States and territories of Australia

The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.

The country comprises six states: New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. They retain a degree of sovereignty, being the successors of the previous Australian colonies. The states each have their own parliaments, able to legislate over certain residual and concurrent power areas.

Two of the three internal territories, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), function in reality as states themselves. The ACT and Northern Territory each possess their own level of self-government through their respective legislative assemblies, but instead derive their power from the Commonwealth, theoretically revocable at any time. The third internal territory, the Jervis Bay Territory, is a territory in its own right and is the product of Australia's complex relationship with its capital city. Rather than having the same level of autonomy as the states and the two other internal territories, Jervis Bay instead has services provided by arrangement from New South Wales and the ACT.

Australia also consists of seven external territories. These do not comprise Australia proper, but are nevertheless under Australian sovereignty. Only three of the external territories have a permanent population, and as a result, they are all directly administered by the federal Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and Cities (or the Department of the Environment and Energy in the case of the Australian Antarctic Territory). Norfolk Island was partially self-governing, until this was revoked in 2015.

Australian states and territories
Map of Australia
CategoryStates (6)
Internal territories (3)
External territories (7)
LocationCommonwealth of Australia
Populations0 (Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Heard and McDonald Islands) – 7,704,300 (NSW)
Areas10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) (Coral Sea Islands) – 5,896,500 km2 (2,276,700 sq mi) (Australian Antarctic Territory)
SubdivisionsLocal government areas
Cadastral divisions

Geographic Australia

The term geographic Australia is used by the Australian government to describe the area covered by demographic statistics such as national population figures. This area comprises Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in addition to the six states and three mainland territories; Norfolk Island is the only territory with a permanent population that is not part of geographic Australia.[1]

States, territories, and external territories

Reference map for states and territories of Australia
Australia states and territories labelled
States of Australia[n 1]
Flag State name Abbrev ISO[2] Postal Capital Population[3][4] Area (km²)[5] Governor Premier
New South Wales NSW AU-NSW NSW Sydney 7,955,900 800,628 David Hurley Gladys Berejiklian
(Liberal)
Queensland QLD AU-QLD QLD Brisbane 4,827,000 1,723,936 Paul de Jersey Annastacia Palaszczuk
(Labor)
South Australia SA AU-SA SA Adelaide 1,706,500 978,810 Hieu Van Le Steven Marshall
(Liberal)
Tasmania Tas AU-TAS TAS Hobart 518,500 64,519 Kate Warner Will Hodgman
(Liberal)
Victoria Vic AU-VIC VIC Melbourne 6,430,000 227,010 Linda Dessau Daniel Andrews
(Labor)
Western Australia WA AU-WA WA Perth[n 2] 2,613,700 2,526,786 Kim Beazley Mark McGowan
(Labor)
Internal territories of Australia[n 3]
Flag Territory name Abbrev ISO[6] Postal Capital Population[3][7] Area (km²)[5] Governor Chief Minister
Australian Capital Territory ACT AU-ACT ACT Canberra 397,397 2,280 none-represented by the federal Governor General Andrew Barr
(Labor)
Northern Territory NT AU-NT NT Darwin 246,700 1,723,936 Michael Gunner
(Labor)
Jervis Bay Territory JBT ACT none (Jervis Bay Village) 391 72 none
External territories of Australia[n 4]
Flag Territory name Abbrev ISO[8] Postal Capital
(or largest settlement)
Population[3][9] Area (km²)[5] Administrator Shire President
Australian Antarctic Territory AAT AQ[n 5] none Davis Station 120[n 6] 5,896,500 none none
Christmas Island CX Flying Fish Cove 2,072 135 Barry Haase Gordon Thompson
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC West Island 596 14 Seri Wati Iku
Coral Sea Islands (Willis Island) 4[n 7] 10 none none
Heard Island and McDonald Islands HIMI HM (Atlas Cove) 0 372 none none
Norfolk Island NF Kingston 2,302 35 Eric Hutchinson none

All states, (internal) territories and the external territory of Coral Sea Islands were part of Australia at federation and are constitutionally part of the Commonwealth. Northern Territory was part of South Australia, Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory were part of New South Wales, and Coral Sea Islands was part of Queensland. Ashmore and Cartier Islands was accepted by Australia in 1934[10] and annexed to Northern Territory prior to the adoption of the Statute of Westminster in 1942 and, as such, is deemed to form part of Australia proper.

