Store norske leksikon

Store norske leksikon (Great Norwegian Encyclopedia[1]), abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia.

Store norske leksikon
The complete last edition of Aschehoug og Gyldendals Store norske leksikon
The complete last edition of Aschehoug og Gyldendals Store norske leksikon


Paper editions 1978–2007

The SNL was created in 1978, when the two publishing houses Aschehoug and Gyldendal merged their encyclopedias and created the company Kunnskapsforlaget.[2]

Up until 1978 the two publishing houses of Aschehoug and Gyldendal, Norway's two largest, had published Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon and Gyldendals konversasjonsleksikon, respectively. The respective first editions were published in 1907–1913 (Aschehoug) and 1933–1934 (Gyldendal).[3]

The slump in sales for paperbased encyclopedias around the turn of the 21st century hit Kunnskapsforlaget hard, but a fourth edition of the paper encyclopedia was secured by a grant of 10 million Norwegian kroner from the foundation Fritt Ord in 2003. The fourth edition consisted of 16 volumes, a total of 12,000 pages and 280,000 entries.[4]

List of editions

  • First edition, 1978-1981, 12 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås[5]
  • Second edition, 1986-1989, 15 volumes. Chief editors Olaf Kortner, Preben Munthe, Egil Tveterås.
  • Third edition, 1995-1998, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen.
  • Fourth edition, 2005-2007, 16 volumes. Chief editor Petter Henriksen.

Online encyclopedia

The online edition of SNL was launched in 2000, and had both private and institutional subscribers. The paywall was removed on 25 February 2009, and the online encyclopedia became free.[6]

On 12 March 2010, Kunnskapsforlaget announced that they would close the online encyclopedia because of lacklustre sales and failing revenue. It was also announced that the articles would not be given to the Wikimedia Foundation, with chief-editor Petter Henriksen stating that: "It is important that the people behind the articles remain visible".[7]

In 2011, the foundations Fritt Ord and Sparebankstiftelsen DNB acquired the encyclopedia, hired Anne Marit Godal as the new chief editor and established a new organisation, assisted by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and Norwegian Non-Fiction Writers and Translators Association.[8] In 2014 the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association took over the encyclopedia; the members of the association were all the Norwegian universities and other non profit organisations.[9] In 2016 Erik Bolstad became the new chief editor.[10]

As of 2018, the SNL has around 200,000 articles online, updated by approximately 750 affiliated academics. The SNL accepts contributions from users, but all changes to the articles are verified by a topic expert before publication.[11] The online encyclopedia are among the most-read Norwegian published sites, with around 2 million unique visitors per month.[12]


  1. ^ About the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia (English)
  2. ^ Bakke, Sven Ove; Hobbelstad, Inger Merete; Kvalshaug, Vidar; Nilsen, Morten Ståle (2012). Norske klassikere. Bøker, filmer, musikk, radio og TV fra 1945 til i dag (in Norwegian). Oslo: Spartacus. p. 182. ISBN 978-82-430-0560-0.
  3. ^ History of the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia (Norwegian)
  4. ^ Kunnskapsforlages historie (Norwegian)
  5. ^ National Library of Norway: Store norske leksikon, 1978 (Norwegian)
  6. ^ Press release from Kunnskapsforlaget, 16.09.2008
  7. ^ Computerworld Norway, 12.03.2010
  8. ^ History of the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia (Norwegian)
  9. ^ About the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia Association (Norwegian)
  10. ^ I 15 år har Erik Bolstad utviklet nye tjenester i NRK. Nå skal han lede et leksikon (Norwegian)
  11. ^ About the Great Norwegian Encyclopedia (Norwegian)
  12. ^ SNL annual report 2017 (Norwegian)

External links

1945 in Norway

Events in the year 1945 in Norway.

1954 in Norwegian music

The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1954 in Norwegian music.

2009 in Norway

Events in the year 2009 in Norway.

2010 in Norway

Events in the year 2010 in Norway.

2011 in Norway

Events in the year 2011 in Norway.

2012 in Norway

Events in the year 2012 in Norway.

2013 in Norway

Events in the year 2013 in Norway.

2014 in Norway

Events in the year 2014 in Norway.

2015 in Norway

Events in the year 2015 in Norway.

2016 in Norway

In 2016 in Norway, the reigning monarch is King Harald V of Norway. The Prime Minister of Norway is Erna Solberg, who has been Prime Minister since October 2013. The president of the Storting is Olemic Thommessen, who has also been in power since October 2013. Norway will be hosting the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics in Lillehammer in 2016. Lillehammer was previously the host of the 1994 Winter Olympics. Norway will be hosting local or international music festivals for various genres of music including metal, opera, jazz and Church music.

2017 in Norway

Events in the year 2017 in Norway.

2018 in Norway

Events in the year 2018 in Norway.

Anne Marit Godal

Anne Marit Godal (born 20 November 1972) is a Norwegian encyclopedist.She studied political science at the University of Oslo and has had positions in the Norwegian Labour Party and No to the EU. From 2011 to 2016 she was editor-in-chief of Store norske leksikon [the Great Norwegian encyclopedia], Store medisinske leksikon (an associated medical encyclopedia), and Norsk biografisk leksikon (a biographical encyclopedia).

When she took over the editorship, these works were in danger of running out of funding, but in her term as editor-in-chief she secured university funding for their long-term survival.


H. Aschehoug & Co. (W. Nygaard), commonly known as Aschehoug,(pronounced [²ɑskəhæʉ]) is one of the largest independent publishing companies in Norway, founded in 1872. Headquartered in Oslo, the publishing house has 480 employees. The Aschehoug group also comprises other publishing houses owned partially or wholly by Aschehoug. Aschehoug literally means "ash hill."


Buskerud (Urban East Norwegian pronunciation: [²bʉskərʉːd] (listen)) is a county in Norway, bordering Akershus, Oslo, Oppland, Sogn og Fjordane, Hordaland, Telemark and Vestfold. The county extends from the Oslofjord and Drammensfjorden in the southeast to Hardangervidda mountain range in the northwest. The county administration is located in Drammen. Together with Akershus and Østfold, Buskerud will form the new, larger county Viken, from 1 January 2020.


Bygdøy or Bygdø is a peninsula situated on the western side of Oslo, Norway. Administratively, Bygdøy belongs to the borough of Frogner. Bygdøy is also the home of five national museums as well as a royal estate.

Gyldendal Norsk Forlag

Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, commonly referred to as Gyldendal N.F. and in Norway often only as Gyldendal, is one of the largest Norwegian publishing houses. Founded in 1925, it should not be confused with the publishing house Gyldendal headquartered in Copenhagen, which was founded in 1770 and which was formerly the leading publishing house of both Denmark and Norway.

List of Justices in the Supreme Court of Norway

List of Justices in the Supreme Court of Norway.


Romsdal is the name of a traditional district in the Norwegian county Møre og Romsdal, located between Nordmøre and Sunnmøre. The district of Romsdal comprises Aukra, Fræna, Midsund, Molde, Nesset, Rauma, Sandøy, and Vestnes. It is named after the valley of Romsdalen, which covers part of Rauma.

The largest town is Molde, which also is the seat of Møre og Romsdal County Municipality. Åndalsnes is a town located near the mouth of the river Rauma in the municipality of Rauma. The Rauma Line comes from Dombås and terminates at Åndalsnes.

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