Statius

Publius Papinius Statius (/ˈsteɪʃiəs/; c. 45 – c. 96 AD) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature). His surviving Latin poetry includes an epic in twelve books, the Thebaid; a collection of occasional poetry, the Silvae; and an unfinished epic, the Achilleid. He is also known for his appearance as a guide in the Purgatory section of Dante's epic poem, the Divine Comedy.

Statius
Publio Papinio Stazio
Bornc. AD 45
Naples
Diedc. AD 96
Naples
OccupationPoet
NationalityRoman

Life

Family background

Information about Statius' life is almost entirely drawn from his Silvae and a mention by the satirist Juvenal. He was born to a family of Graeco-Campanian origin; his Roman cognomen suggests that at some time an ancestor of his was freed and adopted the name of his former master, although neither Statius nor his father were slaves. The poet's father (whose name is unknown) was a native of Velia but later moved to Naples and spent time in Rome where he taught with marked success. From boyhood to adulthood, Statius' father proved himself a champion in the poetic contests at Naples in the Augustalia and in the Nemean, Pythian, and Isthmian games, which served as important events to display poetic skill during the early empire. Statius declares in his lament for his father (Silv. 5.3) that his father was in his time equal to any literary task, whether in prose or verse. He mentioned Mevania, and may have spent time there, or been impressed by the confrontation of Vitellius and Vespasian in 69. Statius' father was a Roman eques, but may have lost his status because of money troubles. At Naples, he was a teacher of Greek and Roman literature who attracted many pupils who were destined for religious offices in Rome. He died in 79 AD. From Pliny the Younger's Letters, it has recently been deduced that Statius also wrote under the pseudonym of Propertius.

Birth and career

Less is known of the events of Statius' life. He was born c. 45 AD. From his boyhood he was victorious in poetic contests many times at his native Naples and three times at the Alban Festival, where he received the golden crown from the hand of the emperor Domitian who had instituted the contest. For the Alban Festival, Statius composed a poem on the German and Dacian campaigns of Domitian which Juvenal lampoons in his seventh satire. Statius is thought to have moved to Rome c. 90 after his father's death where he published his acclaimed epic poem the Thebaid c. 92. In the capital, Statius seems to have made many connections among the Roman aristocracy and court, and he was probably supported through their patronage. Statius produced the first three books of occasional poetry, his Silvae, which were published in 93, which sketch his patrons and acquaintances of this period and mention his attendance at one of Domitian's Saturnalia banquets. He competed in the great Capitoline competition, although it is not known in what year, although 94 has been suggested. Statius failed to win the coveted prize, a loss he took very hard. The disappointment may have prompted his return to Naples around 94, the home of his youth. In existence is a poem he addressed to his wife, Claudia, the widow of a famous singer who had a musically talented daughter by her first husband, on this occasion (Silv. 3.5).

Later years at Naples

Statius' first three books of the Silvae seem to have received some criticism, and in response he composed a fourth book' at Naples, which was published in 95. During this period at Naples, Statius maintained his relations with the court and his patrons, earning himself another invitation to a palace banquet (Silv. 4.2). He seems to have taken an interest in the marriage and career of his stepdaughter and he also took a young slave boy under his wing, as he was childless, who died c. 95. In that same year Statius embarked on a new epic, the Achilleid, giving popular recitations of his work (Juv. 7.83) only to complete a book and a half before dying in 95, leaving the poem unfinished. His fifth book of Silvae were published after his death c. 96.

Works

As a poet, Statius was versatile in his abilities and contrived to represent his work as otium. Taught by his educated father, Statius was familiar with the breadth of classical literature and displayed his learning in his poetry which is densely allusive and has been described as elaborate and mannerist. He was able to compose in hexameter, hendecasyllable, Alcaic and Sapphic meters, to produce deeply researched and highly refined epic and polished impromptu pieces, and to treat a variety of themes with the dazzling rhetorical and poetic skill that inspired the support of his patrons and the emperor. Some of Statius' works, such as his poems for his competitions, have been lost; he is recorded as having written an Agave mime, and a four line fragment remains of his poem on Domitian's military campaigns, the De Bello Germanico composed for the Alban Games in the scholia to Juvenal 4.94.[1]

