Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament. Established in 1966, SIPRI provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public. SIPRI is based in Stockholm.
SIPRI was ranked among the top three non-US world-wide think tanks in 2014 by the University of Pennsylvania Lauder Institute's Global Go To Think Tanks Report. In 2016 it ranked SIPRI in the top twenty eight among think tanks globally.
|Stockholm International Peace Research Institute|
|Formation||6 May 1966|
|Purpose||Provides data, analysis and recommendations, based on open sources, to policymakers, researchers, media and the interested public|
A Swedish Royal Commission chaired by Ambassador Alva Myrdal proposed in its 1966 report to establish an institute, later named the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI. The Institute's research should seek to contribute to "the understanding of the preconditions for a stable peace and for peaceful solutions of international conflicts" and the Commission recommended that research be concentrated on armaments, their limitation and reduction, and arms control. The Commission also recommended that SIPRI work be of "an applied research character directed towards practical-political questions [which] should be carried on in a constant interchange with research of a more theoretical kind".
SIPRI has built its reputation and standing on competence, professional skills, and the collection of hard data and precise facts, rendering accessible impartial information on weapon developments, arms transfers and production, military expenditure, as well as on arms limitations, reductions and disarmament. The task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace".
SIPRI's organisation consists of a Governing Board, Director, Deputy Director, Research Staff Collegium and support staff. An Advisory Committee serves as a consultative body to the Institute. The Governing Board takes decisions on important matters concerning the research agenda, activities, organisation and financial administration of the Institute. Other matters are decided by the Director. The Research Staff Collegium advises the Director on research matters. The staff of about 50 persons is international. The researchers are recruited for a specific project period and represent various academic disciplines. Located in Sweden, the Institute offers a unique platform for researchers from different countries to work in close cooperation. The Institute also hosts guest researchers who work on issues related to the SIPRI research programme. Although SIPRI is not a teaching institute, it receives interns whose programmes of study can contribute to and benefit from SIPRI's research. Contacts are maintained with other research centres and individual researchers throughout the world. SIPRI cooperates closely with several intergovernmental organisations, notably the United Nations and the European Union, and regularly receives parliamentary, scientific and government delegations as well as visiting researchers. Frequent contacts are maintained with diplomatic missions in Stockholm and with Swedish research centres.
Current members of the Governing Board:
Former Governing Board Chairpersons:
The Director, who is appointed by the Swedish Government, has the main responsibility for SIPRI's work programme. Dr Bates Gill served as SIPRI Director from 2007–2012. In September 2012, the Swedish Government appointed the German economist Tilman Brück as his successor. Brück held the position of SIPRI Director from January 2013 to June 2014. In June 2014 the SIPRI Governing Board appointed Dr Ian Anthony as Director for an interim period. The current Director, Dan Smith, was appointed in September 2015.
Former SIPRI Directors:
The Deputy Director is appointed by the Governing Board from Swedish candidates. SIPRI's current Deputy Director is Sigrún Rawet.
Former SIPRI Deputy Directors:
Research is conducted at SIPRI by an international staff of about 50 researchers and research assistants. The Institute's current research programme centres on the following major themes:
With the following research areas:
Within these fields of study, workshops, conferences, seminars and lectures are organised in order to bring together a broad spectrum of expertise and to exchange views on subjects studied at the Institute. Among these the biggest are the Stockholm Forum on Peace and Security and the Stockholm Security Conference. SIPRI research projects maintain large databases on military expenditure, arms-producing industries, arms transfers, chemical and biological warfare, national and international export controls, arms control agreements, annual chronologies of major arms control events, military manoeuvres and nuclear explosions.
