Stinson L-5 Sentinel

The Stinson L-5 Sentinel was a World War II era liaison aircraft used by all branches of the U.S. military and by the British Royal Air Force. It was produced by the Stinson Aircraft Company. Along with the Stinson L-1 Vigilant, the L-5 was the only other American liaison aircraft of World War II that was purpose-built for military use and had no civilian counterpart. All other military liaison airplanes adopted during World War II were lightly modified "off-the-shelf" civilian models.

L-5 Sentinel
L-5futureshox
Role Liaison / observation / light plane
Manufacturer Stinson
Produced 1942–1945
Number built Over 3,896
Developed from Stinson YO-54

Design and development

The origins of the L-5, affectionately known as the "Flying Jeep", can be traced to the prewar civilian Stinson HW-75. The 75 horsepower civilian high-wing design was built by the Stinson Aircraft Company at Wayne, Michigan and first flew in 1939. The HW-75 featured two seats up front side-by-side, and a third "jumpseat" in the rear on which a small passenger could sit sideways. The design was easy to fly. Shortly after the introduction of the HW-75, Stinson became a subsidiary of the Vultee Aircraft Corporation. Under Vultee management, the HW-75 was equipped with an 80-horsepower four-cylinder engine for the 1940 model year and the HW-75 became known as the Model 105 "Voyager", touting its 105 mph cruise speed. Fitted with a four-cylinder 90 hp Franklin engine for the 1941 model year, the type became known as the Model 10A. In the postwar era, the fuselage of the Model 10A was enlarged to accommodate four seats, and the four-cylinder powerplant was replaced with a Franklin 150 hp six-cylinder engine. This conversion became the Stinson Model 108 Voyager and the only civilian aircraft commercially produced by Stinson after WWII.

Boeing SB-17G
An L-5 Sentinel beside a search-and-rescue B-17 Flying Fortress.

Six examples of the Model 105 Voyager were equipped with 80 horsepower Continental O-170 engines and provided to the military for testing under the experimental designation YO-54. Evaluated by the Air Corps in 1940 for potential use as a low-cost short-range observation aircraft, it failed to meet performance requirements. The Voyager was then completely re-engineered by Stinson into a much stronger and more powerful tandem-seat airplane that met rigorous Army engineering handbook standards for the design of military aircraft. The prototype, designated as the Model V-76 by Vultee / Stinson was accepted by the military after accelerated service trials and entered into service in December 1942 as the Army O-62 ('O' for observation). The L-5 carried a pilot and observer in a tandem-seating configuration, which was preferred by the military for observation work.

In March 1943, with the creation of the liaison category of light observation aircraft (previous examples came from Taylorcraft Aircraft as the L-2, and from Aeronca as their L-3, along with the numerous Piper L-4) the designation for Stinson's new purpose-built military design was changed to the L-5. The primary purpose as a liaison aircraft was courier and communication work, artillery spotting and casualty evacuation. The fuselage of later models was redesigned so the aircraft could also be used as an air ambulance, or for cargo work. With a wider and deeper rear fuselage section and a large rear door that folded downward, a litter patient or 250 pounds of cargo could be quickly loaded aboard.

The L-5 series was manufactured between December 1942 and September 1945, during which time 3,590 of the unarmed two-seaters were built for the United States armed forces, making it the second most widely used light observation aircraft of the war behind the Piper L-4 Cub.

Construction

The fuselage was constructed using chrome-moly steel tubing covered with doped cotton fabric and the wings and empennage were constructed of spruce and mahogany plywood box spars and plywood ribs and skins, also covered with fabric. The use of aluminum, which was in critically short supply and more urgently needed for other aircraft, was limited to the engine cowling, tail cone, framework for the ailerons, rudder and elevator and the landing gear fairings. The L-5 was powered by a six-cylinder 190 horsepower Lycoming O-435 engine.

Operational history

Capable of operating from short unimproved airstrips, the L-5 "Sentinel" delivered personnel, critical intelligence and needed supplies to the front line troops. On return flights, wounded soldiers were often evacuated to rear area field hospitals for medical treatment, boosting the morale of combat troops fighting in remote areas. L-5s were also used for aerial photography, controlling vehicle convoys, para-dropping food, medical supplies and ammunition, laying communication wire, distributing propaganda leaflets, spraying pesticide, transporting prisoners, and directing fighter-bombers to ground targets. The L-5 was also popular with Generals and other high-ranking officers for fast, efficient short-range transportation.