The Thebaid

Based on Statius' own testimony, the Thebaid was written c. 80 – c. 92 AD, beginning when the poet was around 35, and the work is thought to have been published in 91 or 92.[2] The poem is divided into twelve books in imitation of Virgil's Aeneid and is composed in dactylic hexameter.[3] In the Silvae, Statius speaks of his extensive work in polishing and revising the Thebaid and his public recitations of the poem.[4] From the epilogue it seems clear that Statius considered the Thebaid to be his magnum opus and believed that it would secure him fame for the future. In the poem, Statius follows Virgil closely as a model (in the epilogue he acknowledges his debt to Virgil), but he also refers to a wide range of sources in his handling of meter and episodes.

Hoplites fight Louvre E735
The Thebaid describes the siege of Thebes by the seven Argive champions.

The poem's theme is the myth of the Seven Against Thebes, the story of the battle between the sons of Oedipus for the throne of Thebes. The poem opens (Book 1) with the disgraced Oedipus' curse on his two sons, Eteocles and Polyneices, who have decided to hold the throne of Thebes in alternate years, one ruling, the other in exile. Jupiter plans a war between Thebes and Argos, although Juno begs him not to incite it. Polyneices in exile fights with Tydeus, another exile at Adrastus' palace; the two are entertained and marry Adrastus' daughters. In Book 2, Tydeus goes to Eteocles to ask him to lay down the throne and yield power, but he refuses and tries to kill Tydeus with an ambush. Tydeus slaughters the Thebans and escapes to Argos, causing Adrastus and Polyneices to declare war on Thebes (Book 3). In the fourth book the Argive forces gather, commanded by the seven champions Adrastus, Polyneices, Amphiaraus, Capaneus, Parthenopaeus, Hippomedon, and Tydeus and march to Thebes, but at Nemea, Bacchus causes a drought. The army meets Hypsipyle who shows them a spring then tells them the story of the Women of Lemnos (Book 5). While she is speaking, her ward, Opheltes, is killed by a snake; in Book 6, the Argives perform games for the dead child, instituting the Nemean Games. In 7, Jupiter urges the Argives to march on Thebes where battle breaks out during which Amphiaraus is swallowed in the earth. In 8, Tydeus, wounded and dying, kills Melanippus and eats his head; a battle over his body leads to the death of Hippomedon and Parthenopaeus (Book 9). In 10, Juno causes sleep to overcome the Thebans and the Argives slaughter many in the camp; Menoeceus sacrifices himself to save Thebes and Jupiter kills the wicked Capaneus with a thunderbolt. In 11, Polyneices and Eteocles join in single combat and kill each other; Jocasta kills herself and Creon assumes power, forbidding burial of the Argive dead. In the final book, the Argive widows go to Athens to ask Theseus to force Creon to allow their husbands' burial while Argia, Polyneices' wife, burns him illicitly. Theseus musters an army and kills Creon. The Thebaid ends with an epilogue in which the poet prays that his poem will be successful, cautions it not to rival the Aeneid, and hopes that his fame will outlive him.

Modern critics of the Thebaid have been divided over interpretations of the epic's tone. Earlier critics in the 19th and 20th century considered the poem a piece of elaborate flattery that vindicated the regime of Domitian; however, more recent scholars have viewed the poem as a subversive work that criticizes the authoritarianism and violence of the Flavians by focusing on extreme violence and social chaos.[5] Statius' use of allegory in the Thebaid and his abstract treatment of the gods has been seen as an important innovation in the tradition of classical poetry which ushered in Medieval conventions.[6] Finally, although earlier scholars criticized the style of the poem as episodic, current scholars have noted the subtlety and skill with which Statius organizes and controls his narrative and description.[7]

The Silvae

The Silvae were probably composed by Statius between 89–96 AD. The first three books seem to have been published together after 93 AD, Book 4 was probably released in 95 AD, and Book 5 is thought to have been released posthumously c. 96.[8] The title of the collection, (silvae meaning "forest" or "raw material") was used to describe the draft of a poet's work which was composed impromptu in a moment of strong inspiration and which was then revised into a polished, metrical poem.[9] This suggests that the Silvae are revised, impromptu pieces of occasional poetry which were composed in the space of a few days' time. There are thirty-two poems in the collection (almost all with a dedicatee), divided into five books, each with a dedicatory epistle. Of nearly four thousand lines which the books contain, more than five-sixths are hexameters. Four of the pieces are written in the hendecasyllabic metre, and there is one Alcaic and one Sapphic ode.

