Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the Government of Canada government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. Its headquarters is in Ottawa.[1] The Minister responsible for Statistics Canada is the Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development, currently Navdeep Bains.

The bureau is commonly called StatCan or StatsCan. StatCan is the official abbreviation. It has regularly been considered the best statistical organization in the world by The Economist,[2] such as in the 1991 and 1993 "Good Statistics" surveys. Public Policy Forum and others have also ranked it first.

Statistics is a federal responsibility in Canada, and Statistics Canada produces statistics for all the provinces as well as the federal government. In addition to conducting about 350 active surveys on virtually all aspects of Canadian life, Statistics Canada undertakes a country-wide census every five years on the first and sixth year of each decade. By law, every household must complete the Canada Census form.[3] In May 2006, an Internet version of the census was made widely available for the first time. Another census was held in May 2011, again with the internet being the primary method for statistical data collection. The most recent census was held in May 2016, with the internet being the primary method for statistical data collection. Its data is scheduled for release beginning in February 2017.[4]

Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada logo
Agency overview
Formed1971
Preceding agency
  • Dominion Bureau of Statistics
HeadquartersOttawa, Ontario, Canada
Agency executive
Websitewww.statcan.gc.ca

Leadership

The head of Statistics Canada is the Chief Statistician of Canada. The heads of Statistics Canada and the previous organization, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, are:

Legislation

Statistics Canada is governed by the Statistics Act, Revised Statutes of Canada 1985.

Publications

Statistics Canada publishes numerous documents covering a range of statistical information about Canada, including census data, economic and health indicators, immigration economics, income distribution, and social and justice conditions. It also publishes a peer-reviewed statistics journal, Survey Methodology.

The Canadian Socio-economic Information Management System CANSIM provides aggregate data for free online including full datasets that also can be downloaded for free.[5] Subject areas include Aboriginal peoples, Agriculture, Business, consumer and property services, Business performance and ownership, Children and youth, Construction, Crime and justice, Culture and leisure, Economic accounts, Education, training and learning, Energy, Environment, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Families, households and housing, Government, Health, Income, pensions, spending and wealth, Information and communications technology, International trade, Labour, Languages, Manufacturing, Population and demography, Prices and price indexes, Reference, Retail and wholesale, Science and technology, Seniors, Society and community, Transportation, and Travel and tourism.[5]

The Daily is StatCan's free online bulletin that provides current information from StatCan, updated daily, on current social and economic conditions.[6]

Data accessibility and licensing

As of February 1, 2012 "information published by Statistics Canada is automatically covered by the Open License with the exception of Statistics Canada's postal products and Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs)." Researchers using StatCan data are required to "give full credit for any Statistics Canada data, analysis and other content material used or referred to in their studies, articles, papers and other research works." The use of Public Use Microdata Files (PUMFs) is governed by the Data Liberation Initiative (DLI) License signed by the universities and Statistics Canada. Aggregate data available through the Canadian Socio-economic Information Management System CANSIM, and the Census website is Open Data under the Statistics Canada Open License Agreement.[7]

By 24 April 2006, electronic publications on Statistics Canada's web site were free of charge" with some exceptions.[8]

The historical Time series data from CANSIM is also available via numerous third-party data vendors, including Haver Analytics,[9] Macrobond Financial,[10] and Thomson Reuters Datastream.[11]

Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN)

The Canadian Research Data Centre Network (CRDCN) is a network of quantitative social sciences which includes 27 facilities across Canada that provide "access to a vast array of social, economic, and health data, primarily gathered" by Statistics Canada and disseminate "research findings to the policy community and the Canadian public."[12]

History

Statistics Canada was formed in 1971, replacing the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, which was formed in 1918. Statistics Canada published a print copy of the yearly almanac entitled Canada Year Book from 1967 to 2012[13] when it ceased publication due to ebbing demand and deep budgetary cutbacks to StatCan by the federal government.[13] It was a yearly compendium of statistical lore and information on the nation's social and economic past, people, events and facts.[14] The Canada Year Book was originally edited by a volunteer from the Department of Finance and published by a private company, which offset costs with advertisement sales. This method continued until 1879, at which time the record ceases, until 1885, at which time the Department of Agriculture took up the burden. The duty of publication was transferred to the Dominion Bureau of Statistics upon its formation in 1918.