Cocos (Keeling) Islands voted for integration in 1984. Together with Christmas Island, Commonwealth laws apply automatically to the territory unless expressly stated otherwise[11] and residents of both external territories are associated with Northern Territory for federal elections. They are, thus, constitutionally part of Australia.

Uninhabited Heard and McDonald Island is treated as constitutionally part of Australia by the central government.[12]

The constitutional status of the Australian Antarctic Territory is unclear, with successive governments treating it either as a separate territory (as in the United Kingdom and Norway) or an integral part of the country (as in New Zealand and France). As of 2018, the present government appears to take the view that it is not constitutionally part of Australia.[13]

Norfolk Island's status is controversial, with the present (as of 2018) government taking measures to integrate the territory into Australia proper (including representation in parliament and compulsory voting). The Norfolk Islanders have not formally consented to this change in constitutional status and assert that they are not Australian.[14]

Defunct territories

Three territories established by the federal government under section 122 of the Constitution of Australia no longer exist:

Additionally, two other areas were administered by Australia as de facto external territories.

Both New Guinea and Nauru were originally German territories, but were occupied by Australian forces during World War I and subsequently made League of Nations mandates. They later became United Nations trust territories. The Papua and New Guinea Act 1949 placed the Territory of New Guinea in an "administrative union" with the Territory of Papua. The Territory of Papua and New Guinea was eventually given independence as Papua New Guinea in 1975. Nauru was granted independence in 1968.

Background and overview

Australia history

The states originated as separate British colonies prior to Federation in 1901. The Colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 and originally comprised much of the Australian mainland, as well as Lord Howe Island, New Zealand, Norfolk Island, and Van Diemen's Land, in addition to the area currently referred to as the state of New South Wales. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the Colony of Tasmania (initially established as a separate colony named Van Diemen's Land in 1825), the Colony of Western Australia (initially established as the smaller Swan River Colony in 1829), the Province of South Australia (1836), the Colony of New Zealand (1840),[16] the Victoria Colony (1851) and the Colony of Queensland (1859). Upon Federation, the six colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania became the founding states of the new Commonwealth of Australia.

Legislative powers of the states are protected by the Australian constitution, section 107, and under the principle of federalism, Commonwealth legislation only applies to the states where permitted by the constitution. The territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Commonwealth Government; laws for territories are determined by the Australian Parliament.[17]

Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth Government, while two (the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory) have some degree of self-government although less than that of the states. In the self-governing territories, the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian (and joint Australia-New Zealand) intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are treated as if they were states.

Each state has a governor, appointed by the Queen, which by convention she does on the advice of the state Premier. The Administrator of the Northern Territory, by contrast, is appointed by the Governor-General. The Australian Capital Territory has neither a Governor nor an Administrator, but the Governor-General exercises some powers that in other jurisdictions are exercised by the Governor of a state or Administrator of a territory, such as the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

Jervis Bay Territory is the only non-self-governing internal territory. Until 1989, it was administered as if it were a part of the ACT, although it has always been a separate territory. Under the terms of the Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915,[18] the laws of the ACT apply to the Jervis Bay Territory insofar as they are applicable and providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance.[19] Although residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are generally subject to laws made by the ACT Legislative Assembly, they are not represented in the Assembly. They are represented in the Parliament of Australia as part of the Electoral Division of Fraser in the ACT and by the ACT's two Senators. In other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio.

The external territory of Norfolk Island possessed a degree of self-government from 1979 until 2015.

Each state has a bicameral parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, where it is called the House of Assembly. Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house; all others elect members from single member constituencies, using preferential voting. The upper house is called the Legislative Council and is generally elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation. The three self-governing territories, the ACT, the Northern Territory, and Norfolk Island, each have unicameral Legislative Assemblies.

The head of government of each state is called the premier, appointed by the state's Governor. In normal circumstances, the Governor will appoint as premier whoever leads the party or coalition which exercises control of the lower house (in the case of Queensland, the only house) of the state Parliament. However, in times of constitutional crisis, the Governor can appoint someone else as Premier. The head of government of the self-governing internal territories is called the chief minister. The Northern Territory's chief minister, in normal circumstances whoever controls the Legislative Assembly, is appointed by the administrator.

