Stevan Harnad

Stevan Robert Harnad (Hernád István Róbert, Hesslein István, born June 2, 1945, Budapest) is a cognitive scientist.

Stevan Harnad
Stevan Harnad
Harnad in 2014
BornJune 2, 1945 (age 73)
Budapest, Hungary
ResidenceMontréal, Canada
Alma materMcGill University, Princeton University
Scientific career
FieldsCognitive science
InstitutionsUniversité du Québec à Montréal, University of Southampton
ThesisGrounding Symbolic Representation in Categorical Perception (1992)
InfluencesDonald O. Hebb, Julian Jaynes, Noam Chomsky, Alan Turing, Charles Darwin


Harnad was born in Budapest, Hungary. He did his undergraduate work at McGill University and his graduate work at Princeton University's Department of Psychology. Harnad completed his Master of Arts degree in Psychology from McGill University in 1969,[1] his Doctor of Philosophy degree from Princeton University in 1992.[2] He was awarded an honorary doctorate by University of Liège in 2013.[3]


Harnad's research interests are in cognitive science and open access.[4][5] He is currently professor of psychology at Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), McGill University, and professor emeritus of cognitive science at the University of Southampton. Elected external member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 2001 (resigned in protest, 8 October 2016 [6]), he was Canada Research Chair in cognitive science 2001-2015. His research is on categorization,[7] communication,[8] cognition,[9] and consciousness[10] and he has written extensively on categorical perception, symbol grounding, origin of language, lateralization, the Turing test, distributed cognition, scientometrics, and consciousness. Harnad is a former student of Donald O. Hebb[11] and Julian Jaynes.[12]

Research publishing and open access

In 1978, Harnad was the founder[13] of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, of which he remained editor-in-chief until 2002.[14] In addition, he founded Psycoloquy (an early electronic journal sponsored by the American Psychological Association), CogPrints (an electronic eprint archive in the cognitive sciences hosted by the University of Southampton), and the American Scientist Open Access Forum[15] (since 1998; now the Global Open Access List, GOAL[16]). Harnad is an active promoter of open access, EPrints,[17] Enabling Open Scholarship (EOS),[18] Open Access Scholarly Information Sourcebook (OASIS),[19] Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) and its Campus Open Access Policies.[20] Harnad is currently Editor-in-Chief of the refereed journal Animal Sentience[21]

Political activism

Harnad is the author of a 2011 open letter[22] signed by over 60 external members of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences addressed to the Academy's President, József Pálinkás, concerning the press and police harassment campaign against Hungarian philosophers who were critics of the current Hungarian ruling party, Fidesz, and its prime minister, Viktor Orbán.[23][24]

Animal welfare

Harnad is Editor-in-Chief of the refereed journal Animal Sentience[25] launched in 2015 by the Institute of Science and Policy of The Humane Society of the United States. A vegan,[26][27] Harnad is increasingly active in animal welfare,[28][29] animal rights.[30] and animal law.[31][32]