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Villas not unlike the Getty Villa are described by Statius in his Silvae.

The subjects of the Silvae vary widely. Five poems are devoted to the emperor and his favorites, including a description of Domitian's equestrian statue in the Forum (1.1), praise for his construction of the Via Domitiana (4.3), and a poem on the dedication of the hair of Earinus, a eunuch favorite of Domitian's, to a shrine of Aesculapius (3.4). Six are lamentations for deaths or consolations to survivors, including the highly personal poems on the death of Statius' father and his foster-son (5.3,5). The poems on loss are particularly notable in the collection and range from consolations on the death of wives (3.3) to pieces on the death of a favorite parrot (2.4) and a lion in the arena (2.5). Another group of the Silvae give picturesque descriptions of the villas, gardens, and artworks of the poet's friends. In these we have a more vivid representation than elsewhere of the surroundings Roman aristocrats of the empire lived in the country. Important examples include a piece on Pollius' temple to Hercules (3.1), the aetiology of the tree at Atedius' villa (2.3), an antique statue of Lysippus' Heracles (4.6) and a description of Pollius' villa at Surrentum (2.2). The rest of the Silvae consist of congratulatory addresses to friends, and poems for special occasions such as the wedding poem for Stella and Violentilla (2.2), the poem commemorating the poet Lucan's birthday (2.7), and a joking piece to Plotius Grypus on a Saturnalia gift (4.9).

As with the Thebaid, Statius' relationship to Domitian and his court caused him to fall out of favor with critics and readers, but in recent times, the Silvae have been rehabilitated by scholars.[10] Domitian is an important presence in the Silvae, and many of the poems appear to flatter the emperor and court. The content of the Silvae is primarily dictated by the needs of Statius' patrons, and many of the addressees come from the wealthy, privileged class of landowners and politicians. Statius' flattery of these elites has been interpreted in two ways by scholars; some maintain that the collection is highly subversive and is a subtle criticism of Domitian and the Roman aristocracy.[11] Others urge a reading of the Silvae as individual pieces that respond to specific circumstances with their own unique viewpoints.[12]

The Achilleid

A fragment of his epic poem on the life of Achilles—the Achilleid—is also extant, consisting of one book and a few hundred lines of a second.[13] What was completed of this poem was composed between 94–95 AD based on Silvae 4.7.21ff. Statius records that there were recitations of the poem.[14] It is thought that Statius' death in 95 is the reason that the poem remains unfinished. In the first book, Thetis, having foreknowledge of her son's death in the Trojan War, attempts to hide Achilles on the island of Scyros by dressing him up as a girl. On the island, Achilles falls in love with Deidamia and forces her to have sex with him. Ulysses arrives to recruit Achilles for the war effort and reveals his identity. In the second book, Ulysses and Achilles depart and Achilles gives an account of his early life and tutelage by the centaur Chiron. The poem breaks off at the end of his speech. In general, scholars have remarked on the markedly different tone of the Achilleid in comparison with the Thebaid, equating it more to the style of Ovid than Virgil.[15] Some have also noted the predominance of feminine themes and feminine power in the fragment and focus on the poem's perspectives on gender relations.[16]

Statius' influence and literary afterlife

Statius' poetry was very popular in his lifetime, although he was not without his critics who apparently had problems with his ex tempore style.[17] Juvenal is thought to extensively lampoon Statius' type of court poetry in his fourth satire on the turbot of Domitian, but he also mentions the immense popularity of Statius' recitations in Satire 7.82ff.[18] In late antiquity, the Thebaid which was by then a classic received a commentary by a Lactantius Placidus.

