Stepan Andriyovych Bandera (Ukrainian: Степан Андрійович Бандера, Polish: Stepan Andrijowycz Bandera; 1 January 1909 – 15 October 1959) was a head of a militant wing of the Ukrainian independence movement, and a leader of the terrorist activity of Ukrainian nationalists.
Born in Austrian Galicia, into the family of a Greek-Catholic priest, he became nationalistic from an early age. After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary Galicia became a short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic, but was quickly annexed by Poland and was subjected to an extensive campaigns of Polonization and Pacification. He became radicalised during this time, and after Polish authorities refused his request to leave for Czechoslovakia for studying, he enrolled in Lviv Polytechnic where he organized several nationalistic organizations. He was imprisoned in 1934 and was sentenced to death, but his sentence was quickly commuted to life imprisonment. He escaped prison in 1939 when the Second Polish Republic collapsed after the joint Nazi-Soviet invasion and moved to the German-occupied zone.
Bandera cultivated German military circles favorable to Ukrainian independence, and organized OUN expeditionary groups. When Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union he prepared the 30 June 1941 Proclamation of Ukrainian statehood in Lviv. For his refusal to rescind the decree, Bandera was arrested by Gestapo, which put him under house arrest on 5 of July 1941 and later, between 1942 and 1943, sent him to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. In 1944, with Germany rapidly losing ground in the war in the face of the advancing Allied armies, Bandera was released, in the hope that he would be instrumental in deterring the advancing Soviet forces. He set up the headquarters of the re-established Ukrainian Supreme Liberation Council in Berlin, but fled when the Soviet forces advanced to the city. He settled with his family in West Germany where he remained the leader of the OUN-B and worked with several anti-communist organizations such as the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations as well as with the British intelligence agencies. Fourteen years after the end of the war, in 1959, Bandera was assassinated by KGB agent Bohdan Stashynsky in Munich.
On 22 January 2010, the outgoing President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko, awarded Bandera the posthumous title of Hero of Ukraine. The European Parliament condemned the award; so did Russian, as did Polish and Jewish politicians and organizations. The incoming president, Viktor Yanukovych, declared the award illegal, since Bandera was never a citizen of the Ukraine, a stipulation necessary for getting the award. This announcement was confirmed by a court decision in April 2010. In January 2011 the award was officially annulled. Nonetheless in December 2018 the Ukrainian parliament has moved to again confer the award to Bandera.
Bandera remains a highly controversial figure in Ukraine, with some hailing him as a liberator who fought against both the Soviets and the Nazis state while trying to establish an independent Ukraine, while some others condemn him as a fascist and a war criminal who was, together with his followers, largely responsible for the killing of Polish civilians and partially for the Holocaust in Ukraine.
Степан Андрійович Бандера
Stepan Andriyovych Bandera
1 January 1909
Staryi Uhryniv, Galicia, Austria-Hungary
|Died||15 October 1959 (aged 50)|
Munich, West Germany
|Citizenship||Austria-Hungary → Second Polish Republic → Stateless|
|Political party||Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists|
|Relations||Brother: Vasyl Bandera|
|Parents||Father: Andrii Bandera|
Mother: Myroslava Bandera
|Alma mater||Lviv Polytechnic|
|Awards||Hero of Ukraine (stripped)|
|Branch/service|| OUN (1929–1940)|
UPA, OUN-B (1940–1959)
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Bandera was born in Staryi Uhryniv, Galicia, Austria-Hungary. He attended the Fourth Form Grammar School in Stryi. After graduation from high school in 1927, he planned to attend the Ukrainian College of Technology and Economics in Podebrady in Czechoslovakia, but the Polish authorities did not grant him travel papers.
In 1928, Bandera enrolled in the agronomy program at the Lviv Polytechnic (then Politechnika Lwowska).—one of the few programs open to Ukrainians at the time. This was due to restrictions placed on minority enrollment—aimed primarily at Jews and Ukrainians—in both secondary schools (gymnasia) and university level institutions by the Polish government.
Stepan Bandera had met and associated himself with members of a variety of Ukrainian nationalist organizations throughout his schooling—from Plast, to the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Українська Визвольна Організація) and also the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Ukrainian: Організація Українських Націоналістів). The most active of these organizations was the OUN, and the leader of the OUN was Andriy Melnyk.
Because of his determined personality, Stepan Bandera quickly rose through the ranks of these organizations, becoming the chief propaganda officer of the OUN in 1931, the second in command of OUN in Galicia in 1932–33, and the head of the National Executive or the OUN in 1933.
For Bandera, an inclusive policy of nation building was important and therefore, he focused on growing support amongst all classes of Ukrainians in Western parts of Ukraine. In the early 1930s, Bandera was very active in finding and developing groups of Ukrainian nationalists in both Western and Eastern Ukraine.
Stepan Bandera became head of the OUN national executive in Galicia in June 1933. He expanded the OUN's network in the Kresy, directing it against both Poland and the Soviet Union. To stop expropriations, Bandera turned OUN against the Polish officials who were directly responsible for anti-Ukrainian policies. Activities included mass campaigns against Polish tobacco and alcohol monopolies and against the denationalization of Ukrainian youth. He was arrested in Lviv in 1934, and tried twice: first, concerning involvement in a plot to assassinate the minister of internal affairs, Bronisław Pieracki, and second at a general trial of OUN executives. He was convicted of terrorism and sentenced to death.
