The Crown Colony of Malta became independent under the Malta Independence Act 1964 passed by the British Parliament. Under the new Constitution of Malta, approved in a referendum held May of that year, Queen Elizabeth II became Queen of Malta (Maltese: Reġina ta' Malta). Her constitutional roles were delegated to the Governor-General of Malta. Between 1964 and 1974, Elizabeth II visited Malta once in November 1967.
State of Malta
Stat ta’ Malta
Motto: "Virtute et Constantia"
"[By] virtue and constancy"
Anthem: L-Innu Malti
The Maltese Hymn
State of Malta in dark green
|Maurice Henry Dorman|
|Anthony Joseph Mamo|
|George Borg Olivier|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|21 September 1964|
|13 December 1974|
|1967||316 km2 (122 sq mi)|
|Currency||Pound Sterling (1964–1972)|
Maltese Lira (1972–1974)
|ISO 3166 code||MT|
The following Governors-General held office in Malta between 1964 and 1974:
On 13 December 1974, following amendments to the Constitution by the Labour government of Dom Mintoff, the monarchy was abolished and Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth with the function of head of state vested in a president appointed by Parliament. The last Governor-General, Sir Anthony Mamo, was appointed the first President of Malta.
A referendum on integration with the United Kingdom was held in Malta on 11 and 12 February 1956. The proposals were approved by 77% of those who voted, on a turnout of 59.1%. They were never fully implemented, and the country became an independent Dominion titled the State of Malta eight years later.Anthony Mamo
Sir Anthony Joseph Mamo, (9 January 1909 – 1 May 2008) was the first President of Malta and previously served as the last Governor-General of the State of Malta before the country became a republic. He was also the first Maltese citizen to be appointed Governor-General, and before independence, briefly served as acting Governor.Crown colony
Crown colony, dependent territory or royal colony were dependent territories under the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that were controlled by the British Government. As such they are examples of dependencies that are under colonial rule. Crown colonies were renamed "British Dependent Territories" in 1981, and since 2002, Crown colonies have been known officially as British Overseas Territories.In such territories, residents do not elect members of the British parliament. A Crown colony is usually administered by a governor who directly controls the executive and is appointed by "the Crown" — a term that in practice usually means the UK government, acting on behalf of the monarch. However, the term "Crown colony" has sometimes been used of entities that have elected governments and partial autonomy; these are also known as self-governing colonies.Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
When her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics. Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state.
Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has consistently been and remains high, as does her personal popularity.Governor-General of Malta
The Governor-General of Malta (Maltese: Gvernatur-Ġenerali ta' Malta) was the official representative of Her Majesty Elizabeth II, Queen of Malta, in the State of Malta from 1964 to 1974. This office replaced that of the Governor, and it was replaced by that of President upon the proclamation of the Republic of Malta.History of Malta
Malta has a long history and was first inhabited in around 5900 BC. The first inhabitants were farmers, and their agricultural methods degraded the soil until the islands became uninhabitable. The islands were repopulated in around 3850 BC by a civilization which at its peak built the Megalithic Temples, which today are among the oldest surviving buildings in the world. Their civilization collapsed in around 2350 BC, but the islands were repopulated by Bronze Age warriors soon afterwards.
Malta's prehistory ends in around 700 BC, when the islands were colonized by the Phoenicians. They ruled the islands until they fell to the Roman Republic in 218 BC. The Romans were followed by the Byzantines in the 6th century AD, who were expelled by Aghlabids following a siege in 870 AD. Malta may have been sparsely populated for a few centuries until being repopulated by Arabs in the 11th century. The islands were conquered by the Norman Kingdom of Sicily in 1091, and a gradual Christianization of the islands followed. At this point, the islands were dominated by successive feudal rulers including the Swabians, the Aragonese and eventually the Spanish.
The islands were given to the Order of St. John in 1530, who ruled them as a vassal state of Sicily. In 1565, the Ottoman Empire attempted to take the islands in the Great Siege of Malta, but the invasion was repelled. The Order continued to rule Malta for over two centuries, and this period was characterized by a flourishing of the arts and architecture and an overall improvement in society. The Order was expelled after the French First Republic invaded the islands in 1798, marking the beginning of the French occupation of Malta.
