Station identification

Station identification (ident, network ID or channel ID) is the practice of radio or television stations or networks identifying themselves on-air, typically by means of a call sign or brand name (sometimes known, particularly in the United States, as a "sounder" or "stinger", more generally as a station or network ID). This may be to satisfy requirements of licensing authorities, a form of branding or a combination of both. As such, it is closely related to production logos, used in television and cinema alike.

Station identification used to be done regularly by an announcer at the halfway point during the presentation of a television program, or in between programs.


Idents are known as a montage in Thailand, and as an interlude in Cambodia and Vietnam.


Station identifications in the Philippines differ from the vernacular meaning in most of the world; in that nation they often describe what would be referred to as imaging campaigns elsewhere for their national networks, and vary considerably in length, up to fifteen minutes. These include music video-like presentations representing the season they are meant for, including tag-init (summer season), tag-ulan (rainy season), and Pasko (Christmas season).[1]


Broadcast stations in Europe do not identify by a callsign (with the digital age, most networks share one or two metropolitan transmitting facilities within a certain region, making identification of the actual transmitter superfluous), however most networks use a brand based on their common channel number. A form of station identification clip is played between programmes, traditionally incorporating the channel's logo, and accompanied by a continuity announcer that introduces the next programme (and promotes other programmes). These identifiers evolved from mainly being mechanical models (such as the BBC globe), to becoming more advanced through the evolution of CGI during the 1980s. From the 1960s to the 1990s, most broadcasters only used a single identifier, sometimes using special variations for holidays and special events. In the present day, most broadcasters use a set of multiple identifiers built around a particular theme or branding element, often based on the channel's current overall look.

Prior to 1 January 1988, each programme on ITV would be preceded by the identifier of the regional company that had produced the show, and this would be broadcast throughout the network, in other words by all companies showing the programme. It meant that viewers across the country would see a Yorkshire Television logo and hear the corresponding fanfare before Emmerdale Farm and Scottish Television idents before Take the High Road. In consequence, most ITV-produced series shown abroad would also be preceded by the producing company's logo – for example, PBS presentations of Upstairs, Downstairs featured the London Weekend Television logo and fanfare before the start of the programme. Beginning in 1988, these were largely replaced by endcaps. Since the consolidation of the ITV network in the early 2000s, these have generally disappeared, UTV and STV being the only notable exceptions.

Prior to 1988, the two existing channels in the Netherlands, Nederland 1 and Nederland 2, used only the idents of the broadcasters airing on them. With the creation of Nederland 3, all three channels started using their own idents.

North America

United States

The United States' Federal Communications Commission enforces specific requirements for identification that must be followed by all terrestrial radio and television stations. Stations must, when they sign on, sign off, and as close to the top of each hour as feasibly possible (such as within a "natural break" in programming, like a commercial break), present a visual (television) or aural (radio) station identification that contains, at minimum, the station's callsign, followed by its designated city of license. As a courtesy, top-of-hour identifications may also contain additional information, such as frequencies and a declaration of the station's ownership.[2] Only the name of the licensee, the station's frequency or channel number as stated on its license, and/or network affiliations, may be inserted between the call letters and station location. An example of declared ownership on KTLA in Los Angeles during the late 1970s were the local announcer invoking then-station owner Golden West Broadcasters ("Golden West Broadcasters-Channel 5, KTLA Los Angeles").

Stations which broadcast on additional full- or low-powered signals must also identify them all every hour. However, stations licensed as translators must be identified in their own right only three times per day: once between 7 and 9 a.m., 12:55 and 1:05 p.m., and 4 and 6 p.m.[3] FCC rules specify that additional communities a station serves may also be listed in a legal ID, but the official city of license must always be listed first. The advent of broadcast automation has made it much easier for broadcasters to ensure compliance with identification rules. Many television stations and radio stations may have their identifications prerecorded or programmed to play automatically at the appropriate times.