After tests on land, the system was first tested in September 1943 for shipboard use with an installation on the motor ship City of Dalhart. Staff Sergeant R. A. Gregory made ten good takeoffs and hookups with a Stinson L-5 light plane.[1] During the Battle of Okinawa, L-5s operated from an LST using the Brodie landing system which allowed a light aircraft to take off and land without a flat surface by snagging a wire hung between two booms. One of the L-5s that used the Brodie system off Okinawa is now on display in the Boeing Aviation Hangar facility of the Smithsonian's NASM's Udvar-Hazy Center annex at Dulles Airport just west of Washington, DC.[2][3]

HD Master plane
UN liaison service in Greece during the Greek Civil War

The USAAF, US Marines, and US Navy used this aircraft in the European, Pacific, and Far East theaters during World War II, and in Korea during the Korean War.

The Navy and Marine version of the L-5 through L-5E were designated OY-1, and all these aircraft has 12-volt electrical systems. The 24-volt L-5G became the OY-2. Neither the L-5G nor OY-2 saw combat during World War II because production did not begin until July, 1945, just weeks before the war ended, but they were used extensively during the Korean War. The British Royal Air Force (RAF) procured 40 L-5s and 60 L-5Bs, and designated them Sentinel Is and Sentinel II's respectively. These aircraft were used exclusively in the India-Burma theater of operations.

After World War II, the L-5 was widely used by the Civil Air Patrol for search and rescue work. Many other countries also received L-5s after the war, particularly India which received 200. A number of these went to Pakistan after the partition of India in 1948. From 1950 in India, L-5s were used by flying clubs to teach civilian pilots until about 1973 when a lack of spares forced their retirement.

Variants

USS Sicily (CVE-118) launches OY-2 Sentinel off Korea on 22 September 1950 (80-G-420239)
USMC OY-2 takes off from the USS Sicily, 1950

Five versions of the Sentinel were produced for the U.S. Army Air Force (USAAF); the L-5, L-5B, L-5C, L-5E and L-5G. There was no official L-5A variant as is often reported because the designation was intended for a version of the aircraft that was never built. Nonetheless, many people in and out of the military still refer to the standard "observer" version of the L-5 as an L-5A. Like the L-5A, the L-5D was a planned version that was not adopted. A single L-5F was an L-5B equipped with an experimental low-noise "stealth" propeller and exhaust system for research purposes. The L-5B through L-5G models were modified to carry a litter patient or light cargo, or a rear seat passenger sitting in the normal position. An L-5H version was on the drawing boards at Stinson when the war ended, and it never reached the prototype stage.

O-62
Observation, artillery spotting and liaison aircraft, powered by a Lycoming 0-435-1 piston engine; 275 built.
L-5
Observation, artillery spotting and liaison aircraft; 1,538 built, 79 transferred to USN/USMC as OY-1.
L-5A
Cancelled conversions of L-5 with 24V electrical system and 200 hp ranger engine.
L-5B
729 aircraft with rear fuselage hatch to permit loading of a stretcher or cargo; twin-float capability; 60 transferred to RAF as Sentinel Mk II, 40 transferred to USN/USMC as OY-1.
L-5C
200 L5-B were equipped K-20 reconnaissance cameras.
L-5D
Not adopted. No prototype built.
Stinson L-5E Sentinel with NACA
L-5E with "Quiet Flight" modifications at Langley
L-5E
750 STOL variants with larger tires and brakes and manually drooping ailerons allowing shorter takeoff and landing; 152 transferred to USN/USMC as OY-1. An L-5E-1 variant included larger wheels and tires and heavy duty brakes. Thirty L-5E's were later converted to 24 volt electrical systems and re-designated OY-2.
L-5G
Similar to L-5E but with a 24 volt electrical system and powered by 190-hp (142-kW) Lycoming 0-435-11 piston engine with improved cylinders and carburetor and fitted with controllable pitch propellers. 115 were built by end of the war and the contract for 785 others was cancelled. Final production model redesignated U-19B in 1962.
XL-5F
One test and evaluation aircraft, powered by a Lycoming 0-435-2 piston engine.
U-19A
L-5 variants still in service redesignated U-19A by the USAF in 1962.
U-19B
L-5G redesignated U-19B in 1962. One used as a glider tug at the [United States Air Force Academy].
OY-1
306 L-5 and L-5Bs transferred to the United States Marine Corps and United States Navy.
OY-2
152 transfers of L-5E to USN/USMC; 30 OY-1 conversions to 24V electrical system.
Sentinel Mk I
40 L-5s supplied to the RAF under Lend-Lease.
Sentinel Mk II
60 L-5Bs supplied to the RAF under Lend-Lease.
L-5/235
variant powered by Lycoming O-540-B, 235 hp, used for glider towing.