Throughout the Middle Ages, the Thebaid remained a popular text, inspiring a 12th-century French romance and works by Boccaccio and Chaucer. Statius' development of allegory helped establish the importance of that technique in Medieval poetry. In the Renaissance, the Silvae, thanks to Poliziano, helped inspire an entire genre of collections of miscellaneous, occasional poetry called Sylvae which remained popular throughout the period, inspiring works by Hugo Grotius and John Dryden.[19] Dante mentions Statius in De vulgari eloquentia along with Ovid, Virgil, and Lucan as one of the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7). In Divina Commedia, Dante and Virgil are caught up with Statius as they leave the Fifth Terrace (reserved for the avaricious and the prodigal) and enter the Sixth (reserved for the gluttonous). Statius' redemption is heard in Canto XX (the mountain trembles and the penitent souls cry out "Gloria in excelsis Deo") and he joins Dante and Virgil in Canto XXI. He then ascends Mount Purgatory with them and stays with Dante in the Earthly Paradise at the mountain's summit, after Virgil has returned to Limbo. He is last mentioned in Canto XXXIII, making him one of the longest recurring characters in the comedy, fourth to Dante, Virgil and Beatrice. He is not mentioned in Paradise, though he presumably ascends like Dante. Dante appears to claim that Statius was a secret convert to Christianity as a result of his reading of Virgil, although his conversion is not attested in any historical source. A 2012 study dedicated to Dante's writing of Statius's relation to Christianity has shown the significance of the fact that Dante does not state that Statius ever converted to Christianity, but that his Neapolitan predecessor let himself be "baptized" by Christians.[20]

In Restoration England, John Dryden wrote a poem entitled "To Sir Robert Howard" that refers to Statius' Achilleid; Dryden criticizes Statius' unfinished epic, calling it "too bold."

Notes

  1. ^ lumina; Nestorei mitis prudentia Crispi/et Fabius Veiento (pontentem signat utrumque/purpura, ter memores implerunt nomine fastos/et prope Caesareae confinis Acilius alvae) ("lights; the gentle wisdom of Nestor-like Crispinus, and Fabius Veiento, the purple masks of each as eminent, three times have filled the recording annals with their names, and Acilius, near neighbor of Caesar's palace. trans. Braund, S. M. Juvenal Satires Book 1 (Cambridge, 1996) pg. 251
  2. ^ Feeney, Dennis The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford, 1996) pg.1439
  3. ^ Shackleton Bailey, D.R. Statius' Thebaid 1–7 (Cambridge, 2003) pg.3
  4. ^ Silv. 5.2.161
  5. ^ Hardie, P. The Epic Successors of Virgil: A Study in the Dynamics of a Tradition (Cambridge, 1993).
  6. ^ Lewis, C. S. The Allegory of Love (1936) pp.48–56
  7. ^ Coleman in Bailey, pg.13–18
  8. ^ Shackleton Bailey, D. R. Statius Silvae (Cambridge, 2003) pg.5
  9. ^ Quintilian 10.3.17
  10. ^ Coleman in Bailey, pp.11–17
  11. ^ Newlands, C. E. Statius' Silvae and the Poetics of Empire (Cambridge, 2002)
  12. ^ Nauta, R. R. Poetry for Patrons: Literary Communication in the Age of Domitian (Leiden, 2002)
  13. ^ The best text for both epics is provided by the ninth-century Codex Puteaneus, from the Abbey of Corbie, a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale (BN 8051) that was once the property of the humanist Claude Dupuy. The best recent edition is O.A.W. Dilke, (Cambridge 1954), which has more recently been reprinted with a new introduction (Bristol 2005). A new translation in the Loeb Classical Library is by D. R. Shackleton Bailey.
  14. ^ Silv. 5.2.161ff.
  15. ^ Elaine Fantham in "Statius' Achilles and His Trojan Model" The Classical Quarterly New Series, 29.2 (1979, pp. 457–462) p 457 describes it as "a more varied and charming work than readers of the Thebaid could ever have imagined and is perhaps the most attractive approach to the imitative and professional poet.".
  16. ^ Shackleton Bailey, D. R. Statius' Thebaid 1–7 (Cambridge, 2003) pg.7, 26–8
  17. ^ Prologue to Silvae 4
  18. ^ Juvenal 7.82–87: "They run to his pleasant voice and the poetry of his dear Thebaid when Statius has made the city happy and set a day. Their hearts are captured with sheer sweetness and the crowd is inspired by immense pleasure. But once he has broken the benches, he'll starve unless he sells his virgin Agave to Paris.
  19. ^ Van Dam, H. "Wandering Woods Again: From Poliziano to Grotius" in The Poetry of Statius ed. Smolenaars, J., Van Dam, H., and Nauta, R. (Leiden, 2008)
  20. ^ Marco Andreacchio, "Dante's Statius and Christianity: A Reading of Purgatorio XXI and XXII in their Poetic Context," in Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy (Vol. 39:1); pp. 55–82.