On radio, the top-of-hour ID must contain the full, legal call sign (including any relevant suffixes, particularly "FM") as assigned by the FCC, followed immediately by the station's community of license. The call letters must be spoken individually; even if the call letters are pronounced as a word for branding purposes (such as KOMO in Seattle, Washington, which is spoken as "Ko-mo"), the legal ID must still spell out the individual letters.

No other information may be placed between the call letters and the city of license, but can be added afterward. WUWM identifies as "WUWM, Milwaukee Public Radio"; as the callsign and city are announced back-to-back, it is a perfectly legal station identification, but is also more natural on-air than most identifications because "Milwaukee Public Radio" is the station's on-air branding.


Racine, Wisconsin's WBME-TV identifies their three broadcast signals as of August 2008; the station's former subchannel broadcast on WDJT-TV digital channel 58.3, the former analog signal on UHF channel 49, and their digital broadcast on UHF channel 48, which maps to virtual channel 49. Note that using the channel numbers in an identification is not a requirement.

On television, station identification may occur in either a visual format or aural. Typically, a formal identification is displayed automatically as an digital on-screen graphic at the top of the hour, and is typically included in the title sequence of a station's newscast.. As no audio announcement of the call sign is necessary if the information appears on screen, often the identification is fulfilled by incorporating it into a short promo for a program the station airs (such as a syndicated or network program, or a preview of an upcoming newscast). Some stations with subchannels operating off a national feed (for example PBS Kids) will either locally program breaks with a station identification bumper or will use a national break with identification text cued in every half an hour or hour. Translators are required to be identified twice a day, once at about 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. local time.

The advent of digital television originally made it necessary for stations simulcasting both their analog and digital on the same channel to include both call signs in all identifications. Both stations have the same base callsigns, with the only difference being the analog ending in "-TV" and digital ending in "-DT" (originally "-HD"). Low-power stations identify with the designator "-LD". After the June 2009 digital transition, stations had a one time opportunity offered by the FCC to either retain the -DT designation on their digital signal, or move over the analog calls with either the "-TV" suffix or no suffix if so identified. Additionally, a station could add the "-TV" suffix to their calls for standardization purposes among broadcast groups, even if those calls were not shared by an FM or AM radio station. PSIP also continuously carries the station's ID digitally encoded.

Digital subchannels usually identify themselves in one of two ways, with a limit of seven characters in the PSIP tag:

  • By first providing the call letters, followed by the main channel number, and then the subchannel broken up by either a dot or a dash. For example, "WXXX 2.3" or "WXXX 2–3".
  • The station may identify the channel as a certain stream by placing the subchannel number after the "-DT" designation within the callsign, as in "WXXX-DT3" for that station's third subchannel.

In addition, subchannels which carry weather information – such as those carrying a still of their weather radar, AccuWeather, or a weather feed created by the station itself – may identify that channel via their PSIP flag with the non-standard "WX" suffix, as in "WXXX-WX", though they must be identified by their subchannel number in on-air identifications. Some subchannels may also display only the name of the network it is affiliated with in the PSIP flag rather than the station's calls.

The former two standards are voluntary and interchangeable, and the station can choose to identify all the channels by only the base callsign, although they are encouraged to differentiate each channel from the primary channel (or for LP/Class A analog-only stations digitally airing as a subchannel on a sister or LMA partner station). The primary channel usually does not use a .1/-1 or -DT1 suffix to identify itself beyond some PBS member stations such as the stations of Milwaukee PBS, and minor broadcasters which sell subchannel space to other broadcasters for their own brokered programming.

Identification on other types of signals

In the United States, the policy on radio identification depends on the service. Station identification is usually done in the station's standard mode of operation, though the FCC considers Morse code identification to be universally acceptable no matter what mode the station is operating in.