Operators

 Australia
 Greece
 Italy
 Japan
 South Korea
 Philippines
 Poland
 Republic of China
 People's Republic of China
 Thailand
 United Kingdom
 United States

Surviving aircraft

Stinson ‘L-5B’ Sentinel ‘203917’ “Guinea Short Lines” (N5473V) (29694988143)
OY-1 on display at the Travis AFB Heritage Center
18-15-010-L5E
L-5E on display at the Museum of Aviation

Today there are about 300 known examples left worldwide and less than half are in flying condition.[8] A group called the Sentinel Owners and Pilots Association is dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of this aircraft type.[9]

Australia
  • 03995 – OY-1 airworthy with Robert William Kemmis in Coolangatta, Queensland, Australia. This example was built for the USAAF but was delivered directly to the US Navy instead, serving until 1949.[10][11][8]
United States
Netherlands

Specifications (L-5)

Stinson L5 Silh

Data from March Field Air Museum website[41]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two (pilot and observer)
  • Length: 24 ft 1 in (7.34m)
  • Wingspan: 34ft 0 in (10.36m)
  • Height: 7 ft 11 in (2.41m)
  • Wing area: 155 ft2 (14.40m2)
  • Empty weight: 1550 lb (702 kg)
  • Useful load: lb (kg)
  • Loaded weight: 2020 lb (916 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 2050 lb (929 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-435-1, 185hp (138kW)

Performance

Armament
None (technically). Some aircraft had jury rigged, anti-tank rocket launchers (mainly bazookas) installed and used with success against ground targets in WWII.

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Bax Seat: Hanging Out With the Brodies". Flying Magazine. Los Angeles: CBS Magazines. 112 (12): 96. December 1985. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
  2. ^ "NASM – Collections – Objects – Stinson L-5 Sentinel". National Air & Space Museum. Retrieved December 9, 2015. The L-5 is one of the most important but overlooked aircraft of the Second World War. Versatile and durable, the L-5 flew a wide variety of missions: photo reconnaissance, resupply, evacuation of wounded, message courier, VIP transport, and artillery spotting.
  3. ^ "L-5 Used in Pacific With Brodie System YouTube
  4. ^ Bridgman 1951, p. 11a.
  5. ^ aeroflight
  6. ^ Bridgman 1951, p. 16a.
  7. ^ Bridgman 1951, p. 20a.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Gray, James (Summer 2014). "L-5 Newsletter" (PDF). Sentinel Owners & Pilots Association. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  9. ^ "[Home Page]". Sentinel Owners & Pilots Association. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  10. ^ Flypast Magazine, July 2007, Key Publishing Ltd.
  11. ^ "Aircraft Register [VH-NOY]". Australian Government Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  12. ^ "Indoor Exhibits – Humanitarian Missions". Travis Air Force Base Heritage Center. Travis Heritage Center. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  13. ^ a b "CAF Liaison/Observation". Commemorative Air Force. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  14. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Stinson-Convair OY-2 Sentinel, s/n 04013 USN, c/n 4013, c/r N5138B". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  15. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N5138B]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  16. ^ "Stinson L-5 Sentinel". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  17. ^ "Aircraft Listing" (PDF). Flying Leathernecks. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  18. ^ "1943 Stinson L-5 Sentinel". Air Group One. Air Group One CAF. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  19. ^ "STINSON SENTINEL" (PDF). 27 June 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  20. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N59AF]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  21. ^ "L-5 Sentinel". March Field Air Museum. March Field Air Museum. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  22. ^ "Stinson L-5". DFW Wing. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  23. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N57789]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  24. ^ "OY-1 SENTINEL". National Naval Aviation Museum. Naval Aviation Museum Foundation. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  25. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Stinson OY-1 Sentinel, s/n 60465 USMC, c/n 76-0385, c/r N57598". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  26. ^ "Stinson L-5 Sentinel". National Museum of the US Air Force. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  27. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Stinson L-5 Sentinel, s/n 42-98285 USAAF, c/n 76-0526, c/r N63777". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  28. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N63777]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  29. ^ "Stinson L-5 Sentinel". Commemorative Air Force Minnesota Wing. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  30. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Stinson L-5 Sentinel, s/n 42-98667 USAAF, c/r N68591". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  31. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N68591]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  32. ^ "Our Stinson L-5 Sentinel". Capital Wing of the Commemorative Air Force. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  33. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N1156V]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  34. ^ "Aircraft". Central California Valley Squadron. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  35. ^ "FAA REGISTRY [N5625V]". Federal Aviation Administration. U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  36. ^ "Our Collection". Vintage Flying Museum. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  37. ^ "Airframe Dossier – Stinson L-5E Sentinel, s/n 44-17925 USAAF, c/n 76-3199, c/r N1135V". Aerial Visuals. AerialVisuals.ca. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  38. ^ "1944 Stinson L-5B-1VW Sentinel – PH-PBB". EAA. EAA. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  39. ^ "South Dakota Air and Space Museum". www.sdairandspacemuseum.com. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  40. ^ "1944 Stinson L-5B-VW Sentinel – N9658H". DDA. DDA. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  41. ^ "Stinson L-5 Sentinel." Archived 2000-09-15 at the Wayback Machine March Field Air Museum. Retrieved: 8 December 2006.

