The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem as their capital city. The dispute has been described as "one of the most intractable issues in the Israel–Palestine conflict", with conflicting claims to sovereignty over the city or parts of it, and access to its holy sites. The main dispute revolves around the legal status of East Jerusalem and especially the Old City of Jerusalem, while broader agreement exists regarding future Israeli presence in West Jerusalem in accordance with Israel's internationally recognised borders. The majority of United Nations (UN) member states hold the view that the final status of Jerusalem should be resolved through negotiation, and have therefore favored locating their embassies in Tel Aviv prior to a final status agreement. However, in recent years the international consensus to abstain from expressing a viewpoint on the city's final status has shown signs of fragility, with Russia, the United States and Australia adopting new policy positions. Furthermore, the proposal that Jerusalem should be the future capital of both Israel and Palestine has also gained international support, with endorsements coming from both the United Nations and the European Union.
From the end of the Ottoman–Mamluk War in 1517 until the First World War, Jerusalem was part of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 1860s, Jews have formed the largest religious group in the city and since around 1887, Jews have been in the majority. In the 19th century, European powers vied for influence in the city, usually on the basis of extending protection over Christian churches and Holy Places. A number of these countries also established consulates in Jerusalem. In 1917 and following the First World War, Great Britain was in control of Jerusalem; from 1923 as part of the Mandate of Palestine. The principal Allied Powers recognized the unique spiritual and religious interests in Jerusalem among the world's three great monotheistic religions as "a sacred trust of civilization", and stipulated that the existing rights and claims connected with it be safeguarded in perpetuity, under international guarantee.
However, the Arab and Jewish communities in Palestine were in mortal dispute and Britain sought United Nations assistance in resolving the dispute. In November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (Resolution 181), which called for the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, with Jerusalem being established as a corpus separatum, or a "separated body" with a special legal and political status, administered by the United Nations. Jewish representatives accepted the partition plan, while representatives of the Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected it, declaring it illegal.
In May 1948, the Jewish community in Palestine issued the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel. Israel became a member of the United Nations the following year and has since been recognised by most countries. The countries recognizing Israel did not recognize its sovereignty over Jerusalem generally, citing the UN resolutions which called for an international status for the city.
With the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel and the subsequent invasion by surrounding Arab states, the UN proposal for Jerusalem never materialised. The 1949 Armistice Agreements left Jordan in control of the eastern parts of Jerusalem, while the western sector was held by Israel. Each side recognised the other's de facto control of their respective sectors. The Armistice Agreement, however, was considered internationally as having no legal effect on the continued validity of the provisions of the partition resolution for the internationalisation of Jerusalem. In 1950, Jordan annexed East Jerusalem as part of its larger annexation of the West Bank. Though the United Kingdom and Pakistan recognized Jordanian rule over East Jerusalem, no other country recognized either Jordanian or Israeli rule over the respective areas of the city under their control.
Following the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel declared that Israeli law would be applied to East Jerusalem and enlarged its eastern boundaries, approximately doubling its size. The action was deemed unlawful by other states who did not recognize it. It was condemned by the UN Security Council and General Assembly which described it as an annexation and a violation of the rights of the Palestinian population. In 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law, which declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel". The Security Council declared the law null and void in Resolution 478, which also called upon member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. The UN General Assembly has also passed numerous resolutions to the same effect.
Israel took control of West Jerusalem during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, while Jordan had taken control of East Jerusalem (including the walled Old City in which most holy places are located). Israel rejected corpus separatum at the Lausanne Conference of 1949 and instead indicated a preference for a division of Jerusalem into Jewish and Arab zones, and international control and protection only for holy places and sites. Also in 1949, as the UN General Assembly began debating the implementation of its decision of 29 November 1947 regarding the establishment of Jerusalem as a separate international entity under the auspices of the United Nations, Israel declared Jerusalem Israel's "eternal capital".
After Israel conquered East Jerusalem from Jordan in 1967 during the Six-Day War, which it characterised as self-defence, Israel also argued that it had the stronger right to the city. Israel argued that Jordan had no rights to any land west of the Jordan River, and had taken the West Bank and East Jerusalem by an act of aggression and therefore never acquired sovereignty. Following its conquest of East Jerusalem in 1967, Israel merged East Jerusalem with West Jerusalem by administratively extending the municipal boundary of the city.