On June 18, 2005, after years of study by expert panels, discussion, debate (privacy vs the interests of genealogists and historians), Bill S-18 An Act to Amend the Statistics Act was passed which released personal census records for censuses taken between 1911 and 2001, inclusive.[15] Debate over the census and their contents had periodically created changes in the Statistics Act such as a 2005 amendment making the privacy restrictions of the census information expire after more than a century. In addition, with Bill S-18, starting with the 2006 Census, Canadians can consent to the public release of their personal census information after 92 years. Census returns are in the custody of Statistics Canada and the records are closed until 92 years after the taking of a census, when those records may be opened for public use and transferred to Library and Archives Canada subject to individual consent where applicable.[16]

The mandatory long census form was cancelled by the federal government in 2010 in favour of a voluntary household survey (NHS).[17] The mandatory long form census was reinstated in time for the 2016 Census of Population.

In 2011, Statistics Canada released an audit acknowledging that from c. 2004 to 2011, their automated computer processes had "inadvertently made economic data available to data distributors before the official publication time." In November 2011, in response to the audit, StatsCan stopped that process.[18]

2012 layoffs

Nearly half of Statistics Canada's 5000 employees were notified in April 2012 that their jobs might be eliminated as part of austerity measures imposed by the federal government in the 2012 Canadian federal budget.[19] The 2,300 employees underwent a process to determine which ones were not impacted, which were eliminated and which were given early retirement or put in new positions.[20] The government cuts have reduced the amount of information StatCan produces and may continue to do so; this may mean data collection and processing services will be contracted out.[19]

The census

2011 census from voluntary to mandatory, long to short

On June 17, 2010 an Order in Council was created by the Minister of Industry defining the questions for the 2011 Census as including only the short-form questions; this was published in the Canada Gazette on June 26, 2010,[21] however a news release was not issued by Minister of Industry Tony Clement until July 13, 2010. This release stated in part "The government will retain the mandatory short form that will collect basic demographic information. To meet the need for additional information, and to respect the privacy wishes of Canadians, the government has introduced the voluntary National Household Survey".[22] On July 30, 2010 Statistics Canada published a description of the National Household Survey.[23]

The federal Minister of Industry Tony Clement initially indicated that these changes were being made based on consultations with Statistics Canada[24] but was forced to admit that the change from a mandatory to voluntary form was not one of the recommendations received from StatCan after the head of the organization Munir Sheikh resigned in protest.[25] Information has since been uncovered that indicates attempts on the part of the government to distance themselves from the decision, instructing Statistics Canada officials to delete the phrase "as per government decision" from documents which were being written to inform Statistics Canada staff of the change.[26] The minister has since claimed that concerns over privacy[27] and the threat of jail time[28] are the reasons for the change[29] and has refused to reverse his decision[30] stating that the Prime Minister supports this legislation.[31] The argument over privacy has subsequently been undermined by a Privacy Commissioner statement that she was “satisfied with the measures Statistics Canada had put into place to protect privacy”.[32] Other industry professionals have also come out in defense of Statistics Canada’s record on privacy issues.[33][34] The government has maintained its position, most recently expressed by Lynn Meahan, press secretary to the Industry Minister, that the new census will result in "useable (sic) and useful data that can meet the needs of many users." [35]

During the 2010 debates, the Freedom Party of Ontario, a small group based on Ayn Rand's writings, whose 42 candidates received 12,381 votes (or 0.26% of the popular vote) in the 2014 election, opposed the long census. They also opposed bilingualism, political correctness and the inclusion of a question on race on the 1996 Canadian census. FPO claimed that Canadian and British traditions had been dishonoured by multiculturalism. They are among a minority who argue that using statistical data to analyze resource allocation is not beneficial.[33][36][37]