According to various sources, Bandera was freed in September 1939, either by Ukrainian jailers after Polish jail administration left the jail, by Poles or by the Nazis soon after the German invasion of Poland.
Soon thereafter Eastern Poland fell under Soviet occupation. Upon release from prison, Bandera moved to Kraków, the capital of Germany's occupational General Government. There, he came in contact with the leader of the OUN, Andriy Melnyk. In 1940, the political differences between the two leaders caused the OUN to split into two factions—the Melnyk faction led by Andriy Melnyk, which preached a more conservative approach to nation-building, (also known as the OUN-M), and the Bandera faction led by S. Bandera, which supported a revolutionary approach, (also known as the OUN-B).
Before the independence proclamation of 30 June 1941, Bandera oversaw the formation of so-called "Mobile Groups" (Ukrainian: мобільні групи) which were small (5–15 members) groups of OUN-B members who would travel from General Government to Western Ukraine and after German advance to Eastern Ukraine to encourage support for the OUN-B and establishing the local authorities ruled by OUN-B activists.
In total, approximately 7,000 people participated in these mobile groups, and they found followers among a wide circle of intellectuals, such as Ivan Bahriany, Vasyl Barka, Hryhorii Vashchenko, and many others.
OUN leaders Andriy Melnyk and Bandera were recruited before World War II into the Nazi Germany military intelligence Abwehr for espionage, counter-espionage and sabotage. Their goal was to run diversion activities after Germany's attack on the Soviet Union. Melnyk was given code name 'Consul I'. This information is part of the testimony that Abwehr Colonel Erwin Stolze gave on 25 December 1945 and submitted to the Nuremberg trials, with a request to be admitted as evidence.
In the spring of 1941, Bandera held meetings with the heads of Germany's intelligence, regarding the formation of "Nachtigall" and "Roland" Battalions. In spring of that year the OUN received 2.5 million marks for subversive activities inside the USSR.
On 30 June 1941, with the arrival of Nazi troops in Ukraine, Bandera and the OUN-B declared an independent Ukrainian State ("Act of Renewal of Ukrainian Statehood"). This declaration was accompanied by violent pogroms. Some of the published proclamations of the formation of this state say that it would "work closely with the National-Socialist Greater Germany, under the leadership of its leader Adolf Hitler which is forming a new order in Europe and the world and is helping the Ukrainian People to free itself from Moscovite occupation." – as stated in the text of the "Act of Proclamation of Ukrainian Statehood".
Bandera's expectation that Nazi regime would post factum recognize an independent fascist Ukraine as the Axis ally proved to be wrong. In 1941 relations between Nazi Germany and the OUN-B had soured to the point where a Nazi document dated 25 November 1941 stated that "... the Bandera Movement is preparing a revolt in the Reichskommissariat which has as its ultimate aim the establishment of an independent Ukraine. All functionaries of the Bandera Movement must be arrested at once and, after thorough interrogation, are to be liquidated...". On 5 July, Bandera was transferred to Berlin. On 12 July, the prime minister of the newly formed Ukrainian National Government, Yaroslav Stetsko, was also arrested and taken to Berlin. Although released from custody on 14 July, both were required to stay in Berlin. On 15 September 1941 Bandera and leading OUN members were arrested by the Gestapo.
In September 1944 Bandera was released by the German authorities, and collaboration between OUN and Nazi Germany resumed at several levels; it continued until the end of the war. With German consent, Bandera set up headquarters in Berlin.
According to Stephen Dorril, author of MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service, OUN-B was re-formed in 1946 under the sponsorship of MI6. The organization had been receiving some support from MI6 since the 1930s. One faction of Bandera's organization, associated with Mykola Lebed, became more closely associated with the CIA. Bandera himself was the target of an extensive and aggressive search carried out by CIC. It failed having described the objective as "extremely dangerous" and "constantly en route, frequently in disguise". Some American intelligence reported that he even was guarded by former SS men. His organization perpetrated many crimes, including hundred of thousands of murders, counterfeiting, and kidnapping. After the Bavarian state government initiated a crackdown on it, Bandera agreed with the BND offering them his service, despite CIA warning the West Germans against cooperating with him.
In May 1941 at a meeting in Kraków the leadership of Bandera's OUN faction adopted the program "Struggle and action for OUN during the war" (Ukrainian: "Боротьба й діяльність ОУН під час війни") which outlined the plans for activities at the onset of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union and the western territories of the Ukrainian SSR. Section G of that document –"Directives for organizing the life of the state during the first days" (Ukrainian: "Вказівки на перші дні організації державного життя") outline activity of the Bandera followers during summer 1941. In the subsection of "Minority Policy" the OUN-B ordered the removal of hostile Poles, Jews, and Russians via deportation and the destruction of their respective intelligentsias, stating further that the "so-called Polish peasants must be assimilated" and to "destroy their leaders."
In late 1942, when Bandera was in a German concentration camp, his organization, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, was involved in a Massacres of Poles in Volhynia, and in early 1944, ethnic cleansings also spread to Eastern Galicia. It is estimated that more than 35,000 and up to 60,000 Poles, mostly women and children along with unarmed men, were killed during the spring and summer campaign of 1943 in Volhynia, and up to 100,000 if other regions (Eastern Galicia) are included.