According to a 1999 statement by the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "There is no basis in international law for the position supporting a status of 'corpus separatum' (separate entity) for the city of Jerusalem." In the view of the ministry, the concept of corpus separatum became irrelevant after the Arab states rejected the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine and invaded the newly created state of Israel in 1948. Accordingly, the ministry states, "There has never been any agreement, treaty, or international understanding which applies the 'Corpus Separatum' concept to Jerusalem."
Positions on the final status of Jerusalem have varied with different Israeli governments. The Oslo Accords declared that the final status of Jerusalem would be negotiated, but Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin declared that he would never divide the city. In 1995, he told a group of school children that "if they told us peace is the price of giving up a united Jerusalem under Israeli sovereignty, my reply would be 'let's do without peace'". This position was upheld by his successor, Benjamin Netanyahu. Netanyahu's successor, Ehud Barak, during negotiations, became the first Israeli Prime Minister to allow for a possible division of Jerusalem, despite his campaign promises. Prime Minister Ehud Olmert vowed to keep Jerusalem the "undivided, eternal capital of the Jewish people", but later supported the detachment of several Arab neighborhoods from Israeli sovereignty and the introduction of an international trust to run the Temple Mount. When Netanyahu succeeded Olmert, he declared that "all of Jerusalem would always remain under Israeli sovereignty" and that only Israel would "ensure the freedom of religion and freedom of access for the three religions to the holy places". These statements seem to closely reflect Israeli public opinion. According to a 2012 poll by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 78% of Jewish voters who responded said that they would reconsider voting for any politician that wants to relinquish Israel's control over the Old City and East Jerusalem.
On 17 May 2015, Prime Minister Netanyahu reiterated, regarding Jerusalem serving as the capital of both Israel and a future Palestinian state, "Jerusalem has forever been the capital of only the Jewish people and no other nation." On 2 January 2018 Israel passed into law new legislation that requires the two-thirds majority support of the Knesset for any section of Jerusalem to be transferred to a foreign government. On 25 January 2018, Netanyahu repeated the previous government position but seemed to alter the position, reportedly saying: "Under any peace agreement the capital of Israel will continue to be in Jerusalem." (stress added)
Until the Oslo Accords in 1993, and the Letters of Mutual Recognition, the Palestinian leadership had at all times rejected any partition of any part of the former British Mandate territory. However, while they had previously rejected the UN's internationalisation plan, most of the Arab delegations at the Lausanne Conference of 1949 accepted a permanent international regime (called corpus separatum) under United Nations supervision as proposed in Resolutions 181 and 194, and objected to Israel moving to (West) Jerusalem its national institutions, namely the Knesset, the presidential, legislative, judicial and administrative offices.
The Palestinian leadership now claims the "1967 borders" as the borders of the Palestinian territories, and includes East Jerusalem as part of these territories. Despite recognition of Israel, and its support in 1949 of corpus separatum, it had never conceded sovereignty of Jerusalem. In the Israel–Jordan peace treaty, Jordan conceded all claims to the West Bank, including Jerusalem, other than the Muslim holy places.
The Palestinian National Authority views East Jerusalem as occupied Palestinian territory, in line with UNSC Resolution 242. The PNA claims all of East Jerusalem, including the Temple Mount, as the capital of the State of Palestine, and claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to final status negotiations, but is willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an open city. In the Palestine Liberation Organization's Palestinian Declaration of Independence of 1988, Jerusalem is called the capital of the State of Palestine. In 2000 the Palestinian Authority passed a law designating the city as such, and in 2002 this law was ratified by Chairman Yasser Arafat. The official position of the PNA is that Jerusalem should be an open city, with no physical partition and that Palestine would guarantee freedom of worship, access and the protection of sites of religious significance.
The United Nations considers East Jerusalem to be part of Israeli-occupied territories or occupied Palestinian territory. It envisions Jerusalem eventually becoming the capital of two states, Israel and Palestine.