Central to the debate on this issue is the effect on the quality of data which will be collected by Statistics Canada under the new system. Many groups have made the claim that a voluntary system will not provide a quality of data consistent with what Statistics Canada is known for[25][30][33][34] while others feel that politically motivated changes to StatCan methodology taints the reputation of the whole organization in the international setting.[38] Supporters of the change have offered models of European countries who are adopting alternate systems,[27] although in these states the census is being replaced with a database of information on each citizen rather than a voluntary poll and none of these systems are planned for the Canadian 2011 census. They also challenge the current system's ability to cope with rapid socio-demographic changes, though this would not be addressed without increasing the frequency of the survey. Some public opposition to the changes has been expressed through the social media network Facebook.[39]

According to The Globe and Mail, by 2015 an increasing number of economists joined organizations such as the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, Canadian Federation of Independent Business, Canadian Economics Association, Martin Prosperity Institute, Toronto Region Board of Trade, Restaurants Canada and the Canadian Association of Business Economics to call for a reinstatement of the mandatory long form.[17] Edmonton's chief economist preferred the long form and argues that the National Housing Survey is only useful at the aggregate city level and leaves "a dearth of data on long-term changes at the neighbourhood level and within demographic groups... making it difficult to make decisions such as "where to build a library, where to build a fire hall" without specific demographic information.[17] Because it was not mandatory there was a lower response rate and therefore increased risk of under-representation of some vulnerable segments of society, for example aboriginal peoples, newly arrived immigrants. This makes it more difficult to "pinpoint trends such as income inequality, immigrant outcomes in the jobs market, labour shortages and demographic shifts."[17]

2015 reinstatement of mandatory long form

One day after its election in November 2015, the new Liberal government reinstated the mandatory Census long form [40] and it was used in the 2016 Census.[41][42]

Political reactions

Former industry minister Tony Clement recanted on his support for the elimination of the long form. He avowed that there were ways to protect both indispensable data and Canadians’ privacy. Blaming his party for a “collective” decision to terminate the long form, he said, “I think I would have done it differently.” He implied incorrectly that Statistics Canada head Munir Sheikh had agreed with the cancellation when it was done.[43]

Standard geographic units

Statistics Canada divided Canada into the following standard geographic units for statistical purposes in the 2016 Census.[44]

