State Security Department

The State Security Department (SSD) or the Ministry of State Security is the secret police agency of North Korea. It is an autonomous agency of the North Korean government reporting directly to the Supreme Leader.[1][2] In addition to its internal security duties, it is involved in the operation of North Korea's concentration camps and various other hidden activities.[3] It is reputed to be one of the most brutal police forces in the world, and has been involved in numerous human rights abuses.[2]

It is one of two agencies which provides security or protection to North Korean officials and VIPs alongside the Supreme Guard Command.[2][4]

State Security Department of North Korea
the Ministry of State Security
Agency overview
Superseding agency
JurisdictionGovernment of North Korea
HeadquartersPyongyang, North Korea
Agency executives
  • Jong Kyong-thaek, Minister of State Security
  • So Tae-ha, Vice Minister of State Security
  • Kim Chang-sop, Political department head
State Security Department
Revised RomanizationGukga anjeon bowibu
McCune–ReischauerKukka anjŏn powibu


The SSD was created in 1973, having its functions from the former Ministry of Public Security.[5][6] The structure was created based on the Soviet KGB.[7]

Some defectors and sources have suggested that unlike its Eastern Bloc counterparts, State Security functions are actually conducted by several larger and different security bodies that operate under the Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) or the Korean People's Army (KPA, the North Korean armed forces), each with its own unique responsibilities and classified names that are referred to by code (e.g. Room 39), and that the agency is little more than a hollow shell used by the elite to coordinate their activities and provide cover for them.

The post of Security Department head was left vacant after Minister Ri Chun-su's death in 1987, although it was de facto if not de jure controlled by Kim Jong-il and the WPK Organization and Guidance Department he headed.[8] In 1998, the SSD migrated under the National Defence Commission, also chaired by Kim Jong-il.[8] Finally, in 2007, it was transferred under the WPK Administration Department, whose first vice director became responsible of the SSD daily work, but it continued to have obligations towards the Organization and Guidance Department.[8]

In November 2011, it was reported that General U Tong-chuk had been appointed permanent minister of State Security,[9] the first of this kind since 1987, filling a post left unoccupied for 24 years. This was almost concurrent with General Ri Myong-su's appointment as minister of People's Security. Other sources also claimed that Kim Jong-un worked at the State Security Department before and/or after his anointment as heir apparent in September 2010.[10] Kim Won-hong was appointed minister in April 2012 as the position was restored following Kim Jong-il's death.[11] He served as Kim Jong-un's aide until February 2017 when he was allegedly dismissed for filing false reports to Kim Jong Un and mishandling an aide of Kim Jong Un. He was formally replaced in October 2017 at a WPK central committee plenum by Jong Kyong-thaek.[12] So Tae-ha is the vice minister, while Kim Chang-sop serves as the head of the political department of the ministry.[13]


The SSD is tasked to investigate political and economic crimes in North Korea, especially for the former on crimes against the Kim family.[6] It's also tasked to conduct VIP protection duties for North Korean diplomats and employees who work in various North Korean embassies, consulates and other foreign missions abroad.[6]

The SSD is known to link up with various government ministries and agencies to help them with their various missions.[6]



  1. ^ Library of Congress Country Studies
  2. ^ a b c Kirby, Michael Donald; Biserko, Sonja; Darusman, Marzuki (7 February 2014). "Report of the detailed findings of the commission of inquiry on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea - A/HRC/25/CRP.1". United Nations Human Rights Council. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014.
  3. ^ Bermudez (2001), pg 198–203.
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b c U Tong Chuk Appointed Minister of State Security Archived 2012-01-19 at the Wayback Machine. North Korea Leadership Watch, 12 November 2011.
  9. ^ General U Upped. Intelligence Online, 10 November 2011.
  10. ^ NDC: Kim Jong-un in charge of intelligence. North Korean Economic Watch, 21 April 2011.
  11. ^ "Top 4 N.Korean Military Officials Fall Victim to Shakeup". Chosun Ilbo. Nov 30, 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Zwirko, Colin (28 December 2018). "North Korean leadership shakeups revealed in latest MOU reference book release". NK News. Retrieved 7 March 2019.


