# Stellar-wind bubble

A stellar-wind bubble is a cavity light years across filled with hot gas blown into the interstellar medium by the high-velocity (several thousand km/s) stellar wind from a single massive star of type O or B. Weaker stellar winds also blow bubble structures, which are also called astrospheres. The heliosphere blown by the solar wind, within which all the major planets of the Solar System are embedded, is a small example of a stellar-wind bubble.

Stellar-wind bubbles have a two-shock structure.[1] The freely-expanding stellar wind hits an inner termination shock, where its kinetic energy is thermalized, producing 106 K, X-ray-emitting plasma. The hot, high-pressure, shocked wind expands, driving a shock into the surrounding interstellar gas. If the surrounding gas is dense enough (number densities ${\displaystyle n>0.1{\mbox{ cm}}^{-3}}$ or so), the swept-up gas radiatively cools far faster than the hot interior, forming a thin, relatively dense shell around the hot, shocked wind.

## References

1. ^ Castor, J.; McCray, R.; Weaver, R. (1975). "Interstellar Bubbles". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 200: L107–L110. Bibcode:1975ApJ...200L.107C. doi:10.1086/181908.
Blitzar

Blitzars are a hypothetical type of astronomical object in which a spinning pulsar rapidly collapses into a black hole. They are proposed as an explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs). The idea was proposed in 2013 by Heino Falcke and Luciano Rezzolla.

Bright giant

The luminosity class II in the Yerkes spectral classification is given to bright giants. These are stars which straddle the boundary between ordinary giants and supergiants, based on the appearance of their spectra.

CN star

A CN star is a star with strong cyanogen bands in its spectrum. Cyanogen is a simple molecule of one carbon atom and one nitrogen atom, with absorption bands around 388.9 and 421.6 nm. This group of stars was first noticed by Nancy G. Roman who called them 4150 stars.

Electroweak star

An electroweak star is a theoretical type of exotic star, whereby the gravitational collapse of the star is prevented by radiation pressure resulting from electroweak burning, that is, the energy released by conversion of quarks to leptons through the electroweak force. This process occurs in a volume at the star's core approximately the size of an apple, containing about two Earth masses.The stage of life of a star that produces an electroweak star is theorized to occur after a supernova collapse. Electroweak stars are denser than quark stars, and may form when quark degeneracy pressure is no longer able to withstand gravitational attraction, but may still be withstood by electroweak burning radiation pressure. This phase of a star's life may last upwards of 10 million years.

Frozen star (hypothetical star)

In astronomy, a frozen star, besides a disused term for a black hole, is a type of hypothetical star that, according to the astronomers Fred Adams and Gregory P. Laughlin, may appear in the future of the Universe when the metallicity of the interstellar medium is several times the solar value. Frozen stars would belong to a spectral class "H".

Helium-weak star

Helium-weak stars are chemically peculiar stars which have a weak helium lines for their spectral type. Their helium lines place them in a later (ie. cooler) spectral type then their hydrogen lines.

Lambda Boötis star

A Lambda Boötis star is a type of peculiar star which has an unusually low abundance of iron peak elements in its surface layers. One possible explanation for this is that it is the result of accretion of metal-poor gas from a circumstellar disc, and a second possibility is the accretion of material from a hot Jupiter suffering from mass loss. The prototype is Lambda Boötis.

A lead star is a low-metallicity star with an overabundance of lead and bismuth as compared to other products of the S-process.

List of hottest stars

This is a list of hottest stars so far discovered (excluding degenerate stars), arranged by decreasing temperature. The stars with temperatures higher than 60,000 K are included.

List of stellar properties

Pages Related to Stellar properties, Pages using the word stellar in a physics context.

Stellar aberration

Stellar aberration (derivation from Lorentz transformation)

Stellar age estimation

Stellar archaeology

Stellar astronomy

Stellar atmosphere

Stellar birthline

Stellar black hole

Stellar cartography

Stellar chemistry

Stellar chonography

Stellar classification

Stellar cluster

Stellar collision

Stellar core

Stellar coronae

Stellar density

Stellar disk

Stellar distance

Stellar drift

Stellar dynamics

Stellar engine

Stellar engineering

Stellar envelope see stellar atmosphere

Stellar evolution

Stellar flare

Stellar flux

Stellar fog

Stellar halo

Stellar interferometer

Stellar isochrone

Stellar kinematics

Stellar limb-darkening

Stellar luminosity

Stellar magnetic field

Stellar magnitude

Stellar mass

Stellar mass black hole

Stellar mass loss

Stellar molecule

Stellar near-collision

Stellar neighborhood

Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nursery

Stellar occultation

Stellar parallax

Stellar physics

Stellar planetary

Stellar population

Stellar precession

Stellar pulsations

Stellar quake

Stellar remnant

Stellar rotation

Stellar scintillation

Stellar seismology

Stellar spectra

Stellar spheroid

Stellar spin-down

Stellar structure

Stellar surface fusion

Stellar system

Stellar triangulation

Stellar uplift

Stellar variation

Stellar vault

Stellar wind

Stellar wind (disambiguation)