Low-power (Part 15 in the U.S.) stations do not always identify, being unlicensed (this would be essentially impossible for small FM transmitters for consumer use, such as those used to broadcast music from an MP3 player to a car radio), but those that run as community-based radio stations (including college stations using carrier current) usually do. Station identification in that case usually consists of the station's name, frequency, and a slogan; unlicensed stations are not allowed to use formal call signs.

International shortwave broadcasters usually do not use callsigns, instead giving the name of the service and the location of the home office, and occasionally the frequencies that the current broadcast is being transmitted on. There are a few exceptions, particularly in the United States, the time station WWV being a prime example.

Amateur radio requires the call sign to be stated at the end of a communication and every ten minutes during (some hams use countdown clocks to remind them to identify); modes such as packet radio and fast-scan television often have a provision for automatic identification, either including it as part of a digital data stream or overlaying it over an analog picture. Repeaters are often designed to automatically transmit the repeater's callsign, usually in Morse code. The requirements for the United States are covered in Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 97.119.

Land mobile two-way (including public safety and business mobile) require station identifications by call sign. In the case of the GMRS service, this is to be done by each station in a similar manner to the amateur practice, though the time limit is fifteen minutes. Repeater systems used in both the land mobile and amateurrRadio services often have provisions for announcing the repeater's call sign, either in voice or Morse code.

Citizen's Band radio no longer[4] maintains a requirement for station or transmission identification, but operators are "encouraged to identify" transmissions using one of the following: a previously assigned callsign, "K" prefix followed by operator initials and residence zip code, operator's name, or "organizational description including name and any applicable operator unit number." The use of a "handle" (nickname) is encouraged by CB rule 17 only in conjunction with these methods, not by itself. Most CB operators prefer to use self-assigned handles reflecting some aspect of their personality; it is generally considered a breach of CB etiquette to use real names, even that of the user.

Family Radio Service and Multi-Use Radio Service have no station identification requirement, though groups of individual users have their own procedures, such as using license plates or informal callsigns (some groups within the Boy Scouts of America, for example, use the troop number followed by the scout's initials as a callsign).

Wi-Fi access points are not required by law to identify (they are unlicensed transmitters) but the Wi-Fi standards include provision for an identifier called an SSID, which is transmitted as a routine part of Wi-Fi network traffic. However, since a number of standard Wi-Fi channels are shared with the amateur radio spectrum, amateur radio-operated High Speed Multimedia (HSMM), or "hinternet", access points usually use the call sign of the control operator as the SSID, this suffices as proper station identification for the access point being operated as an amateur radio transceiver.

With the advent of digital radio, station identification becomes more complicated, because more than one audio stream can be part of the same station. Stations broadcasting HD Radio feeds identify by their stream channel, and unlike television, the HD1 channel is included in the identification (for example, "WXSS-HD1, Wauwatosa/Milwaukee", "98.3, WUBG HD-1, Plainfield-Indianapolis" or "WCBS-FM-HD1, New York"). AM stations which simulcast via an FM HD subchannel identify both the main stream and the HD stream, and if broadcasting in HD Radio format in AM, also list that as part of the identification (for example, "WISN HD, Milwaukee, and WRNW-HD2, Milwaukee", or "WINS, WINS-HD, WNEW-HD3, New York").

The FCC clarified[5] what is required in these cases:

§ 73.1201 Station Identification.

(b) Content. (1) Official station identification shall consist of the station's call letters immediately followed by the community or communities specified in its license as the station's location; Provided, That the name of the licensee, the station's frequency, the station's channel number, as stated on the station's license, and/or the station's network affiliation may be inserted between the call letters and station location. DTV stations, or DAB Stations, choosing to include the station's channel number in the station identification must use the station's major channel number and may distinguish multicast program streams. For example, a DTV station with major channel number 26 may use 26.1 to identify an HDTV program service and 26.2 to identify an SDTV program service. A radio station operating in DAB hybrid mode or extended hybrid mode shall identify its digital signal, including any free multicast audio programming streams, in a manner that appropriately alerts its audience to the fact that it is listening to a digital audio broadcast. No other insertion between the station's call letters and the community or communities specified in its license is permissible.



