for creating other tuff cones such as Punchbowl Crater.

Mānana is a State Seabird Sanctuary—home to over 10,000 wedge-tailed shearwaters, 80,000 sooty terns, 20,000 brown noddys, 5–10 Bulwer's petrels, and 10–15 red-tailed tropicbirds, and numerous Hawaiian monk seals. It is illegal to land on the islet without permission from the Hawaiʻi Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Newgale, Pembrokeshire

Newgale (Welsh: Niwgwl) is a village with a three-mile stretch of beach in the parish of Roch, Pembrokeshire, West Wales. The beach is situated in the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park and on the Pembrokeshire Coast Path and has rugged coastal scenery with the path winding up and down the cliffs.

Newgale is one of over 40 Welsh 'Blue Flag' beaches, which means it has the top certification for quality, cleanliness and facilities.The beach is backed by a large pebble bank which was created by a major storm on 25 October 1859, and which acts as a sea defence or storm beach; however, it is often breached, and rocks are washed onto the main road. In the January 2014 storms the sea washed the pebble wall across the road and a large wave washed the early evening Richards Bros bus into the adjoining field. Newgale is popular with holiday makers, windsurfers, surfers and canoeists throughout the summer months.

There are two caravan parks, a camping site, some shops and a pub, The Duke of Edinburgh Inn. The surf at Newgale is good for beginners, with the waves usually backing off a bit even on large swell. Surfing is best on the rising tide.

The beach is a favourite place for the local people, who promenade on Boxing Day every year.

Many campers on lower ground experience flooding during rain in the summer months.

Newgale, along with Abereiddi, appeared in the music video Delerium - Silence (featuring Sarah McLachlan) 2004.Newgale marks the boundary between English and Welsh-speaking Pembrokeshire, with the next beach north of Newgale being called Pen-y-Cwm. A physical example of the boundary is Brandy Brook which runs through Newgale, splitting the English-speaking South Pembrokeshire and the Welsh-speaking North Pembrokeshire, remarked upon by Richard Fenton in his Historical Tour of 1810.


Porthloo (sometimes spelled and often pronounced Porthlow, (Cornish: Porth Logh, 'cove of the deep water inlet')) is a coastal settlement on the island of St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly, England. It is situated about half a mile northeast of Hugh Town and is a popular tourist spot with a number of guest houses, a restaurant, several gift shops and art galleries.

The only golf club on the Isles of Scilly is situated just to the north of Porthloo. The course consists of nine holes, each with two tees. The club was founded in 1904 and the course and clubhouse are open to visitors.

Shingle beach

A shingle beach (also referred to as rocky beach or pebble beach) is a beach which is armoured with pebbles or small- to medium-sized cobbles (as opposed to fine sand). Typically, the stone composition may grade from characteristic sizes ranging from 2 to 200 millimetres (0.1 to 7.9 in) diameter.

While this beach landform is most commonly found in Europe, examples are found in Bahrain, North America and in a number of other world regions, such as the east coast of New Zealand's South Island, where they are associated with the shingle fans of braided rivers. Though created at shorelines, post-glacial rebound can raise shingle beaches as high as 200 metres (660 ft) above sea level, at the High Coast in Sweden.

The ecosystems formed by this unique association of rock and sand allow colonization by a variety of rare and endangered species.

St Loy's Cove

St Loy's Cove is a small wooded valley and beach in the civil parish of St Buryan in Cornwall, England, UK. It is located two miles to the south of St Buryan churchtown, and between Penberth and Lamorna. There are just a few buildings in the cove, one of which, Cove Cottage, provides bed and breakfast and a cafe. St Loy's is within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), the Boscawen SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest) and is part of a GCR Geological Conservation Review site. The South West Coast Path passes through the cove.

Surf zone

As ocean surface waves come closer to shore they break, forming the foamy, bubbly surface called surf. The region of breaking waves defines the surf zone. After breaking in the surf zone, the waves (now reduced in height) continue to move in, and they run up onto the sloping front of the beach, forming an uprush of water called swash. The water then runs back again as backswash. The nearshore zone where wave water comes onto the beach is the surf zone. The water in the surf zone, or breaker zone, is shallow, usually between 5 and 10 m (16 and 33 ft) deep; this causes the waves to be unstable.

Watermill Cove

Watermill Cove is on the north–west coast of St Mary’s, Isles of Scilly.

It is a historic anchorage, still used today by passing yachts and other small vessels. At Tregear's Porth, there are the remains of an old quay, with the slipway still in use for small craft.

The cove is within an Area of Outstanding Beauty, is a Geological Conservation Review site and was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) in 1996.

The 0.48-hectare (1.2-acre) site is notified for a succession of Quaternary exposures in the cliff and from sea level to the top of the cliff (oldest to youngest) the succession shows:

head deposits

organic silts and sands

head deposits of the Late Devensian with microscopic remains of plants and pollen and dated to c. 30,000 years before present. The remains indicate an Arctic tundra climate

raised beach deposits, a storm beach of the Late Ipswichian interglacial 130,000 years ago and ended about 114,000 years ago.

Women's Premier Soccer League

The Women's Premier Soccer League (WPSL) is a national women's soccer league in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico, and is on the second level of women's soccer in the United States soccer pyramid, below National Women's Soccer League (NWSL) and roughly equal with United Women's Soccer (UWS). The WPSL is the largest women's soccer league in the world (in terms of number of clubs) .

The WPSL started as the Western Division of the W-League, before breaking away to form its own league in 1997. The league is sanctioned by the United States Adult Soccer Association, an affiliate of the United States Soccer Federation (USSF).

When Women's Professional Soccer (WPS) suspended play in 2012, WPSL moved forward with its ambitions toward professionalism and created the WPSL Elite League. Officially, the Elite League was a pro-am league, though the vast majority of teams (including three former WPS teams) were fully professional. The Elite league ceased operation in 2013.



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