Despite the central role played by Bandera's followers in the massacre of Poles in western Ukraine, Bandera himself was interned in a German concentration camp when the concrete decision to massacre the Poles was made and when the Poles were killed. According to Yaroslav Hrytsak, during his internment, from the summer of 1941, he was not completely aware of events in Ukraine and moreover had serious differences of opinion with Mykola Lebed, the OUN-B leader who remained in Ukraine and who was one of the chief architects of the massacres of Poles. Bandera was thus not directly involved in those massacres.
Ukrainian nationalism did not historically include antisemitism as a core aspect of its program and saw Russians as well as Poles as the chief enemy with Jews playing a secondary role. Nevertheless, Ukrainian nationalism was not immune to the influence of the antisemitic climate in the Eastern and Central Europe, that had already become highly racialized in the late 19th century, and had developed an elaborate anti-Jewish discourse.
Hostility to both the Soviet central government and the Jewish minority were highlighted at the OUN-B's Conference in Kraków in May 1941, at which the leadership of Bandera's OUN faction adopted the program "Struggle and action of OUN during the war" (Ukrainian: "Боротьба й діяльність ОУН під час війни") which outlined the plans for activities at the onset of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union and the western territories of the Ukrainian SSR. The program declared that:
The Jews in the USSR constitute the most faithful support of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine. The Muscovite-Bolshevik government exploits the anti-Jewish sentiments of the Ukrainian masses to divert their attention from the true cause of their misfortune and to channel them in a time of frustration into pogroms on Jews. The OUN combats the Jews as the prop of the Muscovite-Bolshevik regime and simultaneously it renders the masses conscious of the fact that the principal foe is Moscow.
Section G of the program – "Directives for organizing the life of the state during the first days" (Ukrainian: "Вказівки на перші дні організації державного життя") outlined activity of the Bandera followers during mid-1941. In a subsection on "Minority Policy", the leaders of OUN-B ordered:
Moskali [i.e. ethnic Russians], Poles, and Jews that are hostile to us are to be destroyed in struggle, particularly those opposing the regime, by means of: deporting them to their own lands, eradicating their intelligentsia, which is not to be admitted to any governmental positions, and overall preventing any creation of this intelligentsia (e.g. access to education etc)... Jews are to be isolated, removed from governmental positions in order to prevent sabotage... Those who are deemed necessary may only work under strict supervision and removed from their positions for slightest misconduct... Jewish assimilation is not possible.
Later in June, Yaroslav Stetsko sent to Bandera a report in which he stated "We are creating a militia which will help to remove the Jews and protect the population." Leaflets spread in the name of Bandera in the same year called for the "destruction" of "Moscow", Poles, Hungarians and Jewry. In 1941–1942 while Bandera was cooperating with the Germans, OUN members did take part in anti-Jewish actions. German police at 1941 reported that "fanatic" Bandera followers, organised in small groups were "extraordinarily active" against Jews and communists.
However, when Bandera was in conflict with the Germans, the UPA under his authority sheltered Jews, and included some Jewish fighters and medical personnel. In the official organ of the OUN-B's leadership, instructions to OUN groups urged those groups to "liquidate the manifestations of harmful foreign influence, particularly the German racist concepts and practices." Several Jews took part in Bandera's underground movement, including one of Bandera's close associates Richard Yary who was also married to a Jewish woman. Another notable Jewish UPA member was Leyba-Itzik "Valeriy" Dombrovsky. (While two Karaites from Galicia, Anna-Amelia Leonowicz (1925–1949) and her mother, Helena (Ruhama) Leonowicz (1890–1967), are reported to have become members of OUN, oral accounts suggest that both women collaborated not of their own free will, but following threats from nationalists.) By 1942, Nazi officials had concluded that Ukrainian nationalists were largely indifferent to Jews and were willing to both help them or kill them, if either better served the nationalist cause. A report, dated 30 March 1942, sent to the Gestapo in Berlin, claimed that "the Bandera movement provided forged passports not only for its own members, but also for Jews." The false papers were most likely supplied to Jewish doctors or skilled workers who could be useful for the movement.
On 15 October 1959, Stepan Bandera collapsed outside of Kreittmayrstrasse 7 in Munich and died shortly thereafter. A medical examination established that the cause of his death was poison by cyanide gas. On 20 October 1959, Stepan Bandera was buried in the Waldfriedhof Cemetery in Munich. His grave was desecrated on 17 August 2014 by unknown vandals, who toppled the 1.8 m cross.
Two years after his death, on 17 November 1961, the German judicial bodies announced that Bandera's murderer had been a KGB defector named Bohdan Stashynsky who acted on the orders of Soviet KGB head Alexander Shelepin and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev. After a detailed investigation against Stashynsky, a trial took place from 8 to 15 October 1962. Stashynsky was convicted, and on 19 October he was sentenced to eight years in prison.
Bandera's brother Aleksandr (who had a PhD in Political Economy from the University of Rome) and brother Vasyl (a graduate in Philosophy, Lviv University) were arrested by Germans and interned in Auschwitz, where they were allegedly killed by Polish inmates in 1942.