After a few months of French rule, the Maltese rebelled and the French were expelled in 1800 with British, Neapolitan and Portuguese assistance. Malta subsequently became a British protectorate, becoming a de facto colony in 1813. This was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris a year later. The islands became an important naval base for the British, serving as the headquarters of the Mediterranean Fleet. Due to this, Malta was attacked by the Axis powers during World War II, and in 1942 the island was awarded the George Cross, which today appears on Malta's flag and coat of arms. The Crown Colony of Malta was self-governing from 1921–33, 1947–58 and 1962–64.
Malta became independent as a Commonwealth realm known as the State of Malta in 1964, and it became a republic in 1974. Since 2004, the country has been a member state of the European Union.History of Malta under the Order of Saint John
Malta was ruled by the Order of Saint John as a vassal state of the Kingdom of Sicily from 1530 to 1798. The islands of Malta and Gozo, as well as the city of Tripoli in modern Libya, were granted to the Order by Spanish Emperor Charles V in 1530, following the loss of Rhodes. The Ottoman Empire managed to capture Tripoli from the Order in 1551, but an attempt to take Malta in 1565 failed.
Following the 1565 siege, the Order decided to settle permanently in Malta and began to construct a new capital city, Valletta. For the next two centuries, Malta went through a Golden Age, characterized by a flourishing of the arts, architecture, and an overall improvement in Maltese society. In the mid-17th century, the Order was the de jure proprietor over some islands in the Caribbean, making it the smallest state to colonize the Americas..
The Order began to decline in the 1770s, and was severely weakened by the French Revolution in 1792. In 1798, French forces under Napoleon invaded Malta and expelled the Order, resulting in the French occupation of Malta. The Maltese eventually rebelled against the French, and the islands became a British protectorate in 1800. Malta was to be returned to the Order by the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, but the British remained in control and the islands formally became a British colony by the Treaty of Paris in 1814.Index of Malta-related articles
This page list topics related to Malta.Japan–Malta relations
Japan–Malta relations refers to bilateral foreign relations between Japan and Malta. Their diplomatic relations were established in 1965. Malta has a consulate in Tokyo. Japan has an Embassy to Malta, which is part of the Embassy of Japan in Rome, Italy, and a consulate in Valletta, Malta.List of Governors of Malta
The Governor of Malta (Maltese: Gvernatur ta' Malta) was an official who ruled Malta during the British colonial period between 1813 and 1964. This office replaced that of the Civil Commissioner. Upon the end of British rule and the creation of the State of Malta in 1964, this office was replaced by the Governor-General, who represented the British Monarch and not the Government of the United Kingdom as did the Governor. The office of Governor-General was itself abolished in 1974 and replaced by the post of President when Malta became a Republic.List of ambassadors of the United States to Malta
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Malta. Initially a part of the British Empire, Malta was granted full independence as the State of Malta on September 21, 1964. The United States recognized the new nation and established full diplomatic relations after its independence, and retained relations after Malta became a republic in 1974. Harrison Lewis was appointed as the first American diplomat in Malta as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim until an ambassador could be commissioned.List of heads of state of Malta
This is a list of the heads of state of Malta, from independence as the State of Malta in 1964 to present. From 1964 to 1974, Malta was a Commonwealth realm and its head of state under the Constitution of Malta was the Queen of Malta, Elizabeth II – who was also simultaneously the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen was represented in Malta by a Governor-General. Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth after constitutional amendments in 1974, and the position of Monarch and Governor-General were replaced by a President of Malta who is indirectly elected.Malta
Malta (, (listen); Maltese: [ˈmɐltɐ]), officially known as the Republic of Malta (Maltese: Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.
Malta has been inhabited since approximately 5900 BC. Its location in the centre of the Mediterranean has historically given it great strategic importance as a naval base, with a succession of powers having contested and ruled the islands, including the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Normans, Aragonese, Knights of St. John, French, and British. Most of these foreign influences have left some sort of mark on the country's ancient culture.