References and notes

  1. ^ "Contact us". StatCan. nd. Retrieved 4 August 2015.Statistics Canada, 150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6; Statistique Canada 150, promenade du pré Tunney Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6
  2. ^ "Canadian Initiative on Social Statistics". Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. 11 July 2006. Retrieved 5 November 2006.
  3. ^ "About the census: Questions and answers about the census". Statistics Canada. 2013-01-10. Retrieved November 22, 2013.
  4. ^ "2016 Census Program release schedule". Statistics Canada. February 23, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "CANSIM", StatCan, nd, retrieved 4 August 2015
  6. ^ "The Daily", StatCan, nd, retrieved 4 August 2015
  7. ^ "Copyright at the University Library: Statistics & Data from Statistics Canada", University of Saskatchewan, nd, retrieved 4 August 2015
  8. ^ "Access to Statistics Canada's electronic publications at no charge". Statistics Canada. 24 April 2006. Retrieved 1 December 2006.
  9. ^ Haver Analytics, 8 April 2005, retrieved 18 June 2016
  10. ^ Macrobond + CANSIM, 22 April 2016, retrieved 18 June 2016
  11. ^ Thomson Reuters Economics Data (PDF)
  12. ^ Raymond F. Currie, Sarah Fortin (2015), Social statistics matter: a history of the Canadian RDC Network (PDF), Hamilton, Ontario: CRDCN, ISBN 978-0-9947581-1-8, retrieved 4 August 2015CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ a b The Canada Year Book is history, The Globe and Mail, 13 November 2012, retrieved 4 August 2015
  14. ^ Canada Year Book (CYB) Historical Collection, StatCan
  15. ^ "BILL S-18: AN ACT TO AMEND THE STATISTICS ACT". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
  16. ^ "Statistics Act". Government of Canada. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 18. (1) The information contained in the returns of each census of population taken between 1910 and 2005 is no longer subject to sections 17 and 18 ninety-two years after the census is taken. (3) When sections 17 and 18 cease to apply to information referred to in subsection (1) or (2), the information shall be placed under the care and control of the Library and Archives of Canada.
  17. ^ a b c d TAVIA GRANT (February 6, 2015). "Scrapping of long-form census causing long-term issues for business". The Globe and Mail. Toronto, ON. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  18. ^ Mayeda, Andrew; Quinn, Greg (17 October 2011). "Political Aides Getting Canada Data Day in Advance Hurts Market Confidence". Bloomberg.
  19. ^ a b Curry, Bill; Grant, Tavia (May 1, 2012). "Conservative cuts put half of Statscan jobs at risk". The Globe and Mail.
  20. ^ Egan, Louise (May 1, 2012). "Budget cuts hit thousands of civil servants". Reuters.
  21. ^ "orders in council - statistics canada". Industry Canada. 2010-06-17. Archived from the original on 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  22. ^ "Statement on 2011 Census". Industry Canada. 2010-07-13. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
  23. ^ National Household Survey Archived 2011-06-03 at the Wayback Machine. Statcan.gc.ca (2012-05-14). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  24. ^ Campion-Smith, Bruce (16 July 2010). "StatsCan recommended move to voluntary census, Tony Clement says". Toronto Star. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  25. ^ a b Proudfoot, Shannon (2010-07-22). "StatsCan in turmoil over census". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
  26. ^ Proudfoot, Shannon (2 March 2011). "StatsCan panel tried to fight decision to kill long-form census: documents". Postmedia News. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  27. ^ a b "Leviathan's spyglass". The Economist. 2010-07-15. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  28. ^ "Has anyone ever been jailed for not filling out the long form census?". Canada.com Blogs. 2010-08-04. Archived from the original on 2011-05-06. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
  29. ^ "StatsCan head quits over census dispute". CBC news. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  30. ^ a b "Clement to face MPs on census". CBC News. 24 July 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  31. ^ Howlett, Karen; Perreaux, Les (22 July 2010). "Premiers seek difficult census compromise". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  32. ^ "Few complaints about census: privacy commissioner". Toronto Sun Blogs. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  33. ^ a b c Willcocks, Paul (2010-08-04). "The bizarre decision on the census". Canada.com. Retrieved 2010-08-04.
  34. ^ a b "Count on it: long-form census basic to decision-making in Canada". Canada.com. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
  35. ^ "Professors may need more funding after census changes". CTV News. 8 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 November 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  36. ^ Campion-Smith, Bruce (6 July 2010). "Optional Long Form Census a Blow to Racism". Toronto Star. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  37. ^ Richard, Field. "First Shell Fire". Heroes Remember. Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  38. ^ Gutstein, Donald (27 July 2010). "Why Attack the Long Census?". The Tyee. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  39. ^ "Keep the Canada Census Long Form". Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  40. ^ Campion-Smith, Bruce (November 5, 2015). "Canada's long-form census is back for 2016". The Star [Toronto]. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  41. ^ Guide to the Census of Population, 2016. Statistics Canada. January 5, 2017. pp. Chapter 5 – Census of Population questionnaires.
  42. ^ "2016 Census 2A-L Questionnaire". Statistics Canada. February 7, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  43. ^ Selley, Chris (25 February 2016). "Conservatives in dire need of an ideological and policy reset before leadership race". National Post. Retrieved 16 February 2017.
  44. ^ Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016. Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. pp. Figure 1.1 Hierarchy of standard geographic units for dissemination, 2016 Census.
  45. ^ "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names: From January 2, 2012 to January 1, 2013" (PDF). Statistics Canada. pp. 6–7. Retrieved February 25, 2016.
  46. ^ "Census metropolitan area (CMA) and census agglomeration (CA)". Statistics Canada. November 27, 2015. Retrieved February 25, 2016.