Andriy Bandera, Stepan's father, was arrested by Soviets in late May 1941 for harboring an OUN member and transferred to Kiev. On 8 July he was sentenced to death and executed on the 10th. His sisters Oksana and Marta–Maria were arrested by the NKVD in 1941 and sent to a GULAG in Siberia. Both were released in 1960 without the right to return to Ukraine. Marta–Maria died in Siberia in 1982, and Oksana returned to Ukraine in 1989 where she died in 2004. Another sister, Volodymyra, was sentenced to a term in Soviet labor camps from 1946–1956. She returned to Ukraine in 1956.
In an interview with Russian newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda in 2005, former KGB Chief Vladimir Kryuchkov claimed that "the murder of Stepan Bandera was one of the last cases when the KGB disposed of undesired people by means of violence."
In late 2006 the Lviv city administration announced the future transference of the tombs of Stepan Bandera, Andriy Melnyk, Yevhen Konovalets and other key leaders of OUN/UPA to a new area of Lychakivskiy Cemetery specifically dedicated to victims of the repressions of the Ukrainian national liberation struggle.
In October 2007, the city of Lviv erected a statue dedicated to Bandera. The appearance of the statue has engendered a far-reaching debate about the role of Stepan Bandera and UPA in Ukrainian history. The two previously erected statues were blown up by unknown perpetrators; the current is guarded by a militia detachment 24/7. On 18 October 2007, the Lviv City Council adopted a resolution establishing the "Award of Stepan Bandera."
On 1 January 2014 Bandera's 105th birthday was celebrated by a torchlight procession of 15,000 people in the centre of Kiev and thousands more rallied near his statue in Lviv. The march was supported by the far-right Svoboda party and some members of the center-right Batkivshchyna.
Bandera continues to be a divisive figure in Ukraine. Although Bandera is venerated in certain parts of western Ukraine, and 33% of Lviv's residents consider themselves to be followers of Bandera, in surveys of Ukraine as a whole he, along with Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev, is considered among the three historical figures who produce the most negative attitudes. A national survey conducted in Ukraine in 2009 inquired about attitudes by region towards Bandera's faction of the OUN. It produced the following results: In Galicia (provinces of Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk) 37% had a "very positive" opinion of Bandera, 26% a "mostly positive" opinion, 20% were "neutral", 5% "mostly negative", 6% "very negative", and 6% "unsure". In Volhynia, 5% had a very positive opinion, 20% a mostly positive opinion, 57% were neutral, 7% were mostly negative, 5% very negative and 6% were unsure. In Transcarpathia 4% of the respondents had a very positive opinion, 32% a mostly positive opinion, 50% were neutral, none had a mostly negative opinion, 7% had a very negative opinion and 7% were unsure. In contrast, in central Ukraine (comprising the capital Kiev, as well as the provinces of Zhytomyr, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Poltava, Sumy, Vinnytsia, and Kirovohrad) attitudes towards Bandera's faction of the OUN were 3% very positive, 10% mostly positive, 24% neutral, 17% mostly negative, 21% very negative and 25% unsure. In Eastern Ukraine (the provinces of Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia) 1% each had very positive or mostly positive attitudes towards Bandera's OUN, 19% were neutral, 13% mostly negative, 26% very negative and 20% unsure. In Ukraine's south (the Odessa, Mykolaiv and Kherson regions plus Crimea) 1% each were very or mostly positive, 13% were neutral, 31% mostly negative, 48% very negative and 25% were unsure. In Ukraine as a whole, 6% of Ukrainians had a very positive opinion, 8% a mostly positive opinion, 23% were neutral, 15% had a mostly negative opinion, 30% had a very negative opinion, and 18% were unsure.
During the 2014 Crimean crisis and unrest in Ukraine, pro-Russian Ukrainians, Russians (in Russia) and some Western authors alluded to the (in their opinion) bad influence of Bandera on Euromaidan protesters and pro-Ukrainian Unity supporters in justifying their actions. Russian media used this to justify Russia's actions. Putin welcomed the annexation of Crimea by declaring that he "was saving them from the new Ukrainian leaders who are the ideological heirs of Bandera, Hitler's accomplice during World War II". Pro-Russian activists claimed "Those people in Kiev are Bandera-following Nazi collaborators". And Ukrainians living in Russia complained of being labelled a "Banderite" (even when they were from parts of Ukraine where Bandera has no popular support). Groups who do idolize Bandera did take part in the Euromaidan protests, but were a minority element.
On 22 January 2010, on the Day of Unity of Ukraine, the then-President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko awarded to Bandera the title of Hero of Ukraine (posthumously) for "defending national ideas and battling for an independent Ukrainian state." A grandson of Bandera, also named Stepan, accepted the award that day from the Ukrainian President during the state ceremony to commemorate the Day of Unity of Ukraine at the National Opera House of Ukraine.
Reactions to Bandera's award vary. This award has been condemned by the Simon Wiesenthal Center and the Student Union of French Jews. On the same day, numerous Ukrainian media, such as the Russian language Segodnya, published articles in that regard mentioning the case of Yevhen Berezniak, a widely known Ukrainian Soviet World War II veteran, considering to renounce his own Hero of Ukraine title. The representatives from several antifascist organizations in neighboring Slovakia condemned the award to Bandera, calling Yushchenko's decision a provocation was reported by RosBisnessConsulting referring to Radio Praha. On 25 February 2010, the European Parliament criticized the decision by then president of Ukraine, Yushchenko to award Bandera the title of Hero of Ukraine and expressed hope it would be reconsidered. On 14 May 2010 in a statement, the Russian Foreign Ministry said about the award: "that the event is so odious that it could no doubt cause a negative reaction in the first place in Ukraine. Already it is known a position on this issue of a number of Ukrainian politicians, who believe that solutions of this kind do not contribute to the consolidation of Ukrainian public opinion".