References

  • Newlands, Carol. (2012). Statius, Poet between Rome and Naples. Classical literature and society. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Vessey, David. (1973). Statius and the Thebaid. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Editions

  • David R. Slavitt (tr.), Broken Columns: Two Roman Epic Fragments: The Achilleid of Publius Papinius Statius and The Rape of Proserpine of Claudius Claudianus, with an Afterword by David Konstan (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997).
  • Betty Rose Nagle, The Silvae of Statius. Translated with Notes and Introduction (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2004).
  • Karla F.L. Pollmann, Statius, Thebaid 12: Introduction, Text, and Commentary, Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums. Neue Folge. 1. Reihe, Band 25 (Paderborn: Ferdinand Schoeningh, 2004).
  • Gibson, Bruce, Statius. Silvae 5. Edited with Introduction, Translation and Commentary, Oxford Classical Monographs (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006).
  • Jane Wilson Joyce (ed.), Statius. Thebaid: A Song of Thebes (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008) (Masters of Latin Literature).
  • Pavan, Alberto (ed., trans., comm.), La gara delle quadrighe e il gioco della guerra: Saggio di commento a P. Papinii Statii Thebaidos liber VI 238–549, Minima philologica 6 (Alessandria, Edizioni dell'Orso, 2009).

Studies

  • Andreacchio, M. "Dante's Statius and Christianity: A Reading of Purgatorio XXI and XXII in their Poetic Context." Interpretation: A Journal of Political Philosophy (Vol. 39:1, 2012); pp. 55–82.
  • Fantham, E. "Chironis Exemplum: on teachers and surrogate fathers in Achilleid and Silvae", Hermathena 167 (1999), 59–70.
  • Feeney, D. "Tenui... latens discrimine: spotting the differences in Statius' Achilleid, Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici 52 (2004), 85–106.
  • Ganiban, Randall T. (2007). Statius and Virgil: The Thebaid and the Reinterpretation of the Aeneid. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Hardie, A. Statius and the Silvae (Liverpool, 1983).
  • Heslin, P.J. The Transvestite Achilles: Gender and Genre in Statius' Achilleid (Cambridge, 2005).
  • Johannsen, N. Dichter ueber ihre Gedichte: Die Prosavorreden in den 'Epigrammaton libri' Martials und in den 'Silvae' des Statius, Hypomnemata, 166 (Goettingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006).
  • Lewis, C.S. "Dante's Statius." Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Literature (Cambridge, 1966).
  • Lovatt, H. Statius and Epic Games: Sport, Politics, and Poetics in the Thebaid, Cambridge Classical Studies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
  • McNelis, Charles. (2002). "Greek Grammarians and Roman Society During the Early Empire: Statius' Father and his Contemporaries." Classical Antiquity 21: 67–94.
  • McNelis, Charles. (2007). Statius' Thebaid and the Poetics of Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Mendelsohn, D. "Empty Nest, Abandoned Cave: maternal anxiety in Achilleid 1", ClAnt 9.2 (1990), 295–308.
  • Newlands, Carol. (2012). Statius, Poet between Rome and Naples. Classical literature and society. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Newlands, C. Statius' Silvae and the Poetics of Empire (Cambridge, 2002).
  • Shackleton Bailey, D. R. Statius Silvae (Cambridge, Mass.; London, 2003).
  • Vessey, David. (1973). Statius and the Thebaid. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

External links

  • Works by Statius at Perseus Digital Library
  • Statius, J. H. Mozley (ed.), 2 voll., London, William Heinemann Ltd - New York, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1928: vol. 1, vol. 2.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Statius, Publius Papinius" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 811–812.
  • Lactantius Placidus in Statii Thebaida commentum, vol. 1, R. D. Sweeney (ed.), Stutgardiae et Lipsiae, in aedibus B. G. Teubneri, 1997.
  • Online text: Statius, Thebaid & Achilleid translated by J.H. Mozley
  • Online text: Statius, Thebaid, Achilleid & Silvae (Latin)
  • SORGLL: Statius, Thebes I.46–87; read by Stephen Daitz
Achilleid