United Nations General Assembly resolution 181 (II), passed on 29 November 1947, provided for the full territorial internationalisation of Jerusalem: "The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus separatum under a special international regime and shall be administered by the United Nations." The resolution received the consent of the Jewish leadership in Palestine, but it was rejected by the Arabs. This position was restated in the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War in UN General Assembly Resolution 303(IV) of 1949. According to a 1979 report prepared for and under the guidance of the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, it would appear that the United Nations has maintained the principle that the legal status of Jerusalem is that of a corpus separatum.
The United Nations General Assembly does not recognize Israel's proclamation of Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, which is, for example, reflected in the wording of General Assembly Resolution 63/30 of 2009 which states that "any actions taken by Israel, the occupying Power, to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration on the Holy City of Jerusalem are illegal and therefore null and void and have no validity whatsoever, and calls upon Israel to cease all such illegal and unilateral measures."
Although the General Assembly cannot pass legally binding resolutions over international issues, the United Nations Security Council, which has the authority to do so, has passed a total of six Security Council resolutions on Israel on the matter, including UNSC resolution 478 which affirmed that the enactment of the 1980 Basic Jerusalem Law declaring unified Jerusalem as Israel's "eternal and indivisible" capital, was a violation of international law. The resolution advised member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city. The Security Council, as well as the UN in general, has consistently affirmed the position that East Jerusalem (but not west Jerusalem) is occupied Palestinian territory subject to the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention. The International Court of Justice in its 2004 Advisory opinion on the "Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory" described East Jerusalem as "occupied Palestinian territory".
Many UN member states formally adhere to the UN proposal that Jerusalem should have an international status, as outlined in General Assembly Resolution 181 (II). The European Union has also followed the UN's lead in this regard, declaring Jerusalem's status to be that of a corpus separatum, or an international city to be administered by the UN. On the other hand, and inconsistent with the status of corpus separatum, the UN has designated East Jerusalem occupied Palestinian territory. China recognizes East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine.
The UN has never revoked resolutions 181 and 194, and maintains the official position that Jerusalem should be placed under a special international regime. Nevertheless, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said on 28 October 2009 that Jerusalem must be the capital of both Israel and Palestine.
The European Union currently views the status of Jerusalem as that of a corpus separatum including both East and West Jerusalem as outlined in United Nations Resolution 181. In the interest of achieving a peaceful solution to the Arab–Israeli conflict, it believes a fair solution should be found regarding the issue of Jerusalem in the context of the two-state solution set out in the Road Map. Taking into account the political and religious concerns of all parties involved, it envisions the city serving as the shared capital of Israel and Palestine.
The EU opposes measures which would prejudge the outcome of permanent status negotiations on Jerusalem, basing its policy on the principles set out in UN Security Council Resolution 242, notably the impossibility of acquisition of territory by force. It will not recognise any changes to pre-1967 borders with regard to Jerusalem, unless agreed between the parties. It has also called for the reopening of Palestinian institutions in East Jerusalem, in accordance with the Road Map, in particular Orient House and the Chamber of Commerce, and has called on the Israeli government to "cease all discriminatory treatment of Palestinians in East Jerusalem, especially concerning work permits, access to education and health services, building permits, house demolitions, taxation and expenditure."
The European Union set out its position in a statement of principles last December. A two-state solution with Israel and Palestine side by side in peace and security. A viable state of Palestine in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, on the basis of the 1967 lines. A way must be found to resolve the status of Jerusalem as the future capital of both Israel and Palestine.
On 13 December 2017, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of 57 primarily Muslim countries, declared East Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine and invited “all countries to recognise the State of Palestine and East Jerusalem as its occupied capital.” The declaration makes no mention of Jerusalem as corpus separatum, nor makes any reference to West Jerusalem.
After Israel passed the Jerusalem Law in 1980, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 478, which called upon UN member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city. Thirteen countries — Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, the Netherlands, Panama, Uruguay and Venezuela — moved their embassies from Jerusalem primarily to Tel Aviv. Costa Rica and El Salvador moved theirs back to Jerusalem in 1984. Costa Rica moved its embassy back to Tel Aviv in 2006 followed by El Salvador a few weeks later. No international embassy remained in Jerusalem, although Bolivia had its embassy in Mevasseret Zion, a suburb 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) west of the city, until relations were severed in 2009.