On 9 February 2010, the Poland's Senate Marshal Bogdan Borusewicz said at a meeting with the head of Russia's Federation Council Sergei Mironov, that adaptation of the Hero title of Ukraine to Bandera is an internal matter of the Ukrainian government.
Taras Kuzio, a senior fellow in the chair of Ukrainian studies at the University of Toronto, has suggested Yushchenko awarded Bandera the award in order to frustrate Yulia Tymoshenko's chances to get elected President during the Ukrainian Presidential elections 2010.
President Viktor Yanukovych stated on 5 March 2010 he would make a decision to repeal the decrees to honor the title as Heroes of Ukraine to Bandera and fellow nationalist Roman Shukhevych before the next Victory Day, although the Hero of Ukraine decrees do not stipulate the possibility that a decree on awarding this title can be annulled. On 2 April 2010, an administrative Donetsk region court ruled the Presidential decree awarding the title to be illegal. According to the court's decision, Bandera wasn't a citizen of the Ukrainian SSR (vis-à-vis Ukraine).
On 5 April 2010, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine refused to start constitutional proceedings on the constitutionality of the President Yushchenko decree the award was based on. A ruling by the court was submitted by the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on 20 January 2010.
In January 2011, the presidential press service informed that the award was officially annulled. This was done after a cassation appeals filed against the ruling by Donetsk District Administrative Court was rejected by the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine on 12 January 2011. Former President Yushchenko called the annulment "a gross error".
There are Stepan Bandera museums in Dubliany, Volia-Zaderevatska, Staryi Uhryniv, and Yahilnytsia. There is a Stepan Bandera Museum of Liberation Struggle in London, part of the OUN Archive, and The Bandera's Family Museum (Музей родини Бандерів) in Stryi.
Monuments dedicated to Stepan Bandera have been constructured in a number of western Ukrainian cities, including Staryi Uhryniv, Kolomyia, Drohobych, Zalishchyky, Mykytyntsi, Uzyn, Lviv, Buchach, Hrabivka, Horodenka, Staryi Sambir, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Strusiv, Truskavets, Horishniy, Velykosilky, Sambir, Velyki Mosty, Skole, Turka, Zdolbuniv, Chortkiv, Sniatyn, and in such cities and villages as Berezhany, Boryslav, Chervonohrad, Dubliany, Kamianka-Buzka, Kremenets, Mostyska, Pidvolochysk, Seredniy Bereziv, Terebovlia, Verbiv, and Volia-Zaderevatska.
In 2010 and 2011, Bandera was named an honorary citizen of a number of western Ukrainian cities, including Khust, Nadvirna, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, Kolomyia, Dolyna, Varash, Lutsk, Chervonohrad, Terebovlia, Truskavets, Radekhiv, Sokal, Stebnyk, Zhovkva, Skole, Berezhany, Sambir, Boryslav, Brody, Stryi, and Morshyn.
There are Stepan Bandera streets in Lviv (formerly Mury street), Lutsk (formerly Suvorovska street), Rivne (formerly Moskovska street), Kolomyia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chervonohrad (formerly Nad Buhom street), Berezhany (formerly Cherniakhovskoho street), Drohobych (formerly Sliusarska street), Stryi, Kalush, Kovel, Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Horodenka, Dubrovytsia, Kolomyia, Dolyna, Iziaslav, Skole, Shepetivka, Brovary, and Boryspil, and a Stepan Bandera prospect in Ternopil (part of the former Lenin prospect). On 16 January 2017 the Ukrainian Institute of National Remembrance stated that of the 51,493 streets, squares and "other facilities" that had been renamed (since 2015) due to decommunization 34 streets were named after Stepan Bandera. Due to "association with the communist totalitarian regime", the Kiev City Council on 7 July 2016 voted 87 to 10 in favor of supporting renaming Moscow Avenue to Stepan Bandera Avenue.
Two feature films have been made about Bandera – Assassination: An October Murder in Munich (1995) and The Undefeated (2000), both directed by Oles Yanchuk – along with a number of documentary films.
The act of restoration of the Ukrainian state or proclamation of the Ukrainian state of June 30, 1941 was announced by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) under the leadership of Stepan Bandera, who declared an independent Ukrainian State in Lviv. The prime-minister was Yaroslav Stetsko, and the head of Council of Seniors was Kost Levitsky.
The OUN intended to take advantage of the retreat of Soviet forces from Ukraine. Some members thought that they had found a new powerful ally in Nazi Germany to aid them in their struggle against the Soviet Union. Days after the Nazi invasion of Lviv, however, the leadership of the newly formed government was arrested and sent to concentration camps in Germany. Within two years of the declaration, the Nazis had imprisoned or killed 80% of OUN-B leadership.Assassination of Bronisław Pieracki
The assassination of Bronisław Pieracki, referred to as the Warsaw process in the Ukrainian historiography, was a well-orchestrated target killing of Poland's top politician of the interwar period, Minister of Interior Bronisław Pieracki (1895-1934) by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) as a retaliation for the government policy of Pacification which was carried out by the police.