Further reading

  • Statistics Canada (October 27, 2010). Canada Year Book. Ottawa: Federal Publications (Queen of Canada). Catalogue no 11-402-XPE.

See also

External links

2001 Canadian Census

The 2001 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 15, 2001. On that day, Statistics Canada attempted to count every person in Canada. The total population count of Canada was 30,007,094. This was a 4% increase over 1996 Census of 28,846,761. In contrast, the official Statistics Canada population estimate for 2001 was 31,021,300. This is considered a more accurate population number than the actual count.The following census was the 2006 Census.

2006 Canadian Census

The 2006 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.

2011 Canadian Census

The 2011 Canadian Census is a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011. Statistics Canada, an agency of the Canadian government, conducts a nationwide census every five years. In 2011, it consisted of a mandatory short form census questionnaire and an inaugural National Household Survey (NHS), a voluntary survey which replaced the mandatory long form census questionnaire; this substitution was the focus of much controversy. Completion of the (short form) census is mandatory for all Canadians, and those who do not complete it may face penalties ranging from fines to prison sentences.The Statistics Act mandates a Senate and/or House of Commons (joint) committee review of the opt-in clause (for the release of one's census records after 92 years) by 2014.The 2011 Census is the fifteenth decennial census and is required by section 8 of the Constitution Act, 1867. As with other decennial censuses, the data was used to adjust federal electoral district boundaries.As of August 24, 2011, Canada's overall collection response rate was 98.1%, up over a percentage point from 96.5% in the 2006 Census. Ontario and Prince Edward Island each hold the highest response rate at 98.3%, while Nunavut holds the lowest response rate at 92.7%.In an article in the New York Times in August 2015, journalist Stephen Marche argued that by ending the mandatory long-form census in 2011, the federal government "stripped Canada of its capacity to gather information about itself" in the "age of information." Nearly 500 organizations in Canada, including the Canadian Medical Association, the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, the Canadian Federation of Students, and the Canadian Catholic Council of Bishops protested the decision to replace the long form Census in 2011 with a shorter version.

2016 Canadian Census

The 2016 Canadian Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of the Canadian residents, which counted a population of 35,151,728, a 5% change from its 2011 population of 33,476,688. The census, conducted by Statistics Canada, was Canada's seventh quinquennial census. The official census day was May 10, 2016. Census web access codes began arriving in the mail on May 2, 2016. The 2016 census marked the reinstatement of the mandatory long-form census, which had been dropped in favour of the voluntary National Household Survey for the 2011 census. With a response rate of 98.4%, this census is said to be the best one ever recorded since the 1666 census of New France. Canada's next census is scheduled for 2021.

Airdrie, Alberta

Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway (Highway 2) and Highway 567.

The City of Airdrie is part of the Calgary census metropolitan area and a member community of the Calgary Metropolitan Region Board (CMRB). The city is surrounded by Rocky View County.

Alberta

Alberta ( (listen); French: [albɛʁta]) is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about 660,000 square kilometres (250,000 sq mi). Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since 2015.

Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U.S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year; but seasonal temperature average swings are smaller than in areas further east, due to winters being warmed by occasional chinook winds bringing sudden warming.Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.About 290 km (180 mi) south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations.Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Canmore, Drumheller, Jasper, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise.

Calgary

Calgary ( (listen)) is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. The city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".The city had a population of 1,267,344 in 2018, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality. Also in 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada.The economy of Calgary includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada among the country's 800 largest corporations. In 2015, Calgary had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada. In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games.

Calgary has consistently been recognized for its high quality of life. In 2018, The Economist magazine ranked Calgary the fourth-most liveable city in the world in their Global Liveability Ranking. Calgary is classed as a Beta global city.

Census geographic units of Canada

The census geographic units of Canada are the administrative divisions defined and used by Canada's federal government statistics bureau Statistics Canada to conduct the country's five-yearly census. They exist on four levels: the top-level (first-level) divisions are Canada's provinces and territories; these are divided into second-level census divisions, which in turn are divided into third-level census subdivisions (roughly corresponding to municipalities) and fourth-level dissemination areas.