SIPRI's publications and information material are distributed to a wide range of policy makers, researchers, journalists, organisations and the interested public. The results of the research are disseminated through the publication of books and reports by SIPRI and commissioned authors as well as through symposia and seminars. The Institute has forged its profile by concentrating on present-day realities, providing unbiased facts to states and individuals. SIPRI's main publication, the SIPRI Yearbook, was first published on 12 November 1969. The Yearbook serves as a single authoritative and independent source to which politicians, diplomats and journalists can turn for an account of what has happened during the past year in armaments and arms control, armed conflicts and conflict resolution, security arrangements and disarmament. It is translated into a number of other languages, notably Russian, Ukrainian, Chinese and Arabic.
SIPRI's financial support is primarily drawn from governments and independent philanthropic organisations around the world. SIPRI also receives annual support from the Swedish government in the form of a core grant approved by the Swedish parliament.
The 9M120 Ataka (Russian: Атака; Attack) is an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) originating from the Soviet Union. The NATO reporting name of the 9M120 missile is the AT-9 Spiral-2. It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) family. The missile has radio command guidance and is also a Beam riding SACLOS. This missile's primary variant was designed to defeat tanks with composite armour and explosive reactive armor. The 9M120 Ataka system is often confused with the 9K121 Vikhr system, despite being different weapons systems developed by different companies. The former was designed by the KBM machine-building design bureau and manufactured by the Degtyarev plant. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Russia exported the Ataka ATGM to Iran, Kazakhstan, and Slovenia.April Carter
April Carter (born 22 November 1937) is a British peace activist. She was a political lecturer at the universities of Lancaster, Somerville College, Oxford and Queensland, and was a Fellow at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute from 1985 to 1987. She is currently an Honorary Research Fellow of the Centre for Peace and Reconciliation Studies, Coventry University, and a 'senior editor' on the international editorial board for the International Encyclopedia of Peace to be published by Oxford University Press (New York).
April Carter was active in the nuclear disarmament movement in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960s, becoming Secretary of the Direct Action Committee Against Nuclear War in May 1958 (just after it had organised the first Aldermaston March), and was involved in early civil disobedience at nuclear missile bases.
In 1961 she was European coordinator for the San Francisco to Moscow March organised by the US Committee for Nonviolent Action, and 1961-62 was an assistant editor at the international pacifist weekly Peace News. During the revived nuclear disarmament movement of the 1980s she was a member of the Alternative Defence Commission, which published an analysis of non-nuclear defence options for Britain in Defence Without the Bomb (Taylor and Francis, 1983)Arms industry
The arms industry, also known as the defense industry or the arms trade, is a global industry which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology. It consists of a commercial industry involved in the research and development, engineering, production, and servicing of military material, equipment, and facilities. Arms-producing companies, also referred to as arms dealers, defence contractors, or as the military industry, produce arms for the armed forces of states and for civilians. Departments of government also operate in the arms industry, buying and selling weapons, munitions and other military items. An arsenal is a place where arms and ammunition - whether privately or publicly owned - are made, maintained and repaired, stored, or issued, in any combination. Products of the arms industry include guns, artillery, ammunition, missiles, military aircraft, military vehicles, ships, electronic systems, night-vision devices, holographic weapon sights, laser rangefinders, laser sights, hand grenades, landmines and more. The arms industry also provides other logistical and operational support.