OUN was formed in Poland as an amalgamation between a number of extreme right-wing organizations including the Union of Ukrainian Fascists. From the moment of its founding in 1929, fascism played a central role in the organization, combining extreme ethno-nationalism with terrorism, corporatism, and anti-Semitism. The chosen assassin, Hryhorij Maciejko pseudonym "Gonta", was a trusted member of OUN.Banderites
The Banderites (Ukrainian: Бандерівці, Bandе́rivtsi or bandе́rovtsy, Polish: banderowcy, Russian: Бандеровцы) are members of an assortment of right-wing extremist and anti-Semitic organizations in Ukraine.
The term derives from the name of Stepan Bandera (1909-1959), head of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists that formed in 1929 as an amalgamation of movements including the Union of Ukrainian Fascists. The union, known as OUN-B, had been engaged in various atrocities, including murder of civilians, predominantly Jews and Poles under the Nazi German administration. The term Banderites was also used by the Bandera followers themselves, and by others during the Holocaust, and the massacres of Poles and Jews in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by OUN-UPA in 1943–1944.According to Timothy D. Snyder nowadays the word is used (often pejoratively) to denote Ukrainian nationalists who sympathize with the fascist ideology, and consider themselves followers of the OUN-UPA myth in modern Ukraine.Blood in Our Wells
Blood in Our Wells (Ukrainian: Кров у наших криницях, romanized: Krov u nashykh krynytsyakh) is the fourth album by Ukrainian black metal band Drudkh, released in 2006 and dedicated to Stepan Bandera, former leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The name of the album comes from a line of the 1935 poem by Oleh Olzhych and, like its predecessor, it features lyrics taken from classical Ukrainian poetry, and the sound is more influenced by folk music and pagan metal this time around, with most compositions consisting of two or more interlocking movements.
As with The Swan Road, lyrics are taken from classical Ukrainian literature. The lyrics to "Furrows of Gods" are adapted from a 1980 poem by Lina Kostenko; the lyrics to "When the Flame Turns to Ashes" are adapted from a 1908 poem by Oleksandr Oles; the lyrics to "Solitude" are once again taken from the 1839 work of Taras Shevchenko; and the lyrics to "Eternity" are lifted verbatim from the 1929 work of Yuriy Klen. Several tracks also sample the Ukrainian poetic film Mamay (2003), and for this reason Blood in Our Wells has been described as "more cinematic" than its predecessors. The inlay cover of the CD edition contains the text of a 1957 patriotic poem of Ukrainian poet Vasyl Symonenko.
Blood in our Wells was released in two non-vinyl formats: normal jewel case (unlimited and available everywhere), and super jewel case plus (limited to 1000 hand-numbered copies and made available only through Supernal Music). It was the first Drudkh record to appear in Terrorizer Top 40 year list, achieving the 35th position. In 2010, it was re-released as a digipak with new artwork via Season of Mist.Bohdan Stashynsky
Bohdan Mykolayovych Stashynsky (Ukrainian: Богда́н Микола́йович Сташи́нський, born 4 November 1931 in Barszczowice, Poland) is a former KGB officer and spy who assassinated the Ukrainian nationalist leaders Lev Rebet and Stepan Bandera in the late 1950s. He defected in West Berlin in 1961.Dubliany
Dubliany (Ukrainian: Дубляни; Polish: Dublany) is a city in Zhovkva Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine and a suburb of Lviv (7 km (4.3 mi) away). Population: 10,240 (2013 est.).
Located in the northern side of Lviv, the city's main landmark is the Agrarian University which was established on 9 January 1856 by Halych Economic Society during the Second Polish Republic when Dubliany as a village was part of Lwow Voivodeship as Dublany Agricultural Academy with the only existing Polish-language agricultural academy. In 1919 the academy became part of the Lviv Polytechnic as its agrarian and forestry department. In 1930-33 in Dubliany studied Stepan Bandera and due to the fact, in the university exists Bandera memorial museum.After World War II Polish ethnic residents of Dubliany were forced to leave the village, and move to the Recovered Territories (see Polish population transfers (1944–46)). Most of them settled in former German village Drachenbrunn near Wroclaw in Silesia. They renamed the village into Dublany (since 1947 - Wojnow, now a district of Wroclaw).
The local Roman Catholic kosciol (Polish church) that was the first known religious building in village built in 1885-1890, since 1990 has been passed to the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. During the Soviet period the temple was used as a sports gym for the agricultural institute. The first Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Dormition of the Theotokos, was built in Dubliany only in 1912 and for long period of time local Greek-Catholic population traveled to the neighboring village (about 2 km) of Malekhiv.In 1910 in Dubliany was built a train station on a railroad Lviv–Kivertsi (Lwow–Kiwerce).
In 1967 the village was granted the status of urban type settlement. In 1978 Dubliany were granted the status of city.Dubliany is the birthplace of Polish painter Adam Werka, and long jumper Edward Czernik.