Stellar wobble

Stellar X-ray astronomy

Stellar-wind bubble

Other

Catalog of Stellar Identifications

Fossil stellar magnetic field

General Catalogue of Stellar Radial Velocities

General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes

Interstellar cloud

Inter-stellar clouds

Interstellar medium

List of stellar angular diameters

List of stellar streams

Low-dimensional chaos in stellar pulsations

Mark III Stellar Interferometer

Michelson stellar interferometer

NEMO (Stellar Dynamics Toolbox)

Non-stellar astronomical object

Quasi-stellar object

Substellar object

Sub-stellar object

Sydney University Stellar Interferometer

TD1 Catalog of Stellar Ultraviolet Fluxes

Timeline of stellar astronomy

Utah state stellar cluster

Young stellar object

OB star

OB stars are hot, massive stars of spectral types O or early-type B that form in loosely organized groups called OB associations. They are short lived, and thus do not move very far from where they formed within their life. During their lifetime, they will emit much ultraviolet radiation. This radiation rapidly ionizes the surrounding interstellar gas of the giant molecular cloud, forming an H II region or Strömgren sphere.

In lists of spectra the "spectrum of OB" refers to "unknown, but belonging to an OB association so thus of early type".

Photometric-standard star

Photometric-standard stars are a series of stars that have had their light output in various passbands of photometric system measured very carefully. Other objects can be observed using CCD cameras or photoelectric photometers connected to a telescope, and the flux, or amount of light received, can be compared to a photometric-standard star to determine the exact brightness, or stellar magnitude, of the object.A current set of photometric-standard stars for UBVRI photometry was published by Arlo U. Landolt in 1992 in the Astronomical Journal.

Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated. The term itself is derived from Ancient Greek roots, φῶς, φωτός/phos, photos meaning "light" and σφαῖρα/sphaira meaning "sphere", in reference to it being a spherical surface that is perceived to emit light. It extends into a star's surface until the plasma becomes opaque, equivalent to an optical depth of approximately 2/3, or equivalently, a depth from which 50% of light will escape without being scattered.

In other words, a photosphere is the deepest region of a luminous object, usually a star, that is transparent to photons of certain wavelengths.

Q star

A Q-Star, also known as a grey hole, is a hypothetical type of a compact, heavy neutron star with an exotic state of matter. The Q stands for a conserved particle number. A Q-Star may be mistaken for a stellar black hole.

Starfield (astronomy)

A starfield refers to a set of stars visible in an arbitrarily-sized field of view, usually in the context of some region of interest within the celestial sphere. For example: the starfield surrounding the stars Betelgeuse and Rigel could be defined as encompassing some or all of the Orion constellation.

Stellar atmosphere

The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.

Stellar mass

Stellar mass is a phrase that is used by astronomers to describe the mass of a star. It is usually enumerated in terms of the Sun's mass as a proportion of a solar mass (M☉). Hence, the bright star Sirius has around 2.02 M☉. A star's mass will vary over its lifetime as additional mass becomes accreted, such as from a companion star, or mass is ejected with the stellar wind or pulsational behavior.

Supernova impostor

Supernova impostors are stellar explosions that appear at first to be a supernova but do not destroy their progenitor stars. As such, they are a class of extra-powerful novae. They are also known as Type V supernovae, Eta Carinae analogs, and giant eruptions of luminous blue variables (LBV).

Yellow giant

A yellow giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.5–11 solar masses (M)) in a late phase of its stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius large and the surface temperature as low as 5,200-7500 K. The appearance of the yellow giant is from white to yellow, including the spectral types F and G. About 10.6 percent of all giant stars are yellow giants.

Formation
Evolution
Spectral
classification
Remnants
Hypothetical
Nucleosynthesis
Structure
Properties
Star systems
Earth-centric
observations
Lists
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