Various countries recognized Israel as a state in the 1940s and 1950s, without recognizing Israeli sovereignty over West Jerusalem. There is an international sui generis consular corps in Jerusalem. It is commonly referred to as the "Consular Corps of the Corpus Separatum". The states that have maintained consulates in Jerusalem say that it was part of Mandate Palestine, and in a de jure sense has not since become part of any other sovereignty. The Netherlands maintains an office in Jerusalem serving mainly Israeli citizens. Other foreign governments base consulate general offices in Jerusalem, including Greece, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the President of Israel resides in Jerusalem and confirms the foreign diplomats, the ambassadors have to travel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem to submit letters of credentials upon being appointed.
On 6 April 2017 the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying, "We reaffirm our commitment to the UN-approved principles for a Palestinian-Israeli settlement, which include the status of East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. At the same time, we must state that in this context we view West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel." Some commentators interpreted this as a Russian recognition of Israel's claim to West Jerusalem, while others understood the statement as a Russian intention to recognize West Jerusalem as Israel's in the context of a peace deal with the Palestinians.On 14 June 2018, Russia held, for the first time, its annual Russia Day reception in Jerusalem, a year after declaring that West Jerusalem is Israel's capital. Until then, the annual reception has been held in the Tel Aviv area. Although Russia has publicly recognised West Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, it continues to locate its embassy in Tel Aviv.
Prior to these events, in 2011 the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev stated that Russia had recognized the State of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its capital already in 1988, and that it had not changed its view.
Russia has publicly opposed Israeli settlement construction in East Jerusalem. In March 2010, the Russian Foreign Ministry denounced Israeli plans to construct homes for Jewish settlers in East Jerusalem, calling the measure "unacceptable" and in opposition to "internationally acknowledged reconciliation proceedings". In January 2011, reaffirming Russia's recognition of the State of Palestine, President Dmitry Medvedev said Russia "supported and will support the inalienable right of the Palestinian people to an independent state with its capital in East Jerusalem."
Prior to the opening of the American Embassy in Jerusalem on 14 May 2018, the United States maintained its embassy in Tel Aviv, and a consulate general in Jerusalem as part of the "Consular Corps of the Corpus Separatum". When Israel was founded, the position of the United States was that its recognition of Israel did not imply a particular view on the status of Jerusalem. The US voted for the UN Partition Plan in November 1947, which provided for the establishment of an international regime for the city, and Resolution 194 in 1948, following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. But the US voted against Resolution 303 in 1949 which reaffirmed that Jerusalem be established a corpus separatum under a special international regime to be administered by the UN, because the US regarded the plan as no longer feasible after both Israel and Jordan had established a political presence in the city. Since then the US position has been that final status of Jerusalem be resolved through negotiations, and it did not recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital prior to President Donald Trump's announcement on 6 December 2017.
The US Consulate was given a lot in the neighborhood of Talpiot in 1989 with a 99-year lease agreement with the Israeli government and relocated there in 2002. On 14 May 2018, the US reclassified its Jerusalem consulate as the US embassy in Jerusalem.
China recognizes East Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine. In a 2016 speech to the Arab League, PRC president Xi Jinping said that "China firmly supports the Middle East peace process and supports the establishment of a State of Palestine enjoying full sovereignty on the basis of the 1967 borders and with East Jerusalem as its capital." China announced that this position remains unchanged in the aftermath of the US recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
The United Kingdom position on Jerusalem states that "Jerusalem was supposed to be a ‘corpus separatum’, or international city administered by the UN. But this was never set up: immediately after the UNGA resolution partitioning Palestine, Israel occupied West Jerusalem and Jordan occupied East Jerusalem (including the Old City). We recognised the de facto control of Israel and Jordan, but not sovereignty. In 1967, Israel occupied E Jerusalem, which we continue to consider is under illegal military occupation by Israel. Our Embassy to Israel is in Tel Aviv, not Jerusalem. In E Jerusalem we have a Consulate-General, with a Consul-General who is not accredited to any state: this is an expression of our view that no state has sovereignty over Jerusalem."
The UK believes that the city's status has yet to be determined, and maintains that it should be settled in an overall agreement between the parties concerned, but considers that the city should not again be divided. The Declaration of Principles and the Interim Agreement, signed by Israel and the PLO on 13 September 1993 and 28 September 1995 respectively, left the issue of the status of Jerusalem to be decided in the ‘permanent status’ negotiations between the two parties.