Among lost landmarks there was a cemetery chapel of Jan Alembek who was a Polonized German apothecary and trades and who for long period was a burgomaster (mayor) of Lwow (Lviv). To Alembek attested the first description of Lviv in Ukrainian Latin Alphabet.Estrangement (album)
Estrangement (Ukrainian: Відчуженість, romanized: Vidchuzhenist) is the sixth album by Ukrainian black metal band Drudkh, released in August 2007 (see 2007 in music). The album was previously known under the title River of Tears, but then had a name change. Its songs have a minimalistic influence and also features the band's first prominent use of blast beats since The Swan Road. All the lyrics of the album are based on the 1931–1932 works of the Ukrainian poet Oleh Olzhych. A spoken introduction in the first track is taken from the 1995 Ukrainian feature film Atentat about the life and assassination of Stepan Bandera, and says in Ukrainian, "We shall always be there" (taken from a scene in the film when former soldiers of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, having escaped from the Soviet prosecution after the end of World War II, arrive in the USA as immigrants; meaning in the context that the hearts of the Ukrainian patriots shall remain forever in occupied Ukraine).
In 2010, it was re-released as digipak with new artwork and re-mastered sound by Season of Mist.Grzegorz Rossoliński-Liebe
Grzegorz Rossoliński-Liebe (born 1979 in Zabrze, Poland as Grzegorz Rossoliński) – is a German–Polish historian based in Berlin, associated with the Friedrich Meinecke Institute of the Free University of Berlin. He specializes in the history of the Holocaust and East-Central Europe, fascism, nationalism, the history of antisemitism, the history of the Soviet Union, and the politics of memory.Kalush Raion
Kalush Raion (Ukrainian: Калуський район) is a raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province). Kalush is the administrative center of the raion. The city of Kalush itself is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Population: 59,531 (2016 est.).
The raion was formed on October 28, 1963. In 1972 part of the raion became incorporated into the Kalush municipality. The oldest settlements in the Raion are Stankiv (1158), Zaviy (13th century), Holyn' (1391), and Novytsia (14th century).
The leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Stepan Bandera, was born in Staryi Uhryniv in Kalush Raion, on January 1, 1909.
Ivan Rubchak and the writer M. Kozonis were also born in Kalush Raion.List of people on the postage stamps of Ukraine
This is a list of people on postage stamps of Ukraine.
Nikolay Kostomarov, Historian (1992)
Mykola Lysenko, Composer (1992)
Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay, Explorer, anthropologist of Ukrainian descent.
Ivan Pulyui, Physicist (1995)
Josyf Slipyj, Patriarch and Cardinal of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (1993)
Job of Manyava and Theodosius of Manyava, Orthodox Saints (2003)
Stepan Bandera, Political figure (2009)
Vitali Klitschko, Boxer (2010)
Wladimir Klitschko, Boxer (2010)Lviv Academic Gymnasium
Lviv Academic Gymnasium at the National University "Lviv Polytechnic" (ukr. Львівська академічна гімназія) - the oldest high school in Lviv, Ukraine based on the order of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, on October 24, 1784. The building of Gymnasium located on the street Stepan Bandera, 14 on the left of the main building of Lviv Polytechnic. Vasyl Il'nyts'ky was the first director of gymnasium.Microcosmos (Drudkh album)
Microcosmos is the seventh album by Ukrainian black metal band Drudkh, released on June 22 (July 14 in US), 2009. It was released as CD digipak (unlimited) and as box set (limited to 500 copies) by Season of Mist under the Underground Activists imprint.
The band continues using lyrics from Ukrainian poets, for example material by Ivan Franko on "Distant Cries of Cranes", Oleh Olzhych on "Decadence", or Bohdan Rubchak on "Ars Poetica".The last track ("Widow's Grief") is taken from the soundtrack of the Ukrainian movie Atentat (1995), like the intro on the previous album Estrangement ("Solitary Endless Path"). The film is about the life and assassination of Stepan Bandera, leader of Ukrainian Insurgent Army, a Ukrainian partisan nationalist group during and after World War II.
The album was praised by critics: it was ranked 11 in Terrorizer Top 40 Albums of 2009 and 3 in Top 30 Metal Albums of 2009 by Haunting the Chapel, the Stereogum heavy music section.Mykola Stsiborskyi
Mykola Stsiborskyi (Ukrainian: Микола Сціборський), also may be spelled Stsiborsky, Stsyborsky, Ściborski, or Sciborski (1897 – August 30, 1941) was a Ukrainian nationalist politician who served on the Provid, or central leadership council of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), and who was its chief theorist. He sided with Andriy Melnyk when the OUN split into two hostile factions, and was likely murdered by followers of Melnyk's rival Stepan Bandera.Nabróż
Nabróż [ˈnabruʂ] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Łaszczów, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It lies approximately 7 kilometres (4 mi) north-east of Łaszczów, 30 km (19 mi) north-east of Tomaszów Lubelski, and 113 km (70 mi) south-east of the regional capital Lublin. Nabroz bravely defended its honor against the treacherous UPA army, led by Stepan Bandera, with the help of brave AK resulting in creation of fire regiment, proudly displayed on official website.Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Ukrainian: Організація Українських Націоналістів (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian-nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna. The organization first operated in Eastern Galicia (then part of interwar Poland). It emerged as a union between the Ukrainian Military Organization, smaller radical right-wing groups, and right-wing Ukrainian nationalists and intellectuals represented by Dmytro Dontsov, Yevhen Konovalets, Mykola Stsyborsky and other figures.The OUN sought to infiltrate legal political parties, universities and other political structures and institutions. As revolutionary ultra-nationalists the OUN have been characterized by most historians as fascist. OUN strategies to achieve Ukrainian independence included violence and terrorism against perceived foreign and domestic enemies, particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia.In 1940 the OUN split into two parts. The older, more moderate members supported Andriy Melnyk and the OUN-M, while the younger and more radical members supported Stepan Bandera's OUN-B. After the start of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa), the OUN-B in the person of Yaroslav Stetsko declared an independent Ukrainian state on 30 June 1941 in occupied Lviv, while the region was under the control of Nazi Germany. In response, the Nazi authorities suppressed the OUN leadership. In October 1942 the OUN-B established the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).