Malta became a British colony in 1815, serving as a way station for ships and the headquarters for the British Mediterranean Fleet. It played an important role in the Allied war effort during the Second World War, and was subsequently awarded the George Cross for its bravery in the face of an Axis siege, and the George Cross appears on Malta's national flag. The British Parliament passed the Malta Independence Act in 1964, giving Malta independence from the United Kingdom as the State of Malta, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and queen. The country became a republic in 1974. It has been a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations since independence, and joined the European Union in 2004; it became part of the eurozone monetary union in 2008.
Malta has a long Christian legacy and its Archdiocese is claimed to be an apostolic see because Paul the Apostle was shipwrecked on "Melita", according to Acts of the Apostles, which is now widely taken to be Malta. While Catholicism is the official religion in Malta, Article 40 of the Constitution states that "all persons in Malta shall have full freedom of conscience and enjoy the free exercise of their respective mode of religious worship."Malta is a popular tourist destination with its warm climate, numerous recreational areas, and architectural and historical monuments, including three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni, Valletta, and seven megalithic temples which are some of the oldest free-standing structures in the world.Malta (European Parliament constituency)
In European elections, Malta is a constituency of the European Parliament, currently represented by six MEPs. It covers the member state of Malta. The electoral system used is Single Transferable Vote.Malta Independence Fiftieth Anniversary Medal
The Malta Independence Fiftieth Anniversary Medal is a national commemorative medal of the Republic of Malta. The medal is awarded by the President of Malta to recognize contributions to the development and well-being of Malta as a nation and a member of the international community of nations since the State of Malta gained independence in 1964. The medal, which may be awarded posthumously, has been awarded to former Presidents, Prime Ministers, and other notable Maltese politicians.Megalithic Temples of Malta
The Megalithic Temples of Malta (Maltese: It-Tempji Megalitiċi ta' Malta) are several prehistoric temples, some of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites, built during three distinct periods approximately between 3600 BC and 700 BC on the island country of Malta. They had been claimed as the oldest free-standing structures on Earth until the discovery of Göbekli Tepe. Archaeologists believe that these megalithic complexes are the result of local innovations in a process of cultural evolution. This led to the building of several temples of the Ġgantija phase (3600–3000 BC), culminating in the large Tarxien temple complex, which remained in use until 2500 BC. After this date, the temple-building culture disappeared.The Ġgantija temples (two sites) were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. In 1992, the UNESCO Committee further extended the existing listing to include five other megalithic temple sites. These are Ħaġar Qim (in Qrendi), Mnajdra (in Qrendi), Ta' Ħaġrat Temples (in Mġarr), Skorba Temples (in Żebbiegħ) and Tarxien Temples (in Tarxien). Nowadays, the sites are managed by Heritage Malta, while ownership of the surrounding lands varies from site to site. Apart from these, there are other megalithic temples in Malta which are not included in the UNESCO World Heritage list.President of Malta
The President of Malta (Maltese: President ta' Malta) is the constitutional head of state of Malta. The President is appointed by a resolution of the House of Representatives of Malta for a five-year term, taking an oath to "preserve, protect and defend" the Constitution. The President of Malta also resides directly or indirectly in all three branches of the state. They are part of Parliament and responsible for the appointment of the judiciary. Executive authority is nominally vested in the President, but is in practice exercised by the Prime Minister.Queen of Malta
From 1964 to 1974, Elizabeth II was Queen of Malta (Maltese: Reġina ta' Malta). The State of Malta was an independent sovereign state and the Queen was also monarch of the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom. The Queen's constitutional roles in Malta were mostly delegated to a Governor-General.
Malta became a republic within the Commonwealth in 1974, and the Queen was replaced as head of state by the President of Malta.Republic Day (Malta)
Republic Day (Maltese: Jum ir-Repubblika') is a public holiday celebrated in Malta celebrated on 13 December. It celebrates the anniversary of the creation of the Republic of Malta. On 13 December 1974, the constitution of Malta revised, which resulted in the transforming the State of Malta into a republic, effectively abolishing the role of Reġina ta' Malta (Queen of Malta) in the country. That same year, Sir Anthony Mamo as named as the first president of the country. British troops did not leave the country until 31 March 1979. The holiday coincides with the Feast Day of Saint Lucia, the patron saint of Malta.