In some provinces, a census division also corresponds to a county or another similar unit of political organization while in other provinces, the boundaries are chosen arbitrarily as no such level of government exists. Two of Canada's three territories are also divided into census divisions.

Demographics of Canada

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Canada, including population density, ethnicity, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population, the People of Canada.

Designated place

A designated place (DPL) is a type of community or populated area identified by Statistics Canada for statistical purposes. DPLs are delineated for each decennial census as the statistical counterparts of incorporated places such as cities, towns and villages.

DPLs are communities that lack separate municipal government, but which otherwise physically resemble incorporated places. DPLs are delineated at the request of a federal or provincial government to provide data for settled concentrations of population that are identifiable by name but are not legally incorporated under the laws of the province in which they are located. The boundaries of a DPL have no legal status, and not all unincorporated communities are necessarily granted DPL status.

Some designated places may have a quasi-governmental status, such as a local services board in Ontario or an organized hamlet in Saskatchewan. Others may be formerly unincorporated settlements or formerly independent municipalities which have been merged into larger governments, and have retained DPL status in order to ensure statistical continuity with past censuses.

DPLs are similar to the function of census-designated places in the United States, but are defined differently. One significant difference is that Statistics Canada applies the designation to much smaller communities than does the United States Census Bureau.

Languages of Canada

A multitude of languages are used in Canada. According to the 2011 census, English and French are the mother tongues of 56.9% and 21.3% of Canadians respectively. In total 85.6% of Canadians have working knowledge of English while 30.1% have a working knowledge of French. Under the Official Languages Act of 1969, both English and French have official federal status throughout Canada, in respect of all government services, including the courts, and all federal legislation is enacted bilingually. New Brunswick is the only Canadian province that has both English and French as its official languages to the same extent, with constitutional entrenchment. Quebec's official language is French, although, in that province, the Constitution requires that all legislation be enacted in both French and English, and court proceedings may be conducted in either language. Similar constitutional protections are in place in Manitoba.

Canada's Official Languages Commissioner (the federal government official charged with monitoring the two languages) has stated, "[I]n the same way that race is at the core of what it means to be American and at the core of an American experience and class is at the core of British experience, I think that language is at the core of Canadian experience."To assist in more accurately monitoring the two official languages, Canada's census collects a number of demolinguistic descriptors not enumerated in the censuses of most other countries, including home language, mother tongue, first official language and language of work.

Canada's linguistic diversity extends beyond the two official languages. "In Canada, 4.7 million people (14.2% of the population) reported speaking a language other than English or French most often at home and 1.9 million people (5.8%) reported speaking such a language on a regular basis as a second language (in addition to their main home language, English or French). In all, 20.0% of Canada's population reported speaking a language other than English or French at home. For roughly 6.4 million people, the other language was an immigrant language, spoken most often or on a regular basis at home, alone or together with English or French whereas for more than 213,000 people, the other language was an Aboriginal language. Finally, the number of people reporting sign languages as the languages spoken at home was nearly 25,000 people (15,000 most often and 9,800 on a regular basis)."Canada is also home to many indigenous languages. Taken together, these are spoken by less than one percent of the population. About 0.6% Canadians (or 200,725 people) report an Indigenous language as their mother tongue.

List of census agglomerations in Alberta

A census agglomeration is a census geographic unit in Canada determined by Statistics Canada. A census agglomeration comprises one or more adjacent census subdivisions that has a core population of 10,000 or greater. It is eligible for classification as a census metropolitan area once it reaches a population of 100,000.At the 2016 Census, the Province of Alberta had 15 census agglomerations, down from 16 in the 2011 Census. At the 2011 Census, the Province of Alberta had 16 census agglomerations, up from 14 in the 2006 Census.