To pre-empt future Polish efforts at re-establishing Poland's pre-war borders, in 1943-1944 some UPA military units carried out large-scale ethnic cleansing against Polish people. Historians estimate that 100,000 Polish civilians were massacred in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia.After World War II the UPA fought against Soviet and Polish government forces. During Operation Vistula in 1947, the Polish government deported 140,000 Ukrainian civilians in Poland to remove the support base for the UPA. In the struggle Soviet forces killed, arrested, or deported over 500,000 Ukrainian civilians. Many of those targeted by the Soviets included UPA members, their families, and supporters.During and after the Cold War western intelligence agencies, including the CIA, covertly supported the OUN.A number of contemporary far-right Ukrainian political organizations claim to be inheritors of the OUN's political traditions, including Svoboda, the Ukrainian National Assembly and the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists. The role of the OUN remains contested in historiography, as these later political inheritors developed a literature denying the organization's fascist political heritage and collaboration with Nazi Germany, while also celebrating the Waffen-SS Galizien.
On the other hand, some scholars argue that political opponents emphasized the far-right or extreme-right aspects of modern OUN descendants for electoral purposes.Petro Voinovsky
Petro Voinovsky, Romanian: Petru Voinovschi, Russian: Пётр Войновский, Ukrainian: Петро Войновський (September 8, 1913, village Stanivtsi Dolyshni — April 8, 1996) was a Ukrainian nationalist. He lived in Bukovyna (a region of modern Ukraine that belonged to Romania before 1940), served in the Romanian army in the rank of lieutenant, resigned in 1935 due to the policy of "Romanization" (he refused to change his name into Romanian one). He participated in Ukrainian scouting organization Plast, joined OUN in 1930s. Initially supported Stepan Bandera, but later moved to Andriy Melnyk's faction. Since 1940 Voinovsky was the regional leader of OUN in Bukovyna and Bessarabia.
In 1941, with German support, he organized the so-called Bukovyna Kurin (Ukrainian: Буковинський курiнь, the Bukovynian Battalion) - the biggest paramilitary unit of Andriy Melnyk's faction, got the rank of a captain (Hauptmann). When the German-Soviet war began, the Bukovyna Kurin came to Ukraine in order to organize pro-German local administration. In November 1941 his unit was merged with the Kiev auxiliary police while Voinovsky and some other of his people were transferred to Schutzmannschaft battalions.
According to sources of Stepan Bandera's faction, Voinovsky actively helped Germans in their reprisals against Ukrainian nationalists - adherents of Bandera. Nevertheless, he was arrested by Gestapo in Lviv in 1944 and imprisoned in Brez concentration camp where he became paralyzed.
Since 1949 Voinovsky resided in the USA.
After Ukraine became independent in 1991, several mass-media proclaimed Voinovsky a national hero of Ukraine. A monument in memory of Bukovyna Kurin was erected in Chernivtsi. Voinovsky visited Ukraine in 2003 and was interviewed.Staryi Uhryniv
Staryi Uhryniv (Ukrainian: Старий Угринів, Polish: Uhrynów Stary, Old Uhryniv) is a village in Kalush Raion, of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast in western Ukraine. Local government is administered by Serednouhrynivska village council.
Staryi Uhryniv is the birthplace of the Ukrainian nationalist Stepan Bandera.Tryzub (organization)
Tryzub (Ukrainian: Тризуб) is a far-right Ukrainian paramilitary organization founded in 1993 by the Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists. Its full name is the Stepan Bandera All-Ukrainian Organization ″Tryzub″ (Ukrainian: Всеукраїнська організація ″Тризуб″ імені Степана Бандери) and its main goal is to create the Ukrainian United Independent State (Ukrainian: Українська Соборна Самостійна Держава, УССД). According to Tryzub, its enemies in achieving this goal are ″imperialism and chauvinism, fascism and communism, cosmopolitanism and pseudo-nationalism, totalitarianism and anarchy, any evil that seeks to parasitize on the sweat and blood of Ukrainians″.Yaroslav Stetsko
Yaroslav Stetsko (Ukrainian: Ярослав Стецько; 19 January 1912 – 5 July 1986) was the leader of Stepan Bandera's Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), from 1968 until his death. In 1941, during the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union, he was self-proclaimed temporary head of an independent Ukrainian government declared by Stepan Bandera. Stetsko was the head of the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations from the time of its foundation until 1986, the year of his death.