Timeline

  • 1788 – British Empire establishes Colony of New South Wales across central and eastern mainland Australia, the island of Tasmania, both islands of New Zealand and Norfolk Island.
  • 1803 – The Coral Sea Islands are claimed by New South Wales
  • 1825 – The island of Tasmania becomes the independent colony of Van Diemen's Land. New South Wales extends its borders further west in mainland Australia.
  • 1829 – British Empire establishes Swan River Colony in western mainland Australia
  • 1832 – Swan River Colony is renamed the colony of Western Australia
  • 1836 - The Colony of South Australia is established
  • 1841 – The islands of New Zealand become the independent colony of New Zealand. Much of eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Victoria Land.
  • 1844 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to Van Diemen's Land
  • 1846 – Northern central and eastern Australia briefly become the independent Colony of North Australia, then are returned to New South Wales.
  • 1851 – Southeastern mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of Victoria
  • 1856 – Van Diemen's Land is renamed the colony of Tasmania. Norfolk Island becomes the independent colony of Norfolk Island, however it is to be administered by the same Governor as New South Wales.
  • 1857 – Much of southern central mainland Australia becomes the independent colony of South Australia. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are annexed by Britain.
  • 1859 – Northeastern mainland Australia and Coral Sea Islands become the independent colony of Queensland
  • 1860 – A pocket of New South Wales territory remaining in southern central mainland Australia is transferred to South Australia
  • 1862 – Some of New South Wales' northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to Queensland
  • 1863 – New South Wales' remaining northern central mainland Australian territory is transferred to South Australia
  • 1878 – Britain annexes Ashmore Island
  • 1883 – Queensland annexes southeastern New Guinea
  • 1884 – Southeastern New Guinea becomes the independent Territory of Papua
  • 1886 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are to be administered by the same Governor as the Straits Settlements
  • 1888 – Christmas Island is annexed by Britain and incorporated into the Straits Settlements
  • 1897 – Norfolk Island is officially reintegrated into New South Wales
  • 1901 – New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia federate into the Commonwealth of Australia. Queensland transfers the Coral Sea Islands to the federal government, creating a federal external territory.
  • 1902 – Britain transfers Papua to Australia as an external territory
  • 1903 – The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are incorporated into the Straits Settlements
  • 1909 – Britain annexes Cartier Island
  • 1910 – Britain claims Heard Island and the McDonald Islands
  • 1911 – The state of South Australia transfers control of northern central mainland Australia to the federal government, creating the Northern Territory. A small pocket of New South Wales around the city of Canberra is transferred to the federal government (who are seated within it), creating the Federal Capital Territory.
  • 1913 – New South Wales transfers Norfolk Island to the federal government, making it a federal external territory
  • 1915 – A small pocket of New South Wales around Jervis Bay is transferred to the federal government and incorporated into the Federal Capital Territory
  • 1920 – Following the defeat of the German Empire in World War I, the League of Nations establishes an Australian mandate in northeastern New Guinea, it becomes the external Territory of New Guinea
  • 1923 – Another conquered German territory, the island of Nauru, is established as an Australian mandate and external territory by the League of Nations, this time as a co-mandate with Britain and New Zealand
  • 1927 – The Northern Territory is split into two territories – North Australia and Central Australia
  • 1930 – Remaining territory in eastern Antarctica is annexed by Britain as Enderby Land
  • 1931 – North Australia and Central Australia are reincorporated as the Northern Territory. Britain recognises Australia as possessors of the uninhabited Ashmore and Cartier Islands, making them an external federal territory.
  • 1933 – Britain transfers Victoria Land and Enderby Land to Australia, creating the Australian Antarctic Territory, with ongoing limited international recognition
  • 1938 – The Federal Capital Territory is renamed the Australian Capital Territory
  • 1942 – The Japanese Empire conquers Nauru from Australia, Britain and New Zealand as part of World War II. Japan also conquers much of the Straits Settlements, including Christmas Island. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are not conquered and are transferred to the Colony of Ceylong.
  • 1946 – The United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations, renews its mandate of New Guinea to Australia
  • 1947 – Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, the United Nations returns Nauru to Australia, Britain and New Zealand as a joint mandate. Christmas Island returns to Britain and is incorporated into the Colony of Singapore. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are also transferred to Singapore.
  • 1949 – Papua and New Guinea are incorporated into the singular Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Britain transfers Heard Island and the McDonald Islands to Australia, creating a federal external territory.
  • 1955 – Britain transfers the Cocos (Keeling) Islands to Australia, they become an external territory
  • 1958 – Britain transfers Christmas Island to Australia, it becomes an external territory
  • 1966 – The Republic of Nauru is established, ending Australian/British/New Zealander control of the island
  • 1975 – Papua and New Guinea becomes the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, ending British/Australian control
  • 1978 – Northern Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control.
  • 1989 – Jervis Bay becomes independent of the ACT, becoming the Jervis Bay Territory
  • 1993 – Australian Capital Territory gains self-government with certain Commonwealth control.
  • 2015 – Norfolk Island loses self-government with full Commonwealth control.