The Achilleid (Latin: Achilleis) is an unfinished epic poem by Publius Papinius Statius that was intended to present the life of Achilles from his youth to his death at Troy. Only about one and a half books (1,127 dactylic hexameters) were completed before the poet's death. What remains is an account of the hero's early life with Chiron the centaur, and an episode in which his mother Thetis disguised him as a girl on the island of Scyros before he joined the Greek expedition against Troy.

Achilles' heel

An Achilles’ heel or Achilles heel is a weakness in spite of overall strength, which can lead to downfall. While the mythological origin refers to a physical vulnerability, idiomatic references to other attributes or qualities that can lead to downfall are common.

Antiphus

In Greek mythology, Antiphus or Ántiphos (/an'tĭfŭs/; Ancient Greek: Ἄντιφος) is a name attributed to multiple individuals:

Antiphus, son of King Myrmidon and Peisidice, and brother of Actor. He may be the same with Antippus, the father of Hippea who became the mother of Polyphemus, Caeneus, Ischys and Amycus by Elatus, king of the Lapiths.

Antiphus, son of Heracles and Laothoe, daughter of Thespius.

Antiphus, a defender of Thebes against the Seven, was killed by Amphiaraus and Apollo

Antiphus, son of Thessalus, the son of Heracles, and Chalciope. With his brother Pheidippus, Antiphus lead the forces of Calydnae, Cos, Carpathus, Casus and Nisyrus on the side of the Greeks against Troy. He was also believed to have invaded a region of Greece that he named Thessaly after his father.

Antiphus, one of the 50 sons of Priam, and son of Hecuba. During the Trojan War, he was killed by Agamemnon.

Antiphus of Maeonia, son of Talaemenes and brother of Mesthles; both he and his brother were allies of Priam in the Trojan War.

Antiphus, son of Aegyptius, was a Greek commander who sailed from Troy with Odysseus. Having previously escaped death at the hand of Eurypylus (son of Telephus), he was devoured by Polyphemus.

Antiphus, an old friend of the house of Odysseus.The name Antiphus is not to be confused with Antiphōs (Ἀντίφως), which refers to a soldier in the army of the Seven Against Thebes who killed Chromis but was himself killed by Hypseus.

Caecilius Statius

Statius Caecilius, also known as Caecilius Statius (; c. 220 BC – c. 166 BC), was a Roman comic poet.

Castalia

Castalia (; Ancient Greek: Κασταλία), in Greek mythology, was a naiad-nymph, a daughter of Achelous who inhabited the Castalian spring in Delphi. In older traditions, Castalian spring already existed by the time Apollo came to Delphi searching for Python. According to some, the water was a gift to Castalia from the river Cephisus. Latin poet Lactantius Placidus in his commentary on Statius' Thebaid tells that to escape the amorous advances of Apollo, Castalia transformed herself into a fountain at Delphi, at the base of Mount Parnassos, or at Mount Helicon. Castalia could inspire the genius of poetry to those who drank her waters or listened to their quiet sound; the sacred water was also used to clean the Delphian temples. Apollo consecrated Castalia to the Muses (Castaliae Musae).

The 20th century German writer Hermann Hesse used Castalia as inspiration for the name of the futuristic fictional utopia in his 1943 magnum opus, The Glass Bead Game. Castalia is home to an austere order of intellectuals with a twofold mission: to run boarding schools for boys, and to nurture and play the Glass Bead Game.

Cerberus (constellation)

Cerberus is an obsolete constellation created by Hevelius, whose stars are now included in the constellation Hercules. It was depicted as a three-headed snake that Hercules is holding in his hand. The constellation is no longer in use. This constellation "figure typified the serpent ... infesting the country around Taenarum the Μέτωπον of Greece, the modern Cape Matapan." The presence of Cerberus (Kerberos) at Taenarum (Tainaron) is mentioned by Strabo, Statius, and Seneca the Younger. John Senex combined this constellation with the likewise obsolete constellation Ramus Pomifer, an apple branch held by Hercules, in his 1721 star map to create "Cerberus et Ramus".