In 2012, the UK Press Complaints Commission initially ruled that the newspaper The Guardian had not acted wrongly in writing that "Jerusalem is not the capital of Israel; Tel Aviv is," but this was later overturned. In the latter ruling, the UK Press Complaints Commission ruled that The Guardian was wrong to refer to the Israeli capital unequivocally as Tel Aviv, saying that this "had the potential to mislead readers and raised a breach of... the Editors’ Code of Practice." In addition, prior to the latter ruling, The Guardian retracted their statement, saying, "While it was therefore right to issue a correction to make clear Israel's designation of Jerusalem as its capital is not recognised by the international community, we accept that it is wrong to state that Tel Aviv – the country's financial and diplomatic centre – is the capital".
The French Government notes that "It is up to the parties to come to a final and overall agreement with regard to the final status, which would put an end to the conflict. France believes that Jerusalem must become the capital of the two States."
Both Israel and the future state of Palestine want Jerusalem as their capital. ... The international consensus is that Jerusalem would have to be the shared capital of both states.
Abu Tor (Arabic: أبو طور or الثوري, Hebrew: אבו תור) (lit. "Father of the Bull") is a mixed Jewish and Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem, south of the Old City.Borders of Israel
The current borders of the State of Israel are the result both of war and of diplomatic agreements among Israel, her neighbors, and colonial powers. Uniquely, only two of Israel's five potential land borders are internationally recognized while the other three are disputed. Israel's borders with Egypt and Jordan have now been formally recognized and confirmed as part of the peace treaties with those countries. The borders with Syria (Golan Heights), Lebanon (Shebaa farms) and the Palestinian territories (declared as the State of Palestine) are still in dispute.According to the Green Line of the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Israel borders Lebanon in the north, the Golan Heights and Syria in the northeast, the West Bank and Jordan in the east, the Gaza Strip and Egypt in the southwest. The border with Egypt is the international border demarcated in 1906 between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire, confirmed in the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, and the border with Jordan is based on the border defined in the 1922 Trans-Jordan memorandum, confirmed in the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty.Council of Chalcedon
The Council of Chalcedon () was a church council held from 8 October to 1 November, 451, at Chalcedon. The Council was called by Emperor Marcian to set aside the 449 Second Council of Ephesus. Its principal purpose was to assert the orthodox catholic doctrine against the heresy of Eutyches and the Monophysites, although ecclesiastical discipline and jurisdiction also occupied the council's attention.The council is numbered as the fourth ecumenical council by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestants. Oriental Orthodox Churches do not agree with the conduct and the proceedings of the Council, commonly calling it "Chalcedon, the Ominous".
Followers of the Council believe its most important achievement was to issue the Chalcedonian Definition, stating that Jesus is "perfect both in deity and in humanness; this selfsame one is also actually God and actually man." The council's judgments and definitions regarding the divine marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates.International city
An international city is an autonomous or semi-autonomous city-state that is separate from the direct supervision of any single nation-state.Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation
Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation is what occurred during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank between 1948–1967, when Jordan sought to alter the demographics and landscape of the city to enhance its Muslim character at the expense of its Jewish and Christian ones. At this time, all Jewish residents were expelled, and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Ghada Hashem Talhami states that during its nineteen years of rule, the government of Jordan took actions to accentuate the spiritual Islamic status of Jerusalem. Raphael Israeli, an Israeli professor, described these measures as "Arabization".Israel–Nauru relations
Israel–Nauru relations are diplomatic and other relations between the Israel and Nauru. Israel has a non-resident ambassador in Jerusalem and honorary consulate (Yaren), Nauru has an honorary consulate (Rosh HaAyin).
In 2010 the President of Nauru, Marcus Stephen and Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Nauru, Dr. Kieren Keke, along with Nauru's ambassador to the United Nations, Marlene Moses visited Israel, and at that meeting President Stephen expressed unqualified support for Israel.During the visit, the President, Marcus Stephen also planted a tree with Micronesian President, Emanuel Mori in honor of diplomatic relations.In early December 2017, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu donated $72,000 to Nauru's wastewater treatment plant. Two weeks later, Nauru voted against a United Nations General Assembly resolution which declared the status of Jerusalem as Israel's capital as "null and void".Jerusalem
Jerusalem (; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, and attacked 52 times. The part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period (14th century BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah. In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters. The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger.Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising approximately 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and later monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities. These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש, transliterated 'ir haqodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb.
Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Beit Aghion) and President (Beit HaNassi), and the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem.Jordan–Turkey relations
Jordan and Turkey share a relatively close relationship due to long historical commons, as both are majority two Sunni Muslim nations and sharing a strong historic tie. Turkey has an embassy in Amman; Jordan has an embassy in Ankara in response.List of United Nations resolutions concerning Israel
The following is a list of United Nations resolutions concerning Israel. As of 2013, Israel had been condemned in 45 resolutions by the United Nations Human Rights Council. Since the creation of the Council in 2006, it has resolved almost more resolutions condemning Israel than on the rest of the world combined. The 45 resolutions comprised almost half (45.9%) of all country-specific resolutions passed by the Council, not counting those under Agenda Item 10 (countries requiring technical assistance).
From 1967 to 1989 the UN Security Council adopted 131 resolutions directly addressing the Arab–Israeli conflict. In early Security Council practice, resolutions did not directly invoke Chapter VII. They made an explicit determination of a threat, breach of the peace, or act of aggression, and ordered an action in accordance with Article 39 or 40. Resolution 54 determined that a threat to peace existed within the meaning of Article 39 of the Charter, reiterated the need for a truce, and ordered a cease-fire pursuant to Article 40 of the Charter. Although the phrase "Acting under Chapter VII" was never mentioned as the basis for the action taken, the chapter's authority was being used.The United Nations General Assembly has adopted a number of resolutions saying that the strategic relationship with the United States encourages Israel to pursue aggressive and expansionist policies and practices. The 9th Emergency Session of the General Assembly was convened at the request of the Security Council when the United States blocked efforts to adopt sanctions against Israel. The United States responded to the frequent criticism from UN organs by adopting the Negroponte doctrine of opposing any Security Council resolutions criticizing Israel that did not also denounce Palestinian militant activity.List of United Nations resolutions concerning Palestine
The following is a list of United Nations resolutions concerning State of Palestine. From 1967 to 1989 the UN Security Council adopted 131 resolutions directly addressing the Arab–Israeli conflict, with many concerning the Palestinians; Since 2012, a number of resolutions were issued dealing directly with the modern Palestinian State.List of World Heritage sites in the State of Palestine
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. Palestine accepted the convention on 8 December 2011, making its historical sites eligible for inclusion on the list. As of 2017, there are three World Heritage sites in Palestine, all them cultural sites.Palestine's first site, Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem, was inscribed on the list at the 36th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Saint Petersburg, Russia in 2012.As of 2019, all three of Palestine's World Heritage sites are placed on UNESCO's List of World Heritage in Danger.The Old City of Jerusalem and its walls is also listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. It was proposed as a site by Jordan. The site is not assigned to a state on the UNESCO listing. In 2011 UNESCO stated "The Old City of Jerusalem is inscribed on the World Heritage List and the List of World Heritage in Danger. UNESCO continues to work to ensure respect for the outstanding universal value of the cultural heritage of the Old City of Jerusalem. This position is reflected on UNESCO’s official website (www.unesco.org). In line with relevant UN resolutions, East Jerusalem remains part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations."Mordechai Kedar
Mordechai Kedar (Hebrew: מרדכי קידר, Arabic: مردخاي كيدار; born 1952 ) is an Israeli scholar of Arabic culture and a lecturer at Bar-Ilan University.Oslo Accords
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; and the Oslo II Accord, signed in Taba, Egypt, in 1995. The Oslo Accords marked the start of the Oslo process, a peace process aimed at achieving a peace treaty based on United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, and at fulfilling the "right of the Palestinian people to self-determination." The Oslo process started after secret negotiations in Oslo, resulting in the recognition by the PLO of the State of Israel and the recognition by Israel of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and as a partner in negotiations.