  1. ^ Harnad, Stevan (1969). The effects of fixation, attention, and report on the frequency and duration of visual disappearances (MA thesis). McGill University.
  2. ^ Harnad, Stevan (1992). Grounding Symbolic Representation in Categorical Perception (PhD thesis). Princeton University.
  3. ^ "Université de Liège - Academic Year Opening Ceremony 2013". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  4. ^ Stevan Harnad publications indexed by Google Scholar
  5. ^ Stevan Harnad at DBLP Bibliography Server Edit this at Wikidata
  6. ^ Gorondi, Pablo, Nobel winner joins scientists’ protest of Hungarian policies, AP News
  7. ^ Harnad, Stevan (2005). To Cognize is to Categorize: Cognition is Categorization. Archived February 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine in Lefebvre, C. and Cohen, H., Eds. Handbook of Categorization. Elsevier.
  8. ^ Cangelosi, Angelo and Harnad, Stevan (2001). The adaptive advantage of symbolic theft over sensorimotor toil: Grounding language in perceptual categories. Archived April 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Evolution of Communication 4(1) 117-142
  9. ^ Harnad, Stevan (2006). The Annotation Game: On Turing (1950) on Computing, Machinery, and Intelligence. Archived March 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine In: Epstein, Robert & Peters, Grace (Eds.) Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer. Springer
  10. ^ Harnad, Stevan & Scherzer, Peter (2008). First, Scale Up to the Robotic Turing Test, Then Worry About Feeling. Archived February 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 44(2): 83-89
  11. ^ "D.O. Hebb (1904 - 1985)". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  12. ^ What It Feels Like To Hear Voices: Fond Memories of Julian Jaynes Archived March 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Editorial". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  14. ^ "BBS Valedictory Editorial 2003". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  15. ^ Archive of American Scientist Open Access Forum Archived June 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "GOAL Info Page". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  17. ^ "Open Access". Retrieved 2015-10-21.
  18. ^ EnablingOpenScholarship (EOS) Archived November 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Administrator. "Editorial Team and Advisory Board". Archived from the original on 2010-05-23. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  20. ^ "Get Involved in Open Access - SPARC".
  21. ^ Animal Sentience An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling Archived October 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Open Access Archivangelism".
  23. ^ Bohannon, John (February 4, 2011). "Hungarian Academicians Blast Government Over Inquiry Into Research Funds". ScienceInsider. Archived from the original on February 9, 2011.
  24. ^ "Hungarian newspaper targets former dissidents". Monsters and Critics. January 8, 2011.
  25. ^ Animal Sentience An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling Archived October 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Elise Desaulniers "I Am Ashamed to Have Been a Vegetarian for 50 Years" Archived July 31, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Huffington Post, May 30, 2013.
  27. ^ Stevan Harnad (2012) "Luxe, nécessité, souffrance: pourquoi je ne suis pas carnivore" Quèbec humaniste 8(1)
  28. ^ Harnad, S. (2014) Animal pain and human pleasure: ethical dilemmas outside the classroom Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. LSE Impact Blog 6/13 June 13, 2014
  29. ^ Marc Bekoff & Stevan Harnad (2015) Doing the Right Thing: An Interview With Stevan Harnad. Psychology Today Blog. January 2015
  30. ^ Harnad, Stevan (2012). How/Why Explaining the Causal Role of Consciousness is Hard Archived October 21, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Turing Centenary Institute on the Evolution and Function of Consciousness"
  31. ^ Manifesto for the Evolution of Animals’ Legal Status in the Civil Code of Quebec
  32. ^ Audiovisuel. "GRIDA".

See also

External links

Albert Bregman

Albert Stanley "Al" Bregman (born September 15, 1936) is a Canadian professor and researcher in experimental psychology, cognitive science, and Gestalt psychology, primarily in the perceptual organization of sound.

He is known for having defined and conceptually organized the field of auditory scene analysis (ASA) in his 1990 book, Auditory Scene Analysis: the perceptual Organization of Sound (MIT Press). His ideas about ASA have provided a new framework for research in the auditory systems of both humans and non-human animals, for behavioral and neurological studies of speech perception, for music theory, hearing aids, audio technology, and the separation of speech from other sounds by computers (CASA). In acknowledgement of these contributions, he has been called "the father of auditory scene analysis".He currently holds a post-retirement appointment at the rank of emeritus professor in the Department of Psychology at McGill University. Arriving at McGill in 1965, he became the first professor there to teach Cognitive Psychology. He has also taught courses on Computer and Man, Research methods in Experimental Psychology, Learning Theory, Auditory Perception, Psychological Theory, and Honors research seminars.Many of his McGill undergraduate students have gone on to make significant contributions to intellectual life. These include Steven Pinker, Adam Gopnik, Paul Bloom, Stevan Harnad, Alfonso Caramazza, Marcel Just, Stephen McAdams, Bruce Walker, Susan Pinker, Alexander I. Rudnicky, and Alison Gopnik. His graduate students have included, among others, Gary L. Dannenbring, Valter Ciocca, Howard Steiger, Martine Turgeon, Poppy A.C. Crum, Michael Mills (Communications), James K. Wright (Music), and Francesco Tordini (Electrical Engineering). Postdoctoral fellows in his laboratory have included Richard Parncutt, Sheila Williams, and Brian Roberts.

