Stock dove

The stock dove (Columba oenas) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae, the doves and pigeons.[2]

Stock dove
Columba oenas1
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Columba
C. oenas
Binomial name
Columba oenas
Pigeon colombin MHNT
Columba oenas egg


The genus Columba is the largest within the pigeon family, and has the widest distribution. Its members are typically pale grey or brown, often with white head or neck markings or iridescent green or purple patches on the neck and breast. The neck feathers may be stiffened and aligned to form grooves, but these are absent in this species. The stock dove is less grey in plumage than other pigeons in Europe.

The three western European Columba pigeons, though alike, have very distinctive characteristics. The wood pigeon may be readily distinguished by its large size, as well as the white on its neck (in adults) and wings. The rock pigeon and stock dove are more alike in size and plumage, but wild specimens of the former have a white rump and two well-marked dark bars on the wing, while the rump of the stock dove is grey and its wing bars incomplete. The feral pigeon (the same species as rock pigeon) is highly variable, and indistinctly marked grey specimens with the white rump missing can sometimes resemble the stock dove quite closely.

The stock dove is sociable as well as gregarious, often consorting with wood pigeons, though doubtless it is the presence of food which brings them together.

The short, deep, "grunting" Ooo-uu-ooh call is quite distinct from the modulated cooing notes of the wood pigeon; it is loud enough to be described, somewhat fancifully, as "roaring".


The stock dove is the scarcest of the wild European pigeons, though still common in ideal habitat. In part of its European and western Asiatic range it is a migrant. There has been a sharp decline in France (−57% in 1976). Although the species is not considered threatened in Europe, it is classified in Schedule 2 of the Birds Directive and Annex III the Berne Convention.[3] 100,000 to 200,000 individuals winter in France.[4]

The nest is usually in a hole in an old tree. Before deforestation, the stock dove was the most frequent pigeon, nesting mostly in oak or pine wood, but as it usually nests in cavities in trees it was normally only found in old forests. In plantations there are not as many holes to nest in, so it is scarcer. In addition, as the stock dove is double-brooded, requiring two holes for its broods. It has been observed nesting in rabbit burrows, ruins, old poplar hedges, cracks in crags or cliff faces, in ivy, and in the thick growth around the boles of lime trees. It will also use nest boxes. The cavity should be about 75 centimetres deep and the hole should be big enough to admit a fist. Though nesting material is seldom used, the squabs leave the hole very oily. Stock doves prefer to nest close together. Outside of the breeding season, stock doves may also roost in cavities.

The habitat of the stock dove is generally open country. Even though it nests in trees it does not prefer densely wooded areas. It is also common on coasts where the cliffs provide holes.

Its flight is quick, performed by regular beats, with an occasional sharp flick of the wings, a characteristic of pigeons in general. It perches well, and in nuptial display walks along a horizontal branch with swelled neck, lowered wings, and fanned tail. During the circling spring flight the wings are smartly cracked like a whip.

Most of its food is plant material; young shoots and seedlings are favoured, and it will take grain as well as insects and snails. In some areas it feeds mostly on acorns and pine seeds. Its diet can include a variety of foods: berries such as bay and hawthorn, figs, cereal grains, beans, peas, and small invertebrates that are obtained while walking on the ground. During autumn migration in October, stock doves stop over at places with an abundance of acorns, supplementing the diet with shoots and leaves.


The common name stock dove has caused some confusion about the origins of this bird. The modern usage of the word "stock" might imply that the bird has been tamed and kept as stock for food and merchandise, leading to the belief that this bird is a hybrid breed with its origins in human aviaries; however, this is not the case. The word "stock" in the common name of this species refers not to the stock of trade, but comes from the Old English "stocc" meaning "stump, post, stake, tree trunk, log,".[5] Therefore, "stock dove" means roughly "a dove which lives in hollow trees".[6] Such hollow trees near human settlements would often be taken and used as wood stock for firewood, hence the name.