The Oslo Accords created a Palestinian Authority tasked with limited self-governance of parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip; and acknowledged the PLO as Israel's partner in permanent-status negotiations about remaining questions. The most important questions relate to the borders of Israel and Palestine, Israeli settlements, the status of Jerusalem, Israel's military presence in and control over remaining territories after Israel's recognition of Palestinian autonomy, and the Palestinian right of return. The Oslo Accords, however, did not create a Palestinian state.United Nations General Assembly resolution ES-10/L.22
United Nations General Assembly resolution ES‑10/L.22 is an emergency session resolution declaring the status of Jerusalem as Israel's capital as "null and void". It was adopted by the 37th Plenary meeting of the tenth emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly during the tenure of the seventy-second session of the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 2017. The draft resolution was drafted by Yemen and Turkey. Though strongly contested by the United States, it passed by 128 votes to 9 against with 21 absentees and 35 abstentions.United Nations Security Council Resolution 252
United Nations Security Council Resolution 252, adopted on 21 May 1968, after a letter from the Permanent Representative of Jordan, hearing statements from Israel and Jordan, and the actions Israel had taken against General Assembly resolutions taken on the matter, the Council reaffirmed that the acquisition of territory by military conquest is inadmissible and deplored the failure of Israel to comply with the General Assembly resolutions. The Council considered all legislative and administrative measure and action which tend to change the legal status of Jerusalem are invalid and cannot change that status and urgently called upon Israel to rescind all such measures already taken and to desist forthwith from taking any further action which tends to change the status of Jerusalem.
The resolution passed with 13 votes to none; Canada and the United States abstained.United Nations Security Council Resolution 298
United Nations Security Council Resolution 298, adopted on 25 September 1971, after recalling previous resolutions on the topic, a letter from the representative of Jordan, the reports of the Secretary-General and the statements of the parties concerned, the Council deplored Israel's failure to respect the previous resolutions concerning measures and actions by Israel to affect the status of Jerusalem.
The Council confirmed that all legislative and administrative actions taken by Israel to change the status of Jerusalem aimed at the incorporation of the occupied section are totally invalid and cannot change that status. The Council called on Israel to rescind all previous measures and to take no further steps in attempting to change the status of the city and requested the Secretary-General report to the Council in 60 days on the implementation of the resolution.
The resolution was adopted by 14 votes to none, while the Syrian Arab Republic abstained.
UNSC Resolution 298 was also the last resolution affecting Israel which the Republic of China (Taiwan) participated in, with the People's Republic of China taking its place thereafter.United Nations Security Council Resolution 478
United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, adopted on 20 August 1980, is one of seven UNSC resolutions condemning Israel's attempted annexation of East Jerusalem. In particular, UNSC res 478 notes Israel's non-compliance with UNSC res 476 and condemned Israel's 1980 Jerusalem Law which declared Jerusalem to be Israel's "complete and united" capital, as a violation of international law. The resolution states that the Council will not recognize this law, and calls on member states to accept the decision of the council. This resolution also calls upon member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city.
The resolution was passed with 14 votes to none against, with the United States abstaining.Zivotofsky v. Clinton
Zivotofsky v. Clinton, 566 U.S. 189 (2012), is a Supreme Court of the United States decision in which the Court held that a dispute over the regulation of passports was not a political question and thus resolvable by the courts. Specifically, Zivotofsky's parents sought to have his passport read "Jerusalem, Israel", rather than "Jerusalem", as his place of birth. The State Department had rejected that request under a longstanding policy that took no stance on the legal status of Jerusalem. The Court said that Zivotofsky could test the constitutionality of a Congressional law that ordered the Secretary of State to list people born in Jerusalem as born in Israel. This action was taken over the objections of the State Department, which insisted that issues of foreign policy were inherently political and thus not justiciable by the Courts. On remand, the Court of Appeals held in July 2013 that the law was an unconstitutional infringement of the President's recognition powers.On April 21, 2014, the Supreme Court granted the Zivotofskys' petition for certiorari, in Zivotofsky v. Kerry. In 2015, the Court held that the President of the United States has an exclusive power of recognition, and, therefore, Congress may not require the State Department to regard Jerusalem as part of Israel.Zivotofsky v. Kerry
Zivotofsky v. Kerry, 576 U.S. 1059 (2015), is a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the President has the exclusive power to recognize (or not recognize) foreign nations, and, therefore, Congress may not require the State Department to indicate in passports that Jerusalem is part of Israel.