Station identification in Australia is unlimited to the designated common or on-air name[6] of the station or network affiliation, both for radio and television.

A radio station may have call letters related to its town or district name, and the company name; for example, Charters Towers, Queensland station 4CHT and Ceduna Community Radio Inc's 5CCR in Ceduna, South Australia. The station may have a name-callsign completely different from its licensed callsign, such as Wollongong, New South Wales station 2UUL, which is branded on-air as "Wave FM".

A television station usually associates with its network; for example, the Regional Television Queensland station RTQ is known as WIN Television (itself associated with the larger Nine Network), and WIN's original station at Wollongong bears the callsign WIN.

Livestream identification

Many livestream channels use identification although there is no rule to have identification on livestream channels.[7] Many channels use corner bugs with the channel logo. Channels sometimes can be very creative creating many animated idents. Others have idents which are short adverts mentioning the channel name.[8] Some of the channels that have idents include Tv47, GU3, EnglishTV, GTVTWO and TheKorienMovieChannel.[9] Many livestream channels even use graphic design companies to create idents for their channel.[10]

Digital on-screen graphics and teletext

Teletext, an information service provided by many broadcasters, provides station or network identification in many countries worldwide. As almost all modern sets can display this information, it is a simple matter of checking teletext if the identity of the station is not clear. Some broadcasters do not provide a teletext service, and there is no specific requirement or standard for station identification in it. While teletext is widespread in Europe and is closely associated with the PAL television system worldwide, it was non-existent in North America during the analog television era, in which the NTSC standard was used. However, digital television standards generally include station identification.

A common worldwide practice is to use a small overlay graphic known as a Digital on-screen graphic (DOG), "bug" or watermark created by a character generator in the corner of the screen, showing the logo of the channel. While not a substitute for proper station identification, this makes it easy to identify the station at a glance. VH1 originated the practice in the United States around 1993, with most other cable networks following until most started using them in the early 2000s.

Amateur television operators (and also, news channels in other countries) often use a lower third or bug containing their callsign in lieu of voice identification. This is an accepted practice in the United States and United Kingdom.

See also


  1. ^ Jan Kristoffer Enriquez (2012-10-17). "ABS-CBN's Christmas station ID brightens the Yuletide season". ABS-CBN. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  2. ^ "47 CFR 73.1201 (a)(2)" (PDF). Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  3. ^ "FM Translators and Boosters". 2015-12-10. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  4. ^ "47 CFR 95.417 - (CB Rule 17) Do I identify my CB communications?". Cornell Law School. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  5. ^ "FCC rule 07–33" (PDF). 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  6. ^ "Find radio & TV stations: broadcasters lists". Australian Communications and Media Authority. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  7. ^ "Livestream » User Guide". 2016-04-05. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  8. ^ "GlensanyIdents". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04.
  9. ^ "November 2009 - June 2010". Archived from the original on 2012-03-01.
  10. ^ "emedia free channel identitys". Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.

External links

Amateur radio station

An amateur radio station is a radio station designed to provide radiocommunications in the amateur radio service for an amateur radio operator. Radio amateurs build and operate several types of amateur radio stations, including fixed ground stations, mobile stations, space stations, and temporary field stations. A slang term often used for an amateur station's location is the shack, named after the small enclosures added to the upperworks of naval ships to hold early radio equipment and batteries.

See also

Beta (time signal)

Beta is a time signal service in the VLF range in Russia, operated by the Russian Navy. It is controlled by All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Physical-Engineering and Radiotechnical Metrology. There are 6 transmitter stations, which take turns transmitting time signals and other communications.

Although the transmitters are active 24 hours a day, each transmits the time code one hour per day.

Beginning on the hour is 25 minutes of 25.0 kHz, including morse code station identification and time code. This is followed by 5-minute intervals of 25.1, 25.5, 23.0 and 20.5 kHz. No time code is sent during the last quarter of an hour.