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) estimated military expenditures as of 2012 at roughly $1.8 trillion. This represented a relative decline from 1990, when military expenditures made up 4% of world GDP. Part of the money goes to the procurement of military hardware and services from the military industry. The combined arms-sales of the top 100 largest arms-producing companies amounted to an estimated $395 billion in 2012 according to SIPRI. In 2004 over $30 billion were spent in the international arms-trade (a figure that excludes domestic sales of arms). According to SIPRI, the volume of international transfers of major weapons in 2010–14 was 16 per cent higher than in 2005–2009. The five biggest exporters in 2010–2014 were the United States, Russia, China, Germany and France, and the five biggest importers were India, Saudi Arabia, China, the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan.Many industrialized countries have a domestic arms-industry to supply their own military forces. Some countries also have a substantial legal or illegal domestic trade in weapons for use by their own citizens, primarily for self-defence, hunting or sporting purposes. Illegal trade in small arms occurs in many countries and regions affected by political instability. The Small Arms Survey estimates that 875 million small arms circulate worldwide, produced by more than 1,000 companies from nearly 100 countries.Governments award contracts to supply their country's military; such arms contracts can become of substantial political importance. The link between politics and the arms trade can result in the development of what U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower described in 1961 as a military-industrial complex, where the armed forces, commerce, and politics become closely linked, similarly to the European multilateral defence procurement. Various corporations, some publicly held, others private, bid for these contracts, which are often worth many billions of dollars. Sometimes, as with the contract for the international Joint Strike Fighter, a competitive tendering process takes place, with the decision made on the merits of the designs submitted by the companies involved. Other times, no bidding or competition takes place.As-Safira
For SIPRI, see Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.As-Safira (Arabic: السفيرة / ALA-LC: as-Safīrah; Aleppo dialect: Sfīre) is a Syrian city administratively belonging to the Aleppo Governorate. It is the administrative center for the as-Safira District. As Safīrah has an altitude of 348 meters (1,142 ft), and a population of 106,382 as of 2007, making it the 11th largest city per geographical entity in Syria.Dan Smith (British author)
Dan Smith OBE (born 1951) is a British author, cartographer and peace researcher. He is Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Manchester. He was Director of Peace Research Institute Oslo from 1993 to 2001. Smith was the Secretary General of the independent peacebuilding organisation International Alert and is currently the Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).Daniel Nord
Daniel Nord is a former Deputy Director of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). He currently works for the Swedish Agency for Non-Proliferation and Export Controls. He has an international law background with extensive experience on non-proliferation and disarmament affairs, international humanitarian law and human rights.Frank Barnaby
Frank Charles Barnaby is Nuclear Issues Consultant to the Oxford Research Group, a freelance defence analyst, and a prolific author on military technology, based in the UK.Barnaby trained as a nuclear physicist and worked at the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, between 1951 and 1957. He was on the senior scientific staff of the Medical Research Council (UK) when a university lecturer at University College London (1957–67). Barnaby was Director of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) from 1971–81. In 1981, Barnaby became a founding member of the World Cultural Council. He was a Professor at the VU University Amsterdam 1981–85, and awarded the Harold Stassen Chair of International Relations at the University of Minnesota in 1985.Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction
The G8 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction is a security initiative announced at the 2002 G8 summit. It entails a pledge by G8 members to commit US$ 20 billion, over a ten-year period, towards the elimination and security of some weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) in Russia and former soviet states. The agreement was initiated against the backdrop of the September 11 attacks and specifically aimed to deny terrorists access to WMDs. Some of the stated priorities include: destroying stockpiles of chemical weapons, dismantling decommissioned nuclear submarines, safeguarding/disposing fissile material as well as employing former weapons scientists. The initiative was extended in 2011. Now it has 27 members after Hungary joined in December, 2013.Göran Lennmarker
Rolf Göran Lennmarker (born 7 December 1943 in Norberg, Västmanland County) is a Swedish moderate politician who has been a member of the Riksdag from 1991 to 2010. From 2006 until 2010 he was the Chair of the Riksdag's Committee on Foreign Affairs. In 2006 he briefly also was Chair of the Committee on EU Affairs.