Animal Sentience (journal)

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling is a multidisciplinary academic journal. Its subject matter, animal sentience, concerns what animals think and feel, and the journal also covers methods through which scientists and scholars can study this and make the information available to the general public. The journal is published by the Institute for Science and Policy of The Humane Society of the United States, and the editor-in-chief is Steven Harnad, founder of the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Behavioral and Brain Sciences is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of Open Peer Commentary established in 1978 by Stevan Harnad and published by Cambridge University Press. It is modeled on the journal Current Anthropology (which was established in 1959 by the University of Chicago anthropologist, Sol Tax).The journal publishes "target articles" followed by 10 to 30 or more peer commentaries and the response of the authors of the target article. The journal covers all areas of the biobehavioral and cognitive sciences (psychology, neuroscience, behavioral biology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy) and articles are judged by four or more referees to be of sufficient importance and interdisciplinary scope to merit Open Peer Commentary. Volume 1 appeared in 1978 and issues appeared quarterly; as its popularity grew it switched to a bimonthly schedule in 1997.

Budapest Open Access Initiative

The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is a public statement of principles relating to open access to the research literature, which was released to the public February 14, 2002. It arose from a conference convened in Budapest by the Open Society Institute on December 1–2, 2001 to promote open access – at the time also known as Free Online Scholarship. This small gathering of individuals is recognised as one of the major defining events of the open access movement. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the initiative, it was reaffirmed in 2012 and supplemented with a set of concrete recommendations for achieving "the new goal that within the next ten years, OA will become the default method for distributing new peer-reviewed research in every field and country."

Chinese room

The Chinese room argument holds that a program cannot give a computer a "mind", "understanding" or "consciousness", regardless of how intelligently or human-like the program may make the computer behave. The argument was first presented by philosopher John Searle in his paper, "Minds, Brains, and Programs", published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences in 1980. It has been widely discussed in the years since. The centerpiece of the argument is a thought experiment known as the Chinese room.The argument is directed against the philosophical positions of functionalism and computationalism, which hold that the mind may be viewed as an information-processing system operating on formal symbols. Specifically, the argument is intended to refute a position Searle calls Strong AI:

The appropriately programmed computer with the right inputs and outputs would thereby have a mind in exactly the same sense human beings have minds.

Although it was originally presented in reaction to the statements of artificial intelligence (AI) researchers, it is not an argument against the goals of AI research, because it does not limit the amount of intelligence a machine can display. The argument applies only to digital computers running programs and does not apply to machines in general.


CogPrints is an electronic archive in which authors can self-archive papers in any area of cognitive science, including psychology, neuroscience, and linguistics, and many areas of computer science (e.g., artificial intelligence, robotics, vision, learning, speech, neural networks), philosophy (e.g., mind, language, knowledge, science, logic), biology (e.g., ethology, behavioral ecology, sociobiology, behaviour genetics, evolutionary theory), medicine (e.g., psychiatry, neurology, human genetics, imaging), anthropology (e.g., primatology, cognitive ethnology, archeology, paleontology), as well as any other portions of the physical, social and mathematical sciences that are pertinent to the study of cognition.

CogPrints is moderated by Stevan Harnad. The archive was launched in 1997 and now contains over 2000 freely downloadable articles.

Some cite CogPrints, along with the physics archive arXiv as evidence that the author self-archiving model of Open Access can work—although under the influence of the Open Archives Initiative and its OAI-PMH, the emphasis in self-archiving has since moved away from such central repositories in the direction of distributed self-archiving in Institutional Repositories.

CogPrints was first made OAI-compliant, and then the software was converted into the EPrints software at the University of Southampton by Rob Tansley who then went on to design DSpace. EPrints is now maintained by Christopher Gutteridge at Southampton.


In academic publishing, an eprint or e-print is a digital version of a research document (usually a journal article, but could also be a thesis, conference paper, book chapter, or a book) that is accessible online, whether from a local institutional, or

a central (subject- or discipline-based) digital repository.When applied to journal articles, the term "eprints" covers both preprints (before peer review) and postprints (after peer review).

Digital versions of materials other than research documents are not usually called e-prints, but some other name, such as e-books.

Global Open Access Forum

The Global Open Access List (GOAL), until January 2012 the American Scientist Open Access Forum, is the longest-standing online discussion forum on Open Access (free online access to peer-reviewed research). It was created by the American Scientist, which is published by Sigma Xi, in September 1998, before the term "Open Access" (OA) was coined, and it was originally called the "September98-Forum." Its first focus was an article published in American Scientist in which Thomas J Walker of the University of Florida proposed that journals should furnish free online access out of the fees authors pay them to purchase reprints. Stevan Harnad, who had in 1994 made the Subversive Proposal that all researchers should self archive their peer-reviewed research, was invited to moderate the forum, which was not expected to last more than a few months. It continued to grow in size and influence across the years and is still the site where most of the main developments in OA are first mooted, including self-archiving, institutional repositories, citation impact, research performance metrics, publishing reform, copyright reform, open access journals, and open access mandates.