The genus name Columba is the Latin word meaning "pigeon, dove",[7] whose older etymology comes from the Ancient Greek κόλυμβος (kolumbos), "a diver", from κολυμβάω (kolumbao), "dive, plunge headlong, swim".[8] Aristophanes (Birds, 304) and others use the word κολυμβίς (kolumbis), "diver", for the name of the bird, because of its swimming motion in the air. The specific epithet is derived from the Greek oinas "pigeon".[7]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Columba oenas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Gibbs, David; Eustace Barnes; John Cox. Pigeons and Doves: A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. United Kingdom: Pica Press. p. 624. ISBN 1-873403-60-7.
  3. ^ État de santé des populations d'oiseaux nicheurs en France de 1989 a 2001. (état zéro du programme STOC).
  4. ^ Yeatman-Berthelot, 1991, Enquête Atlas
  5. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary stock (n.1)"
  6. ^ "Roland Newkirk, paragraph 5" "Words to the Wise"
  7. ^ a b Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 114, 280. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  8. ^ Liddell, Henry George & Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.

External links


Blindwells is a place in East Lothian, Scotland. Etymology "hidden" "springs"

A former open-cast coal mine north of Tranent on the north-east side of the A1, just east of the Prestonpans/Tranent junction, adjacent to the estates of the Earl of Wemyss and March. As of plans in 2010 it is intended that the Blindwells settlement will consist of around 1,600 houses, and is part of East Lothian's planned 4,800 house total. The settlement would include its own community centre, pre-school facility, primary and secondary schools and commercial aspects. Though the planned 1,600 houses implies a smaller development than the Scottish New Towns created in the sixties this could be expanded to accommodate another 2,500 to 3,000 houses in the future, for which a total of 130 hectares are earmarked.

Older maps also show a cluster of buildings at Riggonhead, on the bank to the south-east of the main pond, at NT416752, but all that remains there now are earth mounds which are frequently used by scrambler bikes.

A series of man-made earth embankments were constructed for the purpose of settlement tests, to demonstrate that the site is stable enough to be built on.

There has long been a pool on the northern part of the site and this has attracted some birds as it is currently one of the few standing open waters in East Lothian. Waterbirds regularly seen here include mute swan*, mallard*, common teal, wigeon, tufted duck, little grebe*, moorhen* and coot* (* confirmed breeding since 2008 ). Gadwall also bred in 2012 with two broods seen in 2014 and a further expansion since. Regular counts are undertaken for BTO Wetland Bird Survey (WeBS) monitoring. Other characteristic birds of the site include grey partridge*, common kestrel, common buzzard, stock dove, skylark*, common grasshopper warbler, sedge warbler*, tree sparrow, reed bunting* and yellowhammer*, with altogether 29 species confirmed to breed in the period 2008-2013, with 17 "probable" breeders and a further 9 "possible" breeders (using BTO Atlas classifications ). Scarcer species recorded include little egret, common shelduck, garganey, northern shoveler, greater scaup, smew (drake plus 3 redheads, Feb 2012), marsh harrier (occasional extended presence), hen harrier (18 November 2014), merlin, common quail, a total of 18 species of wading bird including little ringed plover, wood sandpiper, green sandpiper, spotted redshank, black-tailed godwit and bar-tailed godwit, also short-eared owl, barn owl, cuckoo, kingfisher, lesser whitethroat, garden warbler and water pipit (15 March 2015); long-eared owls bred on the perimeter of the site in 2017. There is rich insect fauna too with nine species of dragonfly and damselfly having been recorded including the rare Red-veined Darter (Sympetrum fonscolombii) (2nd record for Lothian) and Black Darter (Sympetrum danae), together with common breeding species Emerald Damselfly (Lestes sponsa), Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion puella), Common Blue Damselfly (Enallagma cyathigerum), Blue-tailed Damselfly (Ischnura elegans), and scarcer breeders Common Hawker (Aeshna juncea), Four-spotted Chaser(Libellula quadrimaculata) and Common Darter (Sympetrum striolatum). There is a colony of grayling and narrow-bordered five-spot burnet moth, which is currently on the edge of its UK range in this part of Scotland (photo, right).. The pond supported abundant amphibians, including smooth newt, attracting Grey Herons.

The main pond, a precious habitat for the above species, was completely eliminated by earthworks for the new settlement in the fourth week of August 2018, ending one of the best wildlife sites in the local area.