He is the Chairman of SIPRI (Stockholm International Peace Research Institute)'s Governing Board and the chairman of the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation.He has been a member of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly since 1995. He was elected President of the Assembly in 2006 and in 2007 and nominated President Emeritus in 2008. Lennmarker has also acted as the Assembly's Special Representative on the Nagorno Karabakh Conflict and on the conflicts on Georgia.Jayantha Dhanapala
Jayantha Dhanapala, (Sinhala: ජයන්ත ධනපාල) (born 30 December 1938) is a Sri Lankan diplomat who serves as member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and was a governing board member of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Dhanapala is also a distinguished member of Constitutional Council (Sri Lanka) and he is the Senior Special Advisor on Foreign Relations to President Maithripala Sirisena, and was Sri Lanka's official candidate for the post of Secretary-General of the United Nations, before withdrawing from the race on 29 September 2006. From 2007 he has been the President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.List of countries by military expenditure per capita
This is a list of countries by military expenditure per capita, the amount spent by a nation on its military per capita in a given year. This list is sourced from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute for the year 2017.List of countries by military expenditures
This article contains a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year. Military expenditure figures are presented in United States dollars based on either constant or current exchange rates. These results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of each country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next.Military budget
A military budget (or military expenditure), also known as a defense budget, is the amount of financial resources dedicated by a state to raising and maintaining an armed forces or other methods essential for defense purposes.
Military budgets often reflect how strongly a country perceives the likelihood of threats against it, or the amount of aggression it wishes to conjure. It also gives an idea of how much financing should be provided for the upcoming fiscal year. The size of a budget also reflects the country's ability to fund military activities. Factors include the size of that country's economy, other financial demands on that entity, and the willingness of that entity's government or people to fund such military activity. Generally excluded from military expenditures is spending on internal law enforcement and disabled veteran rehabilitation. The effects of military expenditure on a nation's economy and society, and what determines military expenditure, are notable issues in political science and economics. There are controversial findings and theories regarding these topics. Generally, some suggest military expenditure is a boost to local economies. Still, others maintain military expenditure is a drag on development.Every year in April is the Global Day of Action on Military Spending (GDAMS), which aims to gather people and create a global movement that persuades governments to reallocate their military spending to essential human needs such as food, education, health care, social services and environmental concerns.Among the countries maintaining some of the world's largest military budgets, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States are frequently recognized to be great powers.According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, in 2014, total world military expenditure amounted to 1.8 trillion US$.Military budget of China
The military budget of China is the portion of the overall budget of China that is allocated for the funding of the military of China. This military budget finances employee salaries and training costs, the maintenance of equipment and facilities, support of new or ongoing operations, and development and procurement of new weapons, equipment, and vehicles. Every March, as part of its annual state budget, China releases a single overall figure for national military expenditures.In 2016, the Chinese government's official defense spending figure was $146 billion, an increase of 11% from the budget of $131 billion in 2014. This makes China's military budget the second largest in the world behind the US. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, SIPRI, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in 2010-14, an increase of 143 per cent from the period 2005-2009. China supplied major arms to 35 states in 2010–14. A significant percentage (just over 68 per cent) of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. China also exported major arms to 18 African states.Randall Forsberg
Dr. Randall Caroline Forsberg (July 23, 1943 – October 19, 2007) led a lifetime of research and advocacy on ways to reduce the risk of war, minimize the burden of military spending, and promote democratic institutions. Her career started at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in 1968. In 1974 she moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts (where she earned her Ph.D. in 1980) to found the Institute for Defense and Disarmament Studies as well as to launch the national Nuclear Weapons Freeze Campaign.Solna Municipality
Solna Municipality (Swedish: Solna kommun or Solna stad, IPA: [²soːlna]) is a municipality in Stockholm County in Sweden, located just north of the Stockholm City Centre. Its seat is located in the town of Solna, which is a part of the Stockholm urban area.
The municipality is a part of Metropolitan Stockholm. None of the area is considered rural, which is unusual for Swedish municipalities, which normally are of mixed rural/urban character. Solna is the third smallest municipality in Sweden in terms of area.
Solna borders Stockholm Municipality to the south, southeast and northwest; to Sundbyberg Municipality to the west; to Sollentuna Municipality to the north; and finally to Danderyd Municipality to the northeast. The boundary with Danderyd Municipality is delineated by the Stocksundet sea strait.
There are two parishes in Solna Municipality: Råsunda (population 29,677) and Solna (population 28,317).