List of census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada

The table below lists the census metropolitan areas and agglomerations in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2016 Census. Each entry is identified as a census metropolitan area (CMA) or a census agglomeration (CA) as defined by Statistics Canada. Any other census subdivision that comprises at least 10 per cent of the CMA or CA population is listed in parentheses.Note that a city's metropolitan area in colloquial or administrative terms may be different from its CMA as defined by Statistics Canada, resulting in differing populations. Such is the case with the Greater Toronto Area where its metro population is notably higher than its CMA population due to its inclusion of the neighbouring Oshawa CMA to the east and the Burlington portion of the neighbouring Hamilton CMA to the west.

List of designated places in Alberta

A designated place is a type of geographic unit used by Statistics Canada to disseminate census data. It is usually a small community that does not meet the criteria used to define incorporated municipalities or Statistics Canada population centres (areas with a population of at least 1,000 and no fewer than 400 persons per square kilometre). Designated places are created by provinces and territories, in cooperation with Statistics Canada, to provide data for submunicipal areas.At the 2011 Census of Canada, Alberta had 261 designated places with a cumulative population of 46,510 and an average population of 178. Alberta's largest designated place is Wabasca with a population of 1,302.

Lloydminster

Lloydminster is a Canadian city which has the unusual geographic distinction of straddling the provincial border between Alberta and Saskatchewan. The city is incorporated by both provinces as a single city with a single municipal administration.

Northern Canada

Northern Canada, colloquially the North, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to three territories of Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Similarly, the Far North (when contrasted to the North) may refer to the Canadian Arctic: the portion of Canada that lies north of the Arctic Circle, east of Alaska and west of Greenland. This area covers about 39 percent of Canada's total land area, but has less than 1 percent of Canada's population.

These reckonings somewhat depend on the arbitrary concept of nordicity, a measure of so-called "northernness" that other Arctic territories share. Canada is the northernmost country in the Americas (excluding the neighbouring Danish Arctic territory of Greenland which extends slightly further north) and roughly 80% of its 35 million inhabitants are concentrated along its southern border with the United States.

Population of Canada

Canada ranks 38 comprising about 0.5% of the world's total population, with over 37 million Canadians as of 2018. Despite having the 2nd largest landmass, the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north. Though Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as Southern Ontario, have population densities higher than several European countries. Canada's largest population centres are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa with those six being the only ones with more than one million people. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.

Qikiqtaaluk Region

The Qikiqtaaluk Region, Qikiqtani Region (Inuktitut: ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᒃ pronounced [qikiqtaːˈluk]) or Baffin Region is the easternmost administrative region of Nunavut, Canada. Qikiqtaaluk is the traditional Inuktitut name for Baffin Island. Although the Qikiqtaaluk Region is the most commonly used name in official contexts, several notable public organizations, including Statistics Canada prefer the older term Baffin Region.

With a population of 18,988 and an area of 989,879.35 km2 (382,194.55 sq mi) it is the largest and most populated of the three regions.The region consists of Baffin Island, the Belcher Islands, Akimiski Island, Mansel Island, Prince Charles Island, Bylot Island, Devon Island, Cornwallis Island, Bathurst Island, Amund Ringnes Island, Ellef Ringnes Island, Axel Heiberg Island, Ellesmere Island, the Melville Peninsula, the eastern part of Melville Island, and the northern parts of Prince of Wales Island, and Somerset Island, plus smaller islands in between. The regional seat, and territorial capital, is Iqaluit (population 7,740). The Qikiqtaaluk Region spans the northernmost, easternmost, and southernmost areas of Nunavut.

Before 1999, the Qikiqtaaluk Region existed under slightly different boundaries as the Baffin Region, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories.

Canada claims Hans Island as part of Qikiqtaaluk, while Denmark considers it to be part of the Greenlandic municipality of Avannaata.

Winnipeg

Winnipeg ( (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America, approximately 110 kilometres (70 mi) north of the Canada–United States border.

The city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg; the name comes from the Western Cree words for muddy water. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was later founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of which was incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873. As of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is extremely seasonal even by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C (−6 °F) and average July highs of 26 °C (79 °F).Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy. This multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, and Folklorama. Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (Canadian football), the Winnipeg Jets (ice hockey), Manitoba Moose (ice hockey), Valour FC (soccer), and the Winnipeg Goldeyes (baseball).

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