Columba (genus)

The large bird genus Columba comprises a group of medium to large stout-bodied pigeons, often referred to as the typical pigeons. The terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used indiscriminately for smaller and larger Columbidae, respectively. Columba species – at least those of Columba sensu stricto – are generally termed "pigeons", and in many cases wood-pigeons. The species commonly referred to just as "the pigeon" is the feral pigeon (C. livia domestica). It is derived from the rock dove (C. livia), which also has given rise to the majority of domesticated pigeon breeds, such as the racing pigeon and the fantail pigeon. Meanwhile, "wood pigeon" by itself usually means the common wood pigeon (C. palumbus).

This genus as understood today is native to the Old World, but some – notably the domestic and feral rock pigeon – have been introduced outside their natural range, for example in the Americas.

Common wood pigeon

The common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) is a large species in the dove and pigeon family. It belongs to the genus Columba and, like all pigeons and doves, belongs to the family Columbidae. It is locally known in southeast England as the "culver"; This name has given rise to several areas known for keeping pigeons to be named after it, such as Culver Down.

The genus name Columba is the Latin word meaning "pigeon, dove", whose older etymology comes from the Ancient Greek κόλυμβος (kolumbos), "a diver", from κολυμβάω (kolumbao), "dive, plunge headlong, swim". Aristophanes (Birds, 304) and others use the word κολυμβίς (kolumbis), "diver", for the name of the bird, because of its swimming motion in the air. The specific epithet palumbus is derived from the Latin palumbes, "wood pigeon".

Copeland Islands

The Copeland Islands is a group of three islands in the north Irish Sea, north of Donaghadee, County Down, Northern Ireland consisting of Lighthouse, Mew and Copeland Island. They lie within the civil parish of Bangor.

Dinton Pastures Country Park

Dinton Pastures Country Park is a country park in the civil parish of St Nicholas Hurst, in the borough of Wokingham, near Reading in the English county of Berkshire.

Göygöl National Park

Göygöl National Park (Azerbaijani: Göygöl Milli Parkı) — is a national park of Azerbaijan. It was established by the decree of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, in an area in Goygol Rayon administrative district on April 1, 2008 on the basis of the former "Goy Gol State Reserve" that was established in 1925 and which it superseded, on a surface area of 12,755 hectares (127.55 km2). It was enlarged from 6,739 hectares (67.39 km2) of the former state reserve to its current surface area as a national park.

The national park includes one of the most beautiful and cleanest lakes in Azerbaijan, Lake Göygöl. The reserve is intended to protect the natural ecosystem of the subalpine zones of the northern slopes of the Lesser Caucasus. During the Soviet era, it had been deprived of its reserve status, but was restored later.


In demonology, Halphas (listed in Rudd's edition as Malthas, and in the Crowley/Mathers edition as Halphas, Malthus, or Malphas) is the thirty-eighth demon in the Ars Goetia in the Lesser Key of Solomon (forty-third in Johann Weyer's Pseudomonarchia Daemonum), ranked as an earl.

Most manuscripts describe Halphas as a hoarse-voiced stock dove (though Weyer and Colin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal describe him as a stork), who supplies weapons and ammunition for towers (Weyer and de Plancy have "towns" or "villes" instead), sends men to war, and commands 26 legions of spirits.According to Rudd, Halphas is opposed by the Shemhamphorasch angel Haamiah.

Holosiivskyi National Nature Park

The Holosiivskyi National Nature Park Ukrainian: Націона́льний приро́дний парк «Голосі́ївський» is a protected remnant of forest surrounded by the urban area of the city of Kiev, Ukraine. It is located on the Kiev hills, in the Dniester-Dnieper forest-steppe province, North-Dnieper lowland and steppe zone of Left-Bank Dnieper province, in Holosiivskyi District. Its total area is 4525.52 hectares, of which 1879.43 hectares are in permanent use. It is managed by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine.A variety of landscapes, significant biodiversity, lakes and wetlands, plus historical, cultural and ethnographic monuments define a high importance of the park’s area for scientific research, monitoring of ecosystems and conservation, as well as use by locals of ecological trails.