Solna is divided into eight traditional parts with no administrative functions: Bergshamra, Haga, Hagalund, Huvudsta, Järva, Råsunda, Skytteholm and Ulriksdal. The largest districts are Råsunda, Hagalund and Huvudsta, with the Solna Centrum in between them.
With few exceptions, Solna's built-up areas have a suburban character, but there are also several large parks and Friends Arena, Sweden's new national football stadium adjacent to the Solna station of Stockholm commuter rail.
The final matches of both the 1958 FIFA (men's) World Cup and the 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup were played at Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium from 1937 to 2012 (demolished in 2013).
Solna has very low tax rates and has attracted a wide range of companies and authorities, making it a major place of work in Stockholm. Among the most important employers are the medical university Karolinska Institutet and the Karolinska University Hospital. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) are also located in Solna.Thomas L. Siebert
Thomas Leland Siebert (born 1946) is an American lawyer and former diplomat. He was born to Virgil and Evelyn Siebert in Cleveland, Ohio, the second of four sons. Siebert was appointed United States Ambassador to Sweden in 1994 by President Bill Clinton and served in this capacity until 1998.
Siebert received his B.A. at Georgetown University in 1968 and his J.D. at Georgetown University Law Center in 1972.
He was a member of the Council of American Ambassadors. In 1998, he served as Chairman of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Plenipotentiary Conference. The ITU – at the time composed of representatives of 189 Nations - is the United Nations' specialized agency devoted to telecommunications matters and is the highest decision-making body made up of representatives of governments belonging to an international treaty-making organization. Ambassador Siebert served as parliamentarian and negotiator on such contentious issues as Palestinian membership in the ITU.
Siebert served on the Diplomatic Council on Energy Security. This Council provides advice to Securing America's Energy Future (SAFE), a nonpartisan, not-for-profit organization committed to reducing America's dependence on oil and improving U.S. energy security. Ambassador Siebert also serves on the Board of Advisers of the International Criminal Court (ICC) Project which operates within the American Bar Association’s (ABA) Center for Human Rights. The ICC Project’s mission is to strengthen the U.S.-ICC relationship within many American circles. Ambassador Siebert is Chairman of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute – North America (SIPRI-NA) headquartered in Washington, DC. SIPRI-NA’s charter is to contribute to policy debates on global and regional security issues through dissemination of SIPRI research, analysis, and recommendations drawn from SIPRI’s global networks.
He also served on the Board of American Citizens Abroad (ACA) Global Foundation.
He lives with his wife, Debbie, in Washington D.C. and is the father of their four children: Sarah, Lauren, Thomas Siebert II (Teddy), and Trevor.Tilman Brück
Tilman Brück (born 10 December 1970) is a German economist specializing in development and the economics of peace, conflict and terrorism. He was full professor of development economics at Humboldt University of Berlin. He also headed the department of Development and Security at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW).Brück is an expert on the economics of developing and transition countries such as Colombia, Mozambique, Angola, Uganda, Mongolia and the countries of Central Asia. In September 2012 it was announced that he was to replace Bates Gill as head of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, a global think-tank dedicated to research into security, conflict and arms control. Brück took up the Director's position in January 2013 and stepped down in June 2014.Wolfgang Ischinger
Wolfgang Friedrich Ischinger (born April 6, 1946) is a German diplomat. From 2001 to 2006, he was the German ambassador to the United States, and from 1998 to 2001, he was Staatssekretär (Deputy Foreign Minister) in Berlin. He was Germany's ambassador to the Court of St. James's (the United Kingdom) from 2006 to May, 2008.
Ambassador Ischinger has been the Chairman of the Munich Security Conference since 2008, succeeding Horst Teltschik. He was also Global Head of Government Relations of Allianz SE from March 2008 until December 2014. He serves on the Supervisory Board of Allianz Deutschland AG, on the European Advisory Board of Investcorp (London/New York) and on the governing board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. He has been described as "Germany's best-connected former diplomat".