Charles Paul Ernest, Count of Bentheim-Steinfurt

Charles Paul Ernest of Bentheim-Steinfurt (30 August 1729 – 30 June 1780) was a Count of Steinfurt.

He was the son of the reigning Count Frederick and his wife Francisca Charlotte, née Countess of Lippe. His father died young and Charles Paul Ernest became head of the Bentheim-Steinfurt family in 1733. Initially, he had to share power in the territories of Steinfurt and Alpen with his great-uncle Statius Philip (1668-1749). Under the guardianship of his great-uncle, he enjoyed an excellent education. His Hofmeister Johann Christoph Buch accompanied him on several long journeys to perfect his foreign language skills.

In 1748, he married Sophie Charlotte, the eldest daughter of Frederick William II, Prince of Nassau-Siegen. In 1749, his great-uncle and regent Statius Philip died, and Charles Paul Ernest took up the business of government. At times, he lived in Paris, where he became acquainted with Voltaire.

Charles Paul Ernest had a strong interest in history an collected rare books, incunables, manuscripts, images, coins and natural history curiosities. In 1765, he began creating the Steinfurter Bagno Park. He had the welfare of his subjects at heart; his subjects liked and revered him.

In 1770, he joined the Palatinate Academy of Sciences in Mannheim. His youngest daughter, Caroline of Bentheim-Steinfurt was active as a writer.

Charles Paul Ernest died on 30 June 1780 and was succeeded by his son Louis (1756-1817), who was described as highly educated, intellectual and interested in scientific and economical issues.

Chiron

In Greek mythology, Chiron ( KY-rən; also Cheiron or Kheiron; Greek: Χείρων "hand") was held to be the superlative centaur amongst his brethren, as he was called as the "wisest and justest of all the centaurs".

Cydon

In Greek mythology, the name Cydon (Ancient Greek: Κύδων) may refer to:

Cydon of Crete, eponym of Cydonia. According to one version, he was a son of Tegeates and brother of Gortys and Archedius: the three brothers were said to have migrated to Crete from Arcadia. Alternately, Cydon was a native of Crete, son of Acacallis by Hermes or Apollo. He is probably the same as Cydon, the father of Eulimene.

Cydon of Thebes, name shared by three defenders of Thebes against the Seven:

One of the fifty warriors who laid an ambush against Tydeus and were killed by him.

Son of Abas, was killed by Parthenopaeus.

Another Theban, killed by Hippomedon.

Cydon of Lemnos, half-brother of Hypsipyle. Was slain by Myrmidone the night all Lemnian men were killed by their women.

Cydon, an ally of Turnus, lover of Clytius. Clytius fell in the battle against Aeneas.

Cydon, one of the horses of Hippodamus.

Idmon

In Greek mythology, Idmon (Ancient Greek: Ἴδμων means "having knowledge of" or "the knowing") may refer to the following individuals:

Idmon, one of the fifty sons of Aegyptus, who married and was killed by the Danaid Pylarge.

Idmon, father of Arachne.

Idmon, an Argonaut seer and son of Apollo or Abas.

Idmon, herald of Turnus.

Idmon, a figure briefly mentioned in Statius' Thebaid. He came from Epidaurus and was portrayed in the poem cleansing Tydeus' wounds after a battle.

Ismenis

In GREEK mythology, Ismenis was a Naiad nymph, one of the daughters of the Boeotian river god Ismenus: Ismenis is a patronymic rather than a given name. In Statius' Thebaid, Ismenis was the mother, by Pan, of Crenaeus, a defender of Thebes against the Seven. When Crenaeus was killed by Hippomedon whom he had challenged to single combat, Ismenis searched for his body which was carried away by the flow of River Ismenus, and, upon finding it, lamented her son's fate.

Marcus Statius Priscus

Marcus Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus (M. Statius M. f. Cl. Priscus Licinius Italicus) was a Roman politician and general active during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. Contemporary sources refer to him as Marcus Statius Priscus or simply Statius Priscus.His career began as an equestrian officer, receiving a decoration from Hadrian during the Jewish rebellion. Priscus then served as procurator in Southern Gaul before being made a senator and commanding two legions in succession.