Bumper music

Bumper music, or a bump, is a term used in the radio broadcasting industry to refer to short clips of signature or theme music used to buffer transitions between programming elements. It is also a term for music played at music venues such as concerts before show time, to "fill the air", with a musical atmosphere. Bumper music is commonly employed when a syndicated program takes a break for local station identification or "goes to a radio commercial." More often than not it is called a "bump" in today's radio; NPR also uses the term "button". It is also referred to as "rejoiner music" when the bumper music marks the end of a local break on a radio network.


CIMF-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station located in Gatineau, Quebec, near Ottawa, Ontario.

Owned and operated by Bell Media, it broadcasts on 94.9 MHz with an effective radiated power of 84,000 watts (class C1) using an omnidirectional antenna located in Camp Fortune. Its current offices are located in Gatineau at 215 Boulevard Saint-Joseph in the same building as CKTF-FM for the NRJ radio group.

The station has an adult contemporary format and is part of the Rouge FM network which operates across Quebec and Eastern Ontario. It started operations with a beautiful music format as a sister station to the now-defunct CKCH 970, which closed on September 30, 1994 when the Telemedia and Radiomutuel networks merged to form the Radiomédia network (now Corus Québec).

Up until 1990, CIMF-FM had a beautiful music format. The station switched to adult contemporary music in 1990 and the station was renamed "CIMF Rock-Détente".

On October 31, 2000, Télémédia Radio was denied a licence to add a new FM transmitter to operate on 107.7 MHz at Hawkesbury, Ontario.In 2004, Astral Media revamped the Rock Détente network with a new logo. This resulted in "CIMF Rock-Détente" being renamed to simply "94,9 RockDétente". As such, the station no longer publicly uses its callsign (although the callsign was resurrected as station identification in 2011).

Since 2001, the station also operates a relay in Hawkesbury, Ontario, approximately 100 kilometres east of Ottawa/Gatineau. This results from a deal between Telemedia (which then owned CIMF-FM) and Radio-Canada to allow the latter to raise the power of CBF-FM 95.1 MHz in Montreal, Quebec from 17,030 to 100,000 watts. The relay, CIMF-FM-1, operates on 88.9 MHz using a directional antenna with an average effective radiated power of 759 watts and a peak effective radiated power of 1,250 watts (class A).On August 18, 2011, at 4:00 p.m. EDT, the station ended its longtime 21-year run with the RockDétente branding. All RockDétente stations, including CITE-FM, rebranded as Rouge FM. The last song under the RockDétente branding was Pour que tu m'aimes encore by Celine Dion, followed by a tribute of the branding. The first song under Rouge FM was I Gotta Feeling by Black Eyed Peas.


CITF-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station located in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Owned and operated by Bell Media, it broadcasts on 107.5 MHz with an effective radiated power of 37,000 watts (class C1) using an omnidirectional antenna. The station's transmitter is located at Mount Bélair.

The station has an adult contemporary format since 1990 and is part of the Rouge FM network which operates across Quebec and Eastern Ontario.

CITF-FM started operations on July 22, 1982 as a sister station to the now-defunct CKCV 1280 with a beautiful music format. The latter closed in September 1990, as part of a failed attempt of Telemedia (then owner of both stations) to buy CHRC 800, as at the time owners were limited to only one AM station and one FM station per market. (Even though the purchase of CKCV was denied by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), that station remained dark.)

Up until 1990, CITF-FM had a beautiful music format. The station switched to adult contemporary music in 1990 and the station was renamed "CITF Rock-Détente".

In 2004, Astral Media revamped the Rock Détente network with a new logo. This resulted in "CITF Rock-Détente" being renamed to simply "107,5 RockDétente". As such, the station no longer publicly uses its callsign (although the callsign was resurrected as station identification in 2011).