Comparative terminology

Entity Type of entity Tie to the Queen Domestic administrator Head of Government Upper House of Parliament Lower House of Parliament Member of Parliament
Upper house Lower house[note 1]
Commonwealth of Australia Federal government Direct Governor-General Prime Minister Senate House of Representatives Senator MP
South Australia Federated state Direct (established by the Australia Act 1986) Governor Premier Legislative Council House of Assembly MLC MHA
Tasmania
New South Wales Legislative Assembly MP
Victoria MLA
Western Australia
Queensland N/A (abolished 1922) N/A MP
Australian Capital Territory Self-governing territory Indirect (through Governor-General acting as "administrator") Assembly and Chief minister Chief minister N/A MLA
Northern Territory Indirect (through Governor-General) Administrator
Christmas Island External territory Mayor/shire president Shire Council Councillor
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Norfolk Island Regional Council[note 2]
Note:
  1. ^ The abbreviation MP is an acceptable, and indeed more common, term for members of each lower house.
  2. ^ Between 1979 and 2015 Norfolk Island was a self-governing external territory with its own legislature, the Norfolk Legislative Assembly, until this was abolished by the Commonwealth Parliament.
  1. ^ The abbreviation MP is an acceptable, and indeed more common, term for members of each lower house.
  2. ^ Between 1979 and 2015 Norfolk Island was a self-governing external territory with its own legislature, the Norfolk Legislative Assembly, until this was abolished by the Commonwealth Parliament.

Governors and administrators of states and territories

Post Incumbent Appointed
Governor of New South Wales His Excellency David Hurley 2 October 2014
Governor of Queensland His Excellency Paul de Jersey 29 July 2014
Governor of South Australia His Excellency Hieu Van Le 1 September 2014
Governor of Tasmania Her Excellency Kate Warner 10 December 2014
Governor of Victoria Her Excellency Linda Dessau 1 July 2015
Governor of Western Australia His Excellency Kim Beazley 1 May 2018
Administrator of the Northern Territory Her Honour Vicki O'Halloran 31 October 2017
Administrator of Norfolk Island His Honour Eric Hutchinson 1 April 2017
Administrator of Australian Indian Ocean Territories
(Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands)
Her Honour Natasha Griggs 5 October 2017

Premiers and chief ministers of states and territories

Post Incumbent Political party Appointed
Premier of New South Wales Gladys Berejiklian MP Liberal 23 January 2017
Premier of Queensland Annastacia Palaszczuk MP Labor 14 February 2015
Premier of South Australia Steven Marshall MHA Liberal 19 March 2018
Premier of Tasmania Will Hodgman MP Liberal 31 March 2014
Premier of Victoria Daniel Andrews MP Labor 4 December 2014
Premier of Western Australia Mark McGowan MLA Labor 17 March 2017
Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory Andrew Barr MLA Labor 11 December 2014
Chief Minister of the Northern Territory Michael Gunner MLA Labor 31 August 2016
Mayor of Norfolk Island Council Councillor Robin Adams 6 July 2016
Presidents of Australian Indian Ocean Territories:
President of the Shire of Christmas Island
President of the Shire of Cocos Council