He was governor of Dacia between 157 and 158 and held the consulship in 159. In 160 he was made curator alvei Tiberis et cloacarum urbis (the official responsible for maintaining the channels of the Tiber River, as well as the sewers of Rome). In 161 he governed Moesia Superior and became governor of Britain immediately afterwards, serving until perhaps as late as the mid-160s.Such a rapid career progression indicates a man of ability and an especial strength in running prestigious but troublesome provinces.Priscus was made governor of Cappadocia by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus after the death of Marcus Sedatius Severianus in a campaign against Vologases IV in 163. The forces of Statius Priscus, made up of Eastern auxiliaries and several legions transferred from the Rhine and the Danube, quickly crushed the Parthians and destroyed the town of Artaxata. Priscus then installed Sohaemus, who was under the protection of Rome, on the Armenian throne, and rebuilt the city of Valarshapat.According to Cassius Dio, when Avidius Cassius (the governor of Egypt and Syria) was declared emperor by his legions it was Priscus who informed Emperor Aurelius. Cassius declared himself emperor at the behest of Aurelius' wife who convinced Cassius and his legions that the emperor had died. Aurelius quickly defeated Cassius and installed Priscus as governor of Syria.

Napaeae

In Greek mythology, the Napaeae (; Ancient Greek: ναπαῖαι, from νάπη, "a wooded dell") were a type of nymph that lived in wooded valleys, glens or grottoes. Statius invoked them in his Thebaid, when the naiad Ismenis addresses her mortal son Krenaios:

I was held a greater goddess and the queen of Nymphae. Where alas! is that late crowd of courtiers round thy mother's halls, where are the Napaeae that prayed to serve thee?

Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller

Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller (April 25, 1725 – January 5, 1776) was a German zoologist.

Statius Müller was born in Esens, and was a professor of natural science at Erlangen. Between 1773 and 1776, he published a German translation of Linnaeus's Natursystem. The supplement in 1776 contained the first scientific classification for a number of species, including the dugong, guanaco, potto, tricolored heron, umbrella cockatoo, red-vented cockatoo, and the enigmatic hoatzin. He was also an entomologist.

Müller died in Erlangen.

He is not to be confused with Salomon Müller (1804–1864), also an ornithologist, or with Otto Friedrich Müller.

SS Empire Candida

Empire Candida was a 2,908 GRT cargo ship which was built in 1942 for the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT). She was sold in 1947 and renamed Burdale and resold in 1948 and renamed Peldale. In 1954, she was sold to Norway and renamed Statius Jansen. A further sale to Hong Kong in 1959 saw her renamed Sunny. In 1961, she was sold to Indonesia, serving until she was scrapped in 1969.

Silvae

The Silvae is a collection of Latin occasional poetry in hexameters, hendecasyllables, and lyric meters by Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45 – c. 96 CE). There are 32 poems in the collection, divided into five books. Each book contains a prose preface which introduces and dedicates the book. The subjects of the poetry are varied and provide scholars with a wealth of information on Domitian's Rome and Statius' life.

The Silvae were rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini in the Library of Reichenau Abbey around 1417, along with the Punica of Silius.

Statius (praenomen)

This page is about the Latin praenomen. For a list of prominent individuals with this name, see Statius (disambiguation).Statius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was used during the period of the Roman Republic, and into imperial times. It was not widely used at Rome, but gave rise to the patronymic gens Statilia. The feminine form is Statia. It is not usually abbreviated, but is sometimes found with the abbreviations St. and Sta.

Thebaid (Latin poem)

The Thebaid (; Latin: Thēbaïs) is a Latin epic in 12 books written in dactylic hexameter by Publius Papinius Statius (AD c. 45 – c. 96). The poem deals with the Theban cycle and treats the assault of the seven champions of Argos against the city of Thebes.

Wim Statius Muller

Wim Statius Muller (Curaçao, 26 January 1930) is a Curaçaoan composer and pianist who has been nicknamed "Curaçao’s Chopin" for his romantic piano stylings. Although he is a Juilliard graduate, his musical career did not begin in earnest until after he retired from a career in security and counterintelligence.

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