CITF-FM is programmed locally with their own staff, personalities and playlist, independent from the rest of the Rouge FM network. On August 18, 2011, at 4:00 p.m. EDT, the station ended its longtime 21-year run with the RockDétente branding. All RockDétente stations, including CITF-FM, rebranded as Rouge FM. On CITF-FM, the last song under the RockDétente branding was Salut les amoureux by Joe Dassin, followed by a tribute of the branding. Being locally programmed, it was the only station not to sign off the RockDétente branding with Pour que tu m'aimes encore by Celine Dion. The first song under Rouge FM was I Gotta Feeling by Black Eyed Peas. As a Rouge FM station, CITF-FM remains locally programmed, aside from a few network programs it carries.

Classical 24

Classical 24 is a syndicated, satellite-delivered public radio service providing classical music to its carrying stations. It generally airs overnights on many non-commercial and a handful of commercial classical music stations. However, the service is operated 24 hours a day and is used by some stations during the day to augment their schedules. It was co-created by a partnership between Minnesota Public Radio and Public Radio International to fulfill the need for a comprehensive classic music service for stations to supplement their schedules. As part of this partnership, the service is produced by American Public Media and distributed by Public Radio International. It began operation on December 1, 1995.

Unlike most mainstream classical music stations, Classical 24 adheres to a "clock" that typically consists of one or two short selections at the beginning of the hour, followed by a longer work such as a symphony, and then a short piece or two to close the hour. A brief pre-recorded "sound bite" interview with the composer, conductor or soloist of the next piece is sometimes played immediately prior to the piece, as an introduction.

Classical 24 also requires two breaks per hour during the day (one per hour during the overnight Music Through the Night component) and a mandatory break at the top of the hour for announcements and station identification. The service also has a six-minute "cutaway" at the top of the hour during the day for subscribers to air news programming (in many cases the standard National Public Radio newscast, as a few NPR member stations use Classical 24); this time is filled with a short musical selection for affiliates who choose not to run a newscast.

Classical 24 employs live hosts instead of using voice tracking. To make the sound as "local" as possible, there are no identifications given to the listener that they are listening to Classical 24. Only the host's name is given. For stations to automate breaks, a special decoder must be purchased and used.

In 2000, the Minneapolis Star Tribune reported that the average selection on Classical 24 was 9.5 minutes, in contrast to then-rival WCAL's average selection length of 15 minutes. Minnesota Public Radio's FM flagship station for classical music, KSJN in Minneapolis, currently offers a full-time Classical 24 feed on its HD2 sub-channel. WNIU, broadcasting from Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, Illinois, is another full power FM that carries Classical 24 on a full-time basis. After November 2013, KUHA (now KXNG) in Houston (broadcasting from the University of Houston at the time) carried Classical 24 for a significantly increased portion of its schedule after discontinuing the use of local hosts during the daytime hours. Wisconsin Public Radio partially syndicates Classical 24 on their All Classical Network service, which airs on 13 different HD2 sub-channels throughout the State of Wisconsin.

Enquiry character

In computer communications, enquiry is a transmission-control character that requests a response from the receiving station with which a connection has been set up. It represents a signal intended to trigger a response at the receiving end, to see if it is still present. The response, an answer-back code to the terminal that transmitted the WRU (who are you) signal, may include station identification, the type of equipment in service, and the status of the remote station.

Some teleprinters had a "programmable" drum, which could hold a 20 or 22 character message. The message was encoded on the drum by breaking tabs off the drum. This sequence could be transmitted upon receipt of an enquiry signal, if enabled, or by pressing the "Here is" key on the keyboard.The 5-bit ITA2 has an enquiry character, as do the later ASCII and EBCDIC.

In the 1960s, DEC routinely disabled the answerback feature on Teletype Model 33 terminals because it interfered with the use of the paper-tape reader and punch for binary data. However, the DEC VT100 terminals from 1978 responded to enquiry with a user-configurable answerback message, as did its successors.