Bibliography

  • Bavousett, Glenn B. World War II Aircraft in Combat. New York: Arco Pub. Co, 1976.
  • Bridgeman, Leonard. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1951–52. London: Samson Low, Marston & Company, Ltd., 1951.
  • Love, Terry M. L-Birds: American Combat Liaison Aircraft of World War II. New Brighton, Minnesota: Flying Books International, 2001. ISBN 978-0-911139-31-0.
  • Morgała, Andrzej. Ex-USAAF aircraft 1945: Piper L-4 Grasshopper, Douglas C-47 Skytrain/Dakota, Cessna UC-78 Bobcat, Stinson L-5 Sentinel, Taylorcraft L-2A Grasshopper. Sandomierz: STRATUS, 2011.

External links

25th Air Support Operations Squadron

The United States Air Force's 25th Air Support Operations Squadron is a combat support unit located at Wheeler Army Airfield, Hawaii. The squadron provides tactical command and control of airpower assets to the Joint Forces Air Component Commander and Joint Forces Land Component Commander for combat operations.

426th Reconnaissance Group

The 426th Tactical Intelligence Group is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was active as the 426th Reconnaissance Group in 1943, but was disbanded before becoming fully organized. It was reconstituted as a military intelligence unit in 1985, but has not been active since.

7th Air Division

The 7th Air Division (7 AD) served the United States Air Force with distinction from early 1944 through early 1992, earning an outstanding unit decoration and a service streamer along the way.

91st Air Division

The 91st Air Division is an inactive United States Air Force organization. Its last assignment was with Continental Air Forces, assigned to First Air Force, being stationed at Newark Municipal Airport, New Jersey. It was inactivated on 24 June 1949.

Battle of Maguindanao

The Battle of Maguindanao or Cotabato and Maguindanao Campaign (Filipino: Labanan sa Maguindanao o Kampanya sa Cotabato at Maguindanao) was one of the final battles of the Philippines Campaign of World War II. The battle was fought in advance of U.S. landings by Philippine Commonwealth military forces and the recognized Christian and Muslim guerrilla fighters against Imperial Japanese Army troops.