Councillor Foo Kee Heng
Councillor Balmut Pirus


18 October 2011
May 2013

State and territorial parliaments

State and territory supreme courts

State and territory police forces

State and territory borders

Statistics

State / territory Abbreviation Land area[5][20]
Population density
  • % of population
  • in capital
Notes
km2 sq mi Rank Number Rank /km2 /sq mi Rank % Rank
 Australian Capital Territory ACT 2,280 880 8 395,200 7 167.6 434 1 99.6% 1 [21]
 New South Wales NSW 800,628 309,124 5 7,704,300 1 9.62 24.9 3 63.0% 5 [22]
 Northern Territory NT 1,335,742 515,733 3 244,000 8 0.18 0.47 8 54.0% 6 [23]
 Queensland QLD 1,723,936 665,615 2 4,827,000 3 2.79 7.2 5 46.0% 7 [24]
 South Australia SA 978,810 377,920 4 1,706,500 5 1.74 4.5 6 73.5% 2 [25]
 Tasmania TAS 64,519 24,911 7 518,500 6 7.58 19.6 4 41.0% 8 [26]
 Victoria VIC 227,010 87,650 6 6,039,100 2 26.56 68.8 2 71.0% 4 [27]
 Western Australia WA 2,526,786 975,598 1 2,613,700 4 1.03 2.7 7 73.4% 3 [28]

State and territory codes

State/territory Abbrev. Call signs Postal Telephone numbers in Australia Time zone
AM/FM TV Amateur Abbrev. Postcode Std Summer
Australian Capital Territory ACT 1xx(x)[nb 1] xx(x)Cn[nb 1] VK1xx[nb 1] ACT 02nn,[nb 2] 26nn, 29nn +61 2 62xx xxxx
+61 2 61xx xxxx
+10 +11
New South Wales NSW 2xx(x) xx(x)Nn VK2xx NSW 1nnn,[nb 2] 2nnn +61 2 xxxx xxxx[nb 3] +10 (+​9 12)[nb 4] +11
Victoria Vic 3xx(x) xx(x)Vn VK3xx VIC 3nnn, 8nnn[nb 2] +61 3 xxxx xxxx[nb 3] +10 +11
Queensland Qld 4xx(x) xx(x)Qn VK4xx QLD 4nnn, 9nnn[nb 2] +61 7 xxxx xxxx +10
South Australia SA 5xx(x) xx(x)Sn VK5xx SA 5nnn +61 8 8xxx xxxx
+61 8 7xxx xxxx
+​9 12 +​10 12
Western Australia WA 6xx(x) xx(x)Wn VK6xx WA 6nnn +61 8 9xxx xxxx
+61 8 6xxx xxxx
+8
Tasmania Tas 7xx(x) xx(x)Tn VK7xx TAS 7nnn +61 3 6xxx xxxx +10 +11
Northern Territory NT 8xx(x) xx(x)Dn VK8xx NT 08nn +61 8 89xx xxxx +​9 12
External territories
Norfolk Island 2xx(x) xx(x)Nn VK2xx NSW 2899 +672 3 xx xxx +11
Christmas Island 6xx(x) xx(x)Wn VK9xx WA 6798 +61 8 9164 xxxx +7
Cocos Island 6xx(x) xx(x)Wn VK9xx WA 6799 +61 8 9162 xxxx +​6 12
Australian Antarctic Territory AAT none VK0xx TAS +672 1 +6 to +8
Macquarie Island none +10 +11
  1. ^ a b c A number of broadcast stations in the ACT have call signs allocated as if ACT were part of New South Wales.
  2. ^ a b c d This is used for some PO box and large users only.
  3. ^ a b Some exceptions apply to numbers in this state's number range.
  4. ^ The state of New South Wales observes Australian Eastern Standard Time except for Broken Hill and the surrounding region, which observes Australian Central Standard Time.
  1. ^ a b c A number of broadcast stations in the ACT have call signs allocated as if ACT were part of New South Wales.
  2. ^ a b c d This is used for some PO box and large users only.
  3. ^ a b Some exceptions apply to numbers in this state's number range.
  4. ^ The state of New South Wales observes Australian Eastern Standard Time except for Broken Hill and the surrounding region, which observes Australian Central Standard Time.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  2. ^ Perth was defined as the capital by statute in 2016: City of Perth Act 2016 (WA) in AustLII.
  3. ^ Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  4. ^ Unless provided, references and details on data provided in the table can be found within the individual state and territory articles.
  5. ^ Under the definitions in ISO 3166-1, the AAT is covered by the Antarctican ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code "AQ".
  6. ^ No permanent population, research station with fluctuating staff numbers.
  7. ^ No permanent population, weather monitoring station generally with four staff.