  • Bermudez, Joseph S. (2001). Shield of the Great Leader. The Armed Forces of North Korea. The Armed Forces of Asia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86448-582-5.
2015 in Lithuania

Events in the year 2015 in Lithuania.

Augustinas Povilaitis

Augustinas Povilaitis (24 February 1900 in Pašventys, Jurbarkas district – 12 July 1941 in Moscow) was a captain of the Lithuanian Army and Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania. Together with Minister of the Interior Kazys Skučas, Povilaitis was a target of anti-Lithuanian Soviet propaganda in the days leading to the 1940 Soviet ultimatum and occupation of Lithuania. Directly after the Red Army invaded Lithuania on 15 June 1940, Povilaitis was arrested and transported to Moscow; he was executed in 1941. In 2006 he was awarded the Order of the Cross of Vytis.

Civil Security Forces

Civil Security Forces may refer to:

Sri Lanka Civil Security Force

State Security Department of North Korea

Daniel Dăianu

Daniel Dăianu (born 30 August 1952) is a Romanian economist, professor and politician. He was a member of the European Parliament between 2007 and 2009, when he represented the National Liberal Party (Romania). In June 2014 he was elected a member of the Board of the National Bank of Romania. Between April 2013 and June 2014, Dăianu was first deputy president of the Romanian Financial Supervision Authority . He is a member of the High Level Group on Own Resources of the EU, which is headed by Mario Monti. Dăianu is also a member of the European Council for Foreign Relations, since 2012.

He was the Finance Minister of Romania between December 5, 1997 and September 23, 1998, in the governments of Victor Ciorbea and Radu Vasile. He was dismissed because he refused to endorse a controversial deal with Bell Helicopter Textron to purchase 96 AH-1RO Dracula attack helicopters (a variant of AH-1 Cobra), in order to help modernize the armed forces. Dăianu considered that terms of the contract were disadvantageous for the Romanian industry and that the deal was too costly for the Romanian budget at that time.

Between 1992 and 1997, Dăianu was the Chief Economist of the National Bank of Romania. In August 2005, he became President of the Supervision Board of Banca Comercială Română, a position previously held by Sebastian Vlădescu and Florin Georgescu, among others. He resigned this post in December 2007, in order to avoid any conflict of interest with his duties as a member of the European Parliament. During 2012-2-13 he was a member of the Board of CEC Bank.

Dăianu was also the President of the European Association for Comparative Economic Studies (EACES), between 2002–2004.

In 1975, he obtained a Master in Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest and, in 1988, a Ph.D. in Economics from the same institution. He held a post-doctoral research position at Harvard University's Russian Research Center, during 1990-1991 and attended Harvard Business School's six-week Advanced Management Program in 1994.

Daniel Dăianu is also a professor of public finance, at the National School of Political Studies and Public Administration (SNSPA) in Bucharest. During different periods, he held research positions at the Russian Research Center (Harvard University), the Woodrow Wilson Center (Washington, D.C.), the NATO Defense College (Rome), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Organization for European Cooperation in Europe (OECD). Between 1999 - 2004, he was a professor at the Academy of Economic Studies (ASE) in Bucharest, at the University of California, Berkeley, at the University of California, Los Angeles and at the University of Bologna.

During Nicolae Ceauşescu's communist regime, he worked for the Securitate's Foreign Intelligence Unit (DIE), between 1976 and September 1978. He left DIE in 1978, of his own volition and he became known, in the following decade, for his writings against Ceauşescu's economic policy, which were highlightted on Radio Free Europe (RFE) at the time. In September 2007, the National Council for Analyzing the State Security Department Files (CNSAS) decided that Daniel Dăianu had worked for the External Intelligence Unit solely on economic issues.Between 1979 and 1990, he was a researcher at the Economic Socialist Institute.

Daniel Dăianu was elected a corresponding member of the Romanian Academy since 2001. He was upgraded to titular member in 2013.

He has written several books and his columns have appeared in Ziarul Financiar, Piaţa Financiară, Bursa, Southeast European Times European Voice. "Les Echos", Europe's World, World Commerce Review.

In October 2008, Dăianu took position against European banks that receive state aids to get out of the crisis, yet damage emerging European economies through speculation against national currencies.He was co-rapporteur of the report "Lamfalussy follow-up: Future Structure of Supervision", for the European Parliament.