KKNE (940 AM) is a radio station licensed to Waipahu, Hawaii and located in the Honolulu, Hawaii radio market, broadcasting with a power of 10,000 watts. The station's format is hybrid of traditional Hawaiian music and talk/information geared towards an audience adults of Native Hawaiian descent. The station is owned by SummitMedia. The station's studios are located in Downtown Honolulu and its transmitter is located near Kunia Camp. It is also featured on Oceanic Time Warner Cable digital channel 856 for the entire state of Hawaii. It was originally on 920 kHz and moved to 940 kHz in 1962.

A unique feature of KKNE is a greeting and current time given in Hawaiian and English along with the station identification at the top and bottom of each hour (at :00 and :30 past the hour), with a steel guitar playing as background music.

KYMS (defunct)

KYMS was one of the first "album rock" FM stations in Southern California, before becoming the first contemporary Christian music station, broadcasting at 106.3 MHz FM, based in Orange, California, and licensed to the city of Santa Ana, CA. It broadcast Christian programming for twenty years, from 1975 until its sale in 1995.At its peak, KYMS was one of the two most popular Christian music stations in the United States.

London Calling (magazine)

London Calling (later renamed BBC Worldwide, then BBC On Air) was a monthly magazine that contained programme listings for the BBC World Service shortwave radio broadcasting service. Originally called the Empire Programme Pamphlet (for what was then known as the BBC Empire Service) and then BBC Empire Broadcasting, the title was changed to London Calling in mid-1939 when the magazine expanded from 12 pages to 16. The title alludes to the BBC World Service's station identification: "This is London calling ...", which was used during World War II, often in broadcasts to occupied countries.

Motion graphic design

Motion graphic design is a subset of graphic design in that it uses graphic design principles in a filmmaking or video production context (or other temporally evolving visual medium) through the use of animation or filmic techniques. Examples include the kinetic typography and graphics used in film and television opening sequences, and the spinning, three-dimensional station identification logos of some television channels. The art form has been around for decades, and has advanced in technical sophistication over time.

A motion graphic designer may be a person trained in traditional graphic design who has learned to integrate additional elements into their existing skill set of design knowledge, though motion designers can also come from filmmaking or animation backgrounds, and may use tools or training from those fields as well.

Popular use of motion graphic design is used in the film industry. Openings to movies, television shows, and news programs can use photography, typography, and motion graphics to make the introduction more entertaining. The graphics used in television show introductions will usually represent the tone of the program. For example, high action television shows will contain fast-paced and bold graphics in the openings.

Pirate radio

Pirate radio or a pirate radio station is a radio station that broadcasts without a valid license.

In some cases radio stations are considered legal where the signal is transmitted, but illegal where the signals are received—especially when the signals cross a national boundary. In other cases, a broadcast may be considered "pirate" due to the nature of its content, its transmission format (especially a failure to transmit a station identification according to regulations), or the transmit power (wattage) of the station, even if the transmission is not technically illegal (such as an amateur radio transmission). Pirate radio is sometimes called bootleg radio (a term especially associated with two-way radio), clandestine radio (associated with heavily politically motivated operations) or free radio.

Rouge FM

Rouge FM is a network of French-language adult contemporary radio stations broadcasting throughout Quebec, Canada. Established in 1990 as RockDétente, they are owned by Bell Media.

All Rouge FM stations broadcast in the same markets as Bell's contemporary hit radio network, Énergie, which, however, also has a few stations in markets not served by Rouge FM.

Although the stations concentrate on French adult contemporary music, it would mix in English music as well, much like Cogeco's Rythme FM network, which has fewer stations than Rouge FM. The flagship radio station is Montreal's CITE-FM. The Astral jingles on this network are different from the adult hits jingles used by Astral's English-language adult contemporary stations, nut the network uses a very relaxing acoustic tune.