References

  1. ^ Pink, Brian (2010). "Definition of Australia". Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (Report). Australian Bureau of Statistics. p. 5.
  2. ^ ISO 3166-2:AU (ISO 3166-2 codes for the states and territories of Australia)
  3. ^ a b c "3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Mar 2016". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 22 September 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  4. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/area-of-australia-states-and-territories
  5. ^ a b c d "Area of Australia – States and Territories". Geoscience Australia: National Location Information. Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  6. ^ ISO 3166-2:AU (ISO 3166-2 codes for the states and territories of Australia)
  7. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/area-of-australia-states-and-territories
  8. ^ ISO 3166-2:AU (ISO 3166-2 codes for the states and territories of Australia)
  9. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/area-of-australia-states-and-territories
  10. ^ https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/C2008C00341
  11. ^ https://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/alrc-80-legal-risk-international-transactions/10-external-territories
  12. ^ http://heardisland.antarctica.gov.au/about/frequently-asked-questions
  13. ^ http://www.antarctica.gov.au/about-antarctica/australia-in-antarctica/australian-antarctic-territory
  14. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/may/21/were-not-australian-norfolk-islanders-adjust-to-shock-of-takeover-by-mainland
  15. ^ a b Ling, Ted. "Dividing the Territory, 1926–31". Commonwealth Government Records about the Northern Territory. National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  16. ^ A.H. McLintock (ed), An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand, 3 vols, Wellington, NZ:R.E. Owen, Government Printer, 1966, vol 3 p. 526.'
  17. ^ Constitution of Australia, section 122
  18. ^ Jervis Bay Territory Acceptance Act 1915 (Cth).
  19. ^ "Jervis Bay Territory Governance and Administration". The Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport. Retrieved 17 January 2013. Although the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the Australian Capital Territory, the laws of the ACT apply, insofar as they are applicable and, providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance, in the Territory by virtue of the 'Jervis Bay Acceptance Act 1915'
  20. ^ http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific-topics/national-location-information/dimensions/area-of-australia-states-and-territories
  21. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Australian Capital Territory". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  22. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "New South Wales". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  23. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Northern Territory". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  24. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Queensland". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  25. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "South Australia". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  26. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Tasmania". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  27. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Victoria". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 2 July 2017. Edit this at Wikidata
  28. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Western Australia". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 12 February 2013. Edit this at Wikidata

External links

2006–07 Eastern Victoria Great Divide bushfires

The Eastern Victoria Great Divide bushfires, also known as the Great Divide Complex, were a series of bushfires that commenced in the Victorian Alps in Australia on 1 December 2006 due to lightning strikes and continued for 69 days. They were the longest running bushfires in the state's history. Between 1.2 and 1.3 million hectares were burnt, most of it public land. Victorian fire personnel were assisted by others from all states and territories of Australia, as well as teams from New Zealand, the United States and Canada.

Australian Indian Ocean Territories

Australian Indian Ocean Territories is the name since 1995 of an administrative unit under the Australian Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, consisting of two islands groups in the Indian Ocean under Australian sovereignty:

Christmas Island (10.485°S 105.636°E / -10.485; 105.636 (Christmas Island)), where the administrator resides

Cocos (Keeling) Islands archipelago (12.158°S 96.870°E / -12.158; 96.870 (Cocos (Keeling) Islands)), where the same officer also has jurisdiction as administrator but does not resideEach of these island components has its own Shire Council: the Shire of Christmas Island and the Shire of Cocos.

It does not include the uninhabited Ashmore and Cartier Islands.

Cold Rock Ice Creamery

Cold Rock Ice Creamery is an Australian-based ice cream parlour chain. It specialises in custom making ice creams and ice-cream cakes by adding mix-ins. Cold Rock has over 100 stores across all states and territories of Australia.

The first Cold Rock was opened in Aspley, Queensland in 1996. In 2008, the 80th store opened, located in Melbourne, Australia, and by September 2009 there were around 65 franchises with group annual sales over $35 million.

On 4 September 2009, Franchised Food Co. acquired the chain.In May 2017 Cold Rock launched "Super Kosher" ice creams and mix-ins. It was the first time a national Australian franchising brand offered its product especially for the Jewish/kosher market.