On May 22, 2008, Daniel Dăianu, together with three former Presidents of the European Commission, nine former Prime Ministers of EU member states and six former Finance / Economy Ministers, co-signed an article with title "Financial Markets Cannot Govern Us" in "Le Monde", in which they anticipated the extent of the economic crisis and talked about its causes.

During the presidential elections of 2009, he was touted as one of possible prime ministers.

Daniel Dăianu was invited to be a fellow of the Warsaw-based Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE), in 2010.


North Korea's political penal labour colonies, transliterated kwalliso or kwan-li-so, constitute one of three forms of political imprisonment in the country, the other two being what Hawk translated as "short-term detention/forced-labor centers" and "long-term prison labor camps", for misdemeanour and felony offenses respectively. In total, there are an estimated 80,000 to 120,000 political prisoners.

In contrast to these other systems, the condemned are sent there without any form of judicial process as are the immediate three generations of their family members in a form of sippenhaft. Durations of imprisonment are variable, however, many are condemned to labour for life. Forced labour duties within kwalliso typically include forced labour in mines (known examples including coal, gold and iron ore), tree felling, timber cutting or agricultural duties. Furthermore, camps contain state run prison farms, furniture manufacturing etc.

Estimates suggest that at the start of 2007, a total of six kwalliso camps were operating within the country. Despite fourteen kwalliso camps originally operating within North Korea, these later merged or were closed following reallocation of prisoners.

Law enforcement in North Korea

The Ministry of People's Security and the State Security Department are responsible for internal security in North Korea. Although both are government organs, they are tightly controlled by the party apparatus through the Justice and Security Commission and the penetration of their structures by the party apparatus at all levels. The formal public security structure is augmented by a pervasive system of informers throughout the society. Surveillance of citizens, both physical and electronic, is also routine.

List of intelligence agencies

This is a list of intelligence agencies. It includes only currently operational institutions.

Lithuanian Security Police

The Lithuanian Security Police (LSP), also known as Saugumas (Lithuanian: Saugumo policija), was a local police force that operated in German-occupied Lithuania from 1941 to 1944, in collaboration with the occupational authorities. Collaborating with the Nazi Sipo (security police) and SD (intelligence agency of the SS), the unit was directly subordinate to the German Kripo (criminal police). The LSP took part in perpetrating the Holocaust in Lithuania, persecuting Polish resistance and communist underground.

Lithuanian order of precedence

The Lithuanian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Lithuania. Administered by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the hierarchy does not determine the order of succession for the office of President of the Republic of Lithuania, which is instead specified by the Constitution of Lithuania.

Mass surveillance in North Korea

Mass surveillance in North Korea is a routine practice employed throughout North Korea. North Korea "operates a vast network of informants who monitor and report to the authorities fellow citizens they suspect of criminal or subversive behavior." North Korea has been described as a "massive police state", and its people "under constant surveillance".

Ministry for State Security

Ministry for State Security or Ministry of State Security may refer to:

Ministry of State Security (China)

Ministry of State Security (North Korea)

Ministry for State Security (East Germany), more commonly known as the Stasi

Ministry for State Security (Soviet Union)

Ministry of State Security (Transnistria)

Security Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Poland)

Ministry of People's Security

The Ministry of People's Security is a law enforcement agency in North Korea.Unlike most ministers in North Korea, which operate under the Cabinet, the Ministry of People's Security is directly supervised by the State Affairs Commission. The current minister is Choe Pu-il.Beyond policing, its services include operating the prison system in North Korea, monitoring the public distribution system and providing bodyguards to important persons.The Ministry of People’s Security gathers information from local informers in social units about irregular acts. If a case is believed to be of a political nature, it is instead handed over to the State Security Department for investigation.The protagonist in James Church's Inspector O novels, beginning with A Corpse in the Koryo, is a detective working in Unit 826, a Pyongyang subbranch of the Ministry.