Japanese forces, numbering about 1,500 men of the 166th Independent Infantry Battalion, in the Malabang-Cotabato area were part of the 100th Division garrison troops, approximately one third Koreans, that were demoralized by poor officers and a defeatist attitude. The guerrillas had been destroying supplies, blowing bridges and making even small truck convoys or small patrols impossible for months even before their direct offensive operations began in April.Beginning in early March 1945 part of Colonel Wendell Fertig's 10th Military District guerrilla force, the guerrilla 108th Division began attacking the Japanese garrison at Malabang with some air support from U.S. Marine Corps and United States Army Air Forces aircraft. The 108th was commanded by Lt. Col. Charles W. Hedges, an unsurrendered U.S. Army officer, with forces at Malabang commanded by an Australian officer who had escaped from Borneo, Maj. Rex Blow. The elements of the 108th directly involved were the Expeditionary Battalion, part of the 105th Infantry and the Moro Maranao Militia Force that was under the operational control of the 108th.In late March progress was such that Stinson L-5 Sentinel liaison planes could use the Malabang strip and on 5 April Marine Corps aircraft were using the strip. By the 11 April, the Japanese had fled toward Parang and on 13 April Colonel Fertig notified Eighth Army that U.S. forces could land unopposed at Malabang and Parang with indication the Japanese had probably evacuated the Cotabato area. The reoccupation effort cost the guerrillas 17 dead and 21 wounded with perhaps 250 Japanese losses with an estimated fewer than 100 escaping. After confirmation by Marine air reconnaissance previous plans were changed so that one battalion of the 24th Division assault forces of Task Group 78.2 would go ashore at Malabang with the rest going directly to Parang. Despite Fertig's assertion no shore bombardment would be necessary a bombardment preceded the landings beginning shortly after 0730 on 17 April.

Buzz number

A buzz number was a large letter and number combination applied to United States Air Force military aircraft in the years immediately after World War II, through the early 1960s. They were applied for general aerial identification of aircraft, but particularly for the identification of aircraft guilty of "buzzing" (very-low-altitude high-speed passes) over populated areas.

The first two letters of a buzz number indicated the type and designation of an aircraft while the last three were generally the last three digits of the aircraft serial number. Air Force fighters used buzz numbers starting with the letter F (or P, when fighters were designated as "pursuit" aircraft before June 1948), while bombers started with the letter B. For example, a P-51 Mustang would have a buzz number such as FF-230 while an F-86 Sabre might be FU-910. A B-66 Destroyer would have a buzz number such as BB-222. One of the last Air Force fighters to carry a buzz number was the F-4 Phantom II (FJ), then called the F-110 Spectre by the Air Force.

Commemorative Air Force

The Commemorative Air Force (CAF), until 2002 the Confederate Air Force, is a Texas-based non-profit organization dedicated to preserving and showing historical aircraft at airshows primarily throughout the U.S. and Canada.

Dutch Dakota Association

The Dutch Dakota Association or DDA Classic Airlines, known by many just as the DDA, is a small foundation dedicated to the preservation and operation of classic aircraft, especially the Douglas DC-3 Dakota. They are located on the east side of Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands.

L5

L5 or L-5 may refer to:

L5 Society, society promoting Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill's vision of space colonization

ISO/IEC 8859-9 (Latin-5), an 8-bit character encodingIn entertainment:

L5 (band), French female pop music group

L5 Games, video games developer published by Gravity Interactive

Gibson L5, electric guitar

"Home on Lagrange (The L5 Song)", a filk songIn science:

Haplogroup L5 (mtDNA), human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

Lagrangian point 5 in an astronomical Solar System

Lp space for p=5

Ribosomal protein L5, a human gene

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5, a human gene

the fifth lumbar vertebra of the vertebral column, in human anatomyIn transportation:

Stinson L-5 Sentinel, aircraft used by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II

Barcelona Metro line 5

HMS L5, a 1917 British L class submarine

Junkers L5, a 1920s German six-cylinder, water-cooled, inline aircraft engine

PRR L5, an American electric locomotive

SP&S Class L-5, an 1897 steam locomotives class

Strv L-5, a 1929 Swedish tank designed by Landsverk

USS L-5 (SS-44), a 1916 United States Navy L-class submarineOther:

L5, the fifth lumbar vertebra

Liaison aircraft

A liaison aircraft (also called an army cooperation aircraft) is a small, usually unarmed aircraft primarily used by military forces for artillery observation or transporting commanders and messages. The concept developed before World War II and included also battlefield reconnaissance, air ambulance, column control, light cargo delivery and similar duties. Able to operate from small, unimproved fields under primitive conditions, with STOL capabilities, most liaison aircraft were developed from, or were later used as general aviation aircraft. Both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters can perform liaison duties.