Illawarra

Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast region. It encompasses the cities of Wollongong, Shellharbour and the town of Kiama.

The Illawarra region is characterised by three distinct districts: the north-central district, which is a contiguous urban sprawl centred on Lake Illawarra; the western district defined by the Illawarra escarpment, which leads up to the south-west fringe of Greater Metropolitan Sydney including the Macarthur and Southern Highlands regions; and the southern district, which is historically semi-rural (area undefined), yet now defined by increasing urbanisation.

International Natural Bodybuilding Association

International Natural Bodybuilding Association (also known as INBA) is an Australian bodybuilding, physique; figure, fitness and bikini competition business. The unincorporated association was founded by Wayne McDonald. INBA’s Australian Head Offices are located in Victoria and NSW. INBA arranges 28 domestic competitions in 8 States and Territories of Australia. Ron Ziemiecki is the current INBA Events Director. INBA is accredited by Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority (ASADA).

List of Australian military bases

The Australian Defence Force is made up of the Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force. These three military services have numerous military bases situated in all the States and Territories of Australia. Most of Australian Defence Force bases are equipped with Everyman's Welfare Service recreation centres.

List of Australian states by Human Development Index

Below is a list of the Australian states and territories by Human Development Index as of 2017, which is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, standard of living and overall well-being of the citizens in each states. All Australian states have a very high (greater than 0.800) HDI.

List of proposed states of Australia

Proposals for new Australian states have been numerous since the late 19th and early 20th centuries; however, to date, no states have been added to Australia since Federation in 1901. Many proposals have suggested an Aboriginal state which would resemble the Inuit territory of Nunavut in Canada, while others have suggested incorporating New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, East Timor and New Caledonia as new states. Other proposals suggest making the Northern Territory and/or Australian Capital Territory states.

List of symbols of states and territories of Australia

This is a list of the symbols of the states and territories of Australia. Each state and territory has a unique set of official symbols.

National curriculum

A national curriculum is a common programme of study in schools that is designed to ensure nationwide uniformity of content and standards in education. It is usually legislated by the national government, possibly in consultation with state or other regional authorities.

National curriculum assessment generally means testing of students as to whether they meet the national standards.

Notable national curricula are:

Australian Curriculum is a planned curriculum for schools in all states and territories of Australia, from Kindergarten to Year 12. Its first stages were planned to start in 2013.

National Curriculum and Textbook Board for Bangladesh.

National Curriculum Framework (NCF 2005) for India

in the United Kingdom:

National Curriculum for England, current since 2014

Northern Ireland Curriculum

Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland

National Curriculum for Wales, current since 1999

Primary Curriclum for England since 2014The United States notably does not have one; the establishment of a national curriculum was explicitly banned in 1965, in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This act provided federal funding for primary and secondary education ('Title I funding') as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty. However, most states in the United States voluntarily abide by the Common Core State Standards Initiative, which provides certain uniform standards, See Education in the United States.

New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.The Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825. The colony also included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia. However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales.

Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory.

Northern Territory

The Northern Territory (officially the Northern Territory of Australia) (abbreviated NT) is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west (129th meridian east), South Australia to the south (26th parallel south), and Queensland to the east (138th meridian east). To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands. The NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres (520,902 sq mi), making it the third-largest Australian federal division, and the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania.The archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards. The coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century. The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement (1824–28, 1838–49, and 1864–66), success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism, especially Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park (Ayers Rock) in central Australia, and mining.

The capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated in coastal regions and along the Stuart Highway. The other major settlements are (in order of size) Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine, Nhulunbuy and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are often known simply as "Territorians" and fully as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians".

Parliament of South Australia

The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat House of Assembly (lower house) and the 22-seat Legislative Council (upper house). All of the lower house and half of the upper house is filled at each election. It follows a Westminster system of parliamentary government.

The Queen is represented in the State by the Governor of South Australia. According to the South Australian Constitution, unlike the Federal Parliament, and the parliaments of the other states and territories of Australia, neither the Sovereign or the Governor is considered to be a part of the South Australian Parliament. However, the same role and powers are granted to them.

South Australia

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth largest by population. It has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small; Mount Gambier, the second largest centre, has a population of 28,684.

South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, and with the Northern Territory; it is bordered to the west by Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales, to the south-east by Victoria, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight. The state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement. Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree.