On August 18, 2011, at 4:00 p.m. EDT, all RockDétente stations were rebranded as Rouge FM, when the longtime RockDétente branding was retired after a 21-year run. On most stations, the last song as RockDétente was Pour que tu m'aimes encore by Celine Dion, followed by a tribute of the branding. The first song under Rouge FM was I Gotta Feeling by Black Eyed Peas. After rebranding, most of the soft rock songs were dropped, leaving the Rythme FM network to continue broadcasting them and moving Rouge FM towards a hot adult contemporary direction. By 2012, most of the classic hits and ballads returned due to the 35th anniversary of flagship CITE-FM Montreal, going towards its old RockDétente direction. From May 2011 to March 2012, the stations started identifying their call letters during station identification, and in April 27 to 29, 2012, the network was briefly rebranded Rose FM as a charitable promotion for breast cancer research.

All stations carry most Rouge FM programming simultaneously except for CITF-FM in Quebec City, all of which is programmed locally except for a few networked programs.

Station Identification (album)

Station Identification is the first album by Channel Live. The album was released on March 21, 1995, on Capitol Records and was produced by KRS-One, Rheji Burrell, and Salaam Remi. The album did fairly well on the Billboard charts, reaching 58 on the Billboard 200 and 9 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums.

The album is best known for its lead single, "Mad Izm", which was a collaboration with KRS-One. The song became Channel Live's biggest hit, peaking at #54 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number three on the Hot Rap Singles. The track was remixed by Buckwild from Diggin' in the Crates (D.I.T.C.) and is on his 2007 compilation album Rare Studio Masters' as track one on disc one. "Reprogram" reached number 31 on the Maxi-Singles chart.

Television station

A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most often the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more recently, via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively.

Because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments often claim authority to regulate them. Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were typically limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations usually require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages.

Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational (NCE) and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries generally limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably. Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news.


WHSG-TV, virtual channel 63 (UHF digital channel 44), is a TBN owned-and-operated station serving Atlanta, Georgia, United States that is licensed to Monroe. The station is owned by the Trinity Broadcasting Network. WHSG's studios are located on Agape Way in Decatur, and its transmitter is located in North Druid Hills.

Because it airs no local content (except for local insertion of the required station identification), it is not carried as a local channel on DirecTV; the national TBN feed is already available. Conversely, WUVM-LP (channel 4) is carried on DirecTV instead.

It had one broadcast translator, W55BM atop Sweat Mountain, northwest of Atlanta. That station was later W49DE and WXID-LP, an affiliate of JCTV.


WWVH is the callsign of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology's shortwave radio time signal station in Kekaha, on the island of Kauai in the state of Hawaii.

WWVH is the Pacific sister station to WWV, and has a similar broadcast format. Like WWV, WWVH's main function is the dissemination of official U.S. Government time, through exactly the same methods as found on WWV's signal.

To minimize interference with the WWV broadcasts on the same frequencies, WWVH's broadcasts on 5, 10 and 15 MHz are directional, pointed primarily west. Despite this strategy, in certain places, particularly on the west coast of North America; and at certain times, due to ionospheric conditions, the listener can actually hear both WWV and WWVH on the same frequency at the same time. The information modulated on the carrier is modified to reduce confusion if both are received simultaneously. In particular, voice announcements on one correspond to silent periods on the other. WWVH uses a female voice to distinguish itself from WWV, which uses a male voice. WWVH time signals can also be accessed by telephone.


WXER is a Hot AC FM radio station broadcasting on 104.5 MHz in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, which is owned by Midwest Communications. The station is licensed to the city of Plymouth and broadcasts from a tower southwest of the city.

The station also has a translator station with the calls W241AG broadcasting at 96.1 FM from the tower site behind the Midwest studios in Sheboygan, which was launched in June 2006 due to ongoing interference problems with WBFM and WHBZ within the city on the 104.5 frequency, along with summer co-channel interference with Muskegon, Michigan's WSNX-FM across Lake Michigan. The stations are marketed together as 104-5 & 96-1, The Point, with the call letters completely de-emphasized beyond station identification purposes.

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