Liaison pilot

A liaison pilot was a World War II United States enlisted pilot, whose wings bore an "L" in the center. They flew light single engine liaison aircraft. Included were many enlisted aviation students who washed out of pilot training after having soloed and were given the opportunity to become liaison pilots. Flight training consisted of about 60 hours of flying time and stressed such procedures as short field landings and takeoffs over obstacles, low altitude navigation, first aid, day and night reconnaissance, aerial photography, and aircraft maintenance. Unarmored and unarmed—except perhaps for a .45 pistol or .30 carbine—these men in 28 different squadrons flew low and slow with wheels, skis, or floats. They flew varied and often hazardous missions in nearly every theater—medical evacuation from forward areas; delivering munitions, blood plasma, mail, and other supplies to front lines; ferrying personnel; flying photographic or intelligence missions; serving as air observers for fighters or bombers; and other critical yet often unpublicized missions.During the campaign to recapture the Philippines, pilots of the 25th Liaison Squadron flew a dozen Stinson L-5 Sentinel aircraft in short 30-minute flights (December 10–25, 1944) delivering supplies (including a 300-bed hospital) to the 6,000 men of the 11th Airborne Division isolated in the mountains of Leyte. In another mission, an Army officer wounded in the chest in New Guinea was evacuated in a liaison aircraft as the pilot pumped a portable respirator with one hand while he flew the aircraft with the other. In the northwestern U.S., some liaison pilots flew forest patrols (Project Firefly) watching for fires ignited by incendiary bombs carried across the Pacific beneath unmanned Japanese high altitude balloons.

Lone Star Flight Museum

The Lone Star Flight Museum, located in Houston, Texas, is an aerospace museum that displays more than 24 historically significant aircraft, and many artifacts related to the history of flight. The museum's collection is rare because most of the aircraft are flyable. Located at Ellington Airport, the museum is housed on about 100,000 ft2 (10,000 m2) of property, including its own airport ramp. The museum, formerly located in Galveston, moved to Houston to avoid a repeat of the devastation suffered during Hurricane Ike.

Mission Over Korea

Mission Over Korea is a 1953 American war film released by Columbia Pictures, directed by Fred F. Sears, from a story by former war correspondent Richard Tregaskis, author of Guadalcanal Diary. The film stars John Hodiak, John Derek, Audrey Totter and Maureen O'Sullivan.

The Korean War provides the background, including combat footage photographed by producer Robert Cohn and a camera crew near the front lines. The prologue before the onscreen credits notes the film is "Dedicated to the Eighth United States Army, Fifth United States Air Force, Republic of Korea Army who made this film possible. To the men at Itazuki, Kwanju, Taego, Ouijanbu, Pusan, Inchon, Seoul where this story was photographed."

No. 117 Squadron RAF

No. 117 Squadron RAF was a Royal Air Force Squadron formed to be a bomber unit in World War I and reformed as a transport and communications unit in World War II.

Oklahoma Air National Guard

The Oklahoma Air National Guard (OK ANG) is the air force militia of the State of Oklahoma, United States of America. It is, along with the Oklahoma Army National Guard, an element of the Oklahoma National Guard.

As state militia units, the units in the Oklahoma Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Oklahoma though the office of the Oklahoma Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States. The Oklahoma Air National Guard is headquartered in Oklahoma City, and its commander is currently Brigadier General Gregory L. Ferguson

U19

U19 or U-19 may refer to:

German submarine U-19, one of several German submarines

U-19A or U-19B, later-day model designations for the Stinson L-5 Sentinel aircraft

U-19, U19, or U 19, an abbreviation of "under 19", a common designation for sports leagues or tournaments for players age 19 or younger

Specifically, one of several Under-19 association football teams

For the U19 Bandy World Championship, see Bandy World Championship Y-19

U-19 An experimental selfpropelled gun armed with 203mm B-4 cannon based on the KV-1 tank.

Vintage Flying Museum

The Vintage Flying Museum is a non-profit aviation museum located at Meacham International Airport, Fort Worth, Texas. The primary mission of the museum is to preserve America's flying heritage in word, deed and action.

Stinson aircraft
Model numbers
Names
Military
designations
Vultee aircraft
Manufacturer designations
By role
Designation sequences for this aircraft:

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.