Ian Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton

Ian Bruce Lang, Baron Lang of Monkton, PC (born 27 June 1940) is a British Conservative politician and Life Peer who served as the Member of Parliament for Galloway, and then Galloway and Upper Nithsdale, from 1979 to 1997.

On 29 September 1997 Lang was raised to the peerage. He has been an active member of the House of Lords and is currently the Chairman of the Constitution Committee, a post he took up in 2016, having previously served as Chair of the Advisory Committee on Business Appointments from 2009 to 2014.

King George's Fields (Monken Hadley)

King George's Fields is a 28 hectare Site of Borough Importance for Nature Conservation, Grade II, in Monken Hadley in the London Borough of Barnet.It is one of many King George's Fields all over the country, established as memorials to King George V, who died in 1936. These KGV fields are legally protected as places for public recreation through a "deed of dedication" with the Fields in Trust charity.

Lavells Lake

Lavells Lake is a local nature reserve in Woodley, Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is owned by Wokingham Borough Council and managed by the council in partnership with the Friends of Lavell's Lake. The nature reserve is within the Dinton Pastures Country Park.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of San Marino

This is a list of the bird species recorded in San Marino. The avifauna of San Marino include a total of 96 species, none of which are introduced or endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of the Association of European Rarities Committees.

Minsener Oog

Minsener Oog, also Minser Oog or Minsener Oldeoog, is an uninhabited East Frisian island that belongs to the parish of Wangerooge in the north German district of Friesland in the state of Lower Saxony. It has been artificially enlarged through the construction of groynes.

New Forest

The New Forest is one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and forest in Southern England, covering southwest Hampshire and southeast Wiltshire.

It was proclaimed a royal forest by William the Conqueror, featuring in the Domesday Book. Pre-existing rights of common pasture are still recognised today, being enforced by official verderers. In the 18th century, The New Forest became a source of timber for the Royal Navy. It remains a habitat for many rare birds and mammals.

Petralona cave

The Petralona cave (Greek: Σπήλαιο Πετραλώνων) also Cave of the Red Stones (Greek: Σπήλαιο " Κόκκινες Πέτρες "), a Karst formation – is located at 300 m (984 ft) above sea-level on the western foot of Mount Katsika, about 1 km (0.62 mi) east of the eponymous village, about 35 km (22 mi) south-east of Thessaloniki city on the Chalkidiki peninsula, Greece. The site came to public attention when in 1960 a fossilized archaic human skull was found. The cave had been discovered accidentally only a year earlier (1959) after erosion had left clefts in the rock. "Bejeweled" with impressive stalactite and stalagmite formations and holding an abundance of fossils, the cave soon attracted geologists and paleontologists. After decades of excavations the cave is open to the public and scientific work is documented and presented in an adjacent archaeological museum.The cave's most prominent fossil specimen, since known among paleoanthropologists as the "Petralona Skull".

The on-site Anthropological Museum of Petralona displays a selection of the cave's findings.

Selborne Common

Selborne Common comprises 241.3 acres (97.7 ha) of woodland and relict wood-pasture to the west and south of Selborne in the English county of Hampshire. It is owned and managed by the National Trust.

Somali pigeon

The Somali pigeon or Somali stock dove (Columba oliviae) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae. It is endemic to northern Somalia. Because there has hardly been any research on the species, the health of the population is uncertain. However, it has been suggested that the species is relatively rare. The IUCN Redlist identified a possible threat to the species from the speckled pigeon (Columba guinea).The species dwells mostly in rock along the arid coast of Somalia. Food sources include seeds, cultivated grain and berries.

Tring Reservoirs

Tring Reservoirs is a group of four reservoirs close to Tring on the border of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire, England. Their purpose is to feed the Grand Union Canal.

The four reservoirs are: Startops End, Marsworth, Tringford and Wilstone. These reservoirs adjoin each other, separated only by paths and roads; the fourth, Wilstone Reservoir, is a short distance to the west, close to the village of Wilstone.

The reservoirs are a 106.5-hectare (263-acre) biological Site of Special Scientific Interest managed by the Herts and Middlesex Wildlife Trust.


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