As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages. The South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was later employed by the New Zealand Company. The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous cultural festivals. The state's economy is dominated by the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries.

Southern Australia

The term Southern Australia is generally considered to include the states and territories of Australia of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia. The part of Western Australia south of latitude 26° south – a definition widely used in law and state government policy – is also usually included.

Although it comprises about half of the total area of Australia, Southern Australia includes about three-quarters of the Australian population, the two largest cities (Sydney and Melbourne), the political capital (Canberra), the main food growing areas and the main industrial centres. The area is also notable for its primarily temperate, mediterranean, alpine or arid environmental and climatic conditions which contrasts to the mainly tropical climate of Northern Australia.

Southern Australia suffers from bushfires and wildfires.

State of North Queensland

The State of North Queensland is a proposed state of Australia, to be formed out of the current state of Queensland.

Under the Constitution of Australia, section 124, a new state can be created by "separation of territory from a State, but only with the consent of the Parliament thereof, and a new State may be formed by the union of two or more States or parts of States, but only with the consent of the Parliaments of the States affected".In 1852, John Dunmore Lang proposed – in his book Freedom and Independence for the Golden Lands of Australia: the right of the colonies, and the interest of Britain and of the world – the division of the future colony of Queensland into three subdivisions.A committee of businessmen in Townsville first pushed for a separate state in July 1882.The separatist movement in North Queensland was fostered by the sugar planters, who saw the existence of the sugar industry threatened by the "abolitionist" movement in South Queensland for the suppression of Kanaka labour.

One proposal is that Queensland should be divided by the 22nd parallel with the boundary running just south of Sarina on the coast to the Northern Territory border between Boulia and Mount IsaAccording to The Courier-Mail in 2010, the majority of North Queensland mayors were in favour of the separation from Queensland proper. Only two of the 100 delegates at the NQ Local Government Association meeting were against the proposal – the two being Mayor Val Schier (Cairns) and Mayor Ben Callcott (Charters Towers).In 2013, social demographer Bernard Salt said that Townsville would go from regional powerhouse to metropolitan city by 2026, and that there are fewer people living in the state of Tasmania than in North Queensland.Supporters of the North Queensland state include Geoffrey Blainey, and Member of Parliament Bob Katter and former member Clive Palmer.One of many proposals stated that North Queensland would contain 785,890 people, ranking slightly above that of Tasmania, although lower than that of South Australia. In area, it would be 735,300 square kilometers, ranking between New South Wales and Victoria, and bringing Queensland down to the third largest state/territory in Australia.

While the Liberal National Party Coalition voted down a motion to hold a referendum at a state convention, it was backed by Senator Matt Canavan and MP George Christensen.

Territorial evolution of Australia

The first colonies of the British Empire on the continent of Australia were the penal colony of New South Wales, founded in 1787, and the Swan River Colony, founded in 1829. Over the next few decades, the colonies of New Zealand, Queensland, South Australia, Van Diemen's Land (later renamed Tasmania), and Victoria were created from New South Wales, as well as an aborted Colony of North Australia. On 1 January 1901, these colonies, excepting New Zealand, became states in the Commonwealth of Australia. Since federation, the internal borders have remained mostly stable, except for the creation of some territories with limited self-government: the Northern Territory from South Australia, to govern the vast, sparsely populated center of the country; the split of the Northern Territory into Central Australia and North Australia, and then the quick merger of those back into the Northern Territory; and the Australian Capital Territory, a federal district ceded from New South Wales.

Outside of the continent, Queensland attempted an expansion into New Guinea, but British authorities rejected this; the claim would later be made a British protectorate and ceded to Australia. The League of Nations mandated northeast New Guinea to Australia after World War I, as well as Nauru, which was placed under joint Australian-British-New Zealand jurisdiction. These mandates (and, later, United Nations trust territories) became the independent nations of Nauru and Papua New Guinea in the mid-20th century. Australia has also obtained several small island territories, mainly from earlier British colonies, and has a large claim on Antarctica.

Territory of Papua and New Guinea

The Territory of Papua and New Guinea was established by an administrative union between the Australian-administered territories of Papua and New Guinea in 1949. In 1972, the name of the Territory changed to "Papua New Guinea" and in 1975 it became the Independent State of Papua New Guinea.

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