Polish Military Organisation

Polish Military Organisation, PMO (Polish: 'Polska Organizacja Wojskowa', POW) was a secret military organization created by Józef Piłsudski in August 1914, and officially named in November 1914, during World War I. Its tasks were to gather intelligence and sabotage the enemies of the Polish people. It was used by Piłsudski to create a body independent from his cautious Austro-Hungarian supporters, and it was an important, if somewhat lesser known, counterpart to the Polish Legions. Its targets included the Russian Empire in the early phase of the war, and the German Empire later. Its membership rose from a few hundred members in 1914 to over 30,000 in 1918.

Red Flag Mangyongdae Revolutionary School

Red Flag Mangyongdae Revolutionary School is an elite school in Mangyongdae district, Pyongyang, North Korea. Established in 1947, it is a special education school with access only to the Party, Army, administrative and high-ranking officials’ families. Originally, the school was called the Magyongdae School for the Bereaved Children of Revolutionaries, which was to "receive children of fallen revolutionaries" and "educate their children and train them into fine revolutionaries after the independence of Korea. It was located at Kan-ri, Daedong, South Pyongan. After the formal establishment of North Korea it was moved to Pyongyang and there the first statue of Kim Il-sung was erected, according to North Korean authorities, at the suggestion of Kim Jong-suk, Kim Il-sung's wife.As of April 2012, Lt. Col. Kim Hak Bin is an administrator at the school. Ri Kyong Hui is a biology teacher.At one time, Kim Won-ju, who was Kim Hyong-rok's third son, was assigned the position as State Security Department officer whose assignments included rooting out disloyalty to the regime among students at the ultra-elite Mangyongdae School.".In addition to a high school curriculum, students receive military training. Graduates enter the army for three years and usually become party members. Generally, about 120 students graduate per year. According to Kang Myong-do, "children of the elite, who in the past would have gone to Namsan now went to Mangyongdae." If the parents of a child were still alive, then only children of officials at least at the level of party department head were eligible to enroll.In 1982, O Guk-ryol, the then chief of the armed forces staff, said the school produced revolutionary warriors.By 1987, graduates were:

20% of the central party committee,

30% of the party politburo, and

32% of the military commission of the central committee.As of April 2013, the all girls version of this school is at the Kang Pan-sok Revolutionary School in the western city of Nampho.Kim Jong-un, who was educated in Switzerland, is not an alumnus of this school and has visited this school six times as of July 2018.

State Security Department of Lithuania

The State Security Department or VSD (Lithuanian: Valstybės saugumo departamentas) is a Lithuanian national security agency which collects information on threats to Lithuania's sovereignty and works to eliminate those threats. The VSD also conducts counterintelligence, protects state secrets and classified information, and vets applicants for residence in or entry to Lithuania. The department was established on 26 March 1990, two weeks after Lithuania declared independence from the Soviet Union. At the time, the department was also responsible for certain aspects of law enforcement, provide protection to state officials and strategic objects, ensure integrity of state communications network, investigate political corruption. Other agencies took over these extra duties and, during 2010, the mission of VSD was clarified to mainly focus on intelligence and counterintelligence.

U Tong-chuk

U Tong-chuk or Woo Dong-cheuk (born August 8, 1942) is a North Korean official. He was a politburo member of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. In addition, he was head of State Security Department from 2009 to 2012. After February 2012, he disappeared from public after attending celebrations for late leader Kim Jong-il's birthday.According to official North Korean state media, U graduated from Kim Il-sung University with a philosophy degree. He later served in a number of minor posts in the Organization and Guidance Department of the Workers' Party of Korea before being moved to a leading position in the Ministry of State Security (or State Security Department) in the 1990s. He was promoted to colonel-general, member of the National Defence Commission, and first vice-minister of State Security in 2009. This put him in charge of the ministry and gave him access to the country's top echelon, as the ministry was reportedly under Kim Jong-il directly, and he accompanied Kim Jong-il on a number of tours and official events, including a dinner with former US President Bill Clinton. On 28 September 2010, the 3rd Party Conference elevated him to member of the Politburo and the Central Military Commission; the day before he had been promoted to general of the Korean People's Army.

After Kim Jong-il's death in December 2011, U was seen accompanying the late leader's hearse and was reported having a role in purging the Ministry of State Security to ensure loyalty to Kim Jong-un. He has disappeared from public since February 2012