Harnad may refer to:

John Harnad, Hungarian mathematical physicist

Stevan Harnad (born 1945), Hungarian cognitive scientist

Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature. Founded in 1997, Hindawi currently publishes more than 250 peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as a number of scholarly monographs, with an annual output of roughly 20,000 articles each year. As of October 2014, 11% of its journals were indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded. The company has its headquarters in London, an office in Cairo and a virtual office address in New York City. Since 2007, all of Hindawi's journals have been open access and published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). Hindawi has been criticized for some of its editorial practices – including an alleged reliance on staff vetting of submissions rather than peer review by academics – and for its use of email spam in soliciting editorial board memberships and manuscripts. It has been described as a borderline predatory publisher.

List of open-access projects

Some of the most important open-access publishing projects or lists of such projects are listed below.

Online Consciousness Conference

The Online Consciousness Conference held at Consciousness Online was founded in 2008 by Richard Brown, then a graduate student at the CUNY Graduate Center. The conference was inspired by and partially modeled on the Online Philosophy Conference started by Thomas Nadellhoffer and Eddie Nahmias, with one major difference being the heavy use of homemade video and audio presentations, and another difference being the restricted focus of the conference on consciousness studies as opposed to all of philosophy.

Open access in Canada

In Canada the Institutes of Health Research effected a policy of open access in 2008, which in 2015 expanded to include the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. The Public Knowledge Project began in 1998 at University of British Columbia. Notable Canadian advocates for open access include Leslie Chan, Jean-Claude Guédon, Stevan Harnad, Heather Morrison, and John Willinsky.


Psycoloquy was a refereed interdisciplinary open access journal that was published from 1990 to 2002 and was sponsored by the American Psychological Association (APA) and indexed by APA's PsycINFO and the Institute for Scientific Information. The editor-in-chief was Stevan Harnad. A 1995 book on electronic publishing resulted from a listserv discussion about an article published in Psycoloquy.Psycoloquy published articles and Open Peer Commentary in all areas of psychology as well as cognitive science, neuroscience, behavioral biology, artificial intelligence, robotics/vision, linguistics, and philosophy. Psycoloquy was suspended in 2002, and is now defunct.

Scholastica (company)

Scholastica is a web-based software platform for managing academic journals with integrated peer review and open access publishing tools.


Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact. The term green open access has become common in recent years, distinguishing this approach from gold open access, where the journal itself makes the articles publicly available without charge to the reader.

Subversive Proposal

The "Subversive Proposal" was an Internet posting by Stevan Harnad on June 27 1994 (presented at the 1994 Network Services Conference in London ) calling on all authors of "esoteric" research writings to archive their articles for free for everyone online (in anonymous FTP archives or websites). It initiated a series of online exchanges, many of which were collected and published as a book in 1995. This led to the creation in 1997 of Cogprints, an open access archive for self-archived articles in the cognitive sciences and in 1998 to the creation of the American Scientist Open Access Forum (initially called the "September98 Forum" until the founding of the Budapest Open Access Initiative which first coined the term "Open Access"). The Subversive Proposal also led to the development of the GNU EPrints software used for creating OAI-compliant open access institutional repositories.

The proposal was updated gradually across the years, as summarized in the American Scientist Open Access Forum on its 10th anniversary.

A retrospective was written by Richard Poynder.

A self-critique

was posted on its 15th anniversary in 2009. An online interview of Steven Harnard was conducted by Richard Poynder on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the subversive proposal.

Symbol (formal)

A logical symbol is a fundamental concept in logic, tokens of which may be marks or a configuration of marks which form a particular pattern. Although the term "symbol" in common use refers at some times to the idea being symbolized, and at other times to the marks on a piece of paper or chalkboard which are being used to express that idea; in the formal languages studied in mathematics and logic, the term "symbol" refers to the idea, and the marks are considered to be a token instance of the symbol. In logic, symbols build literal utility to illustrate ideas.

Timeline of the open-access movement

The following is a timeline of the international movement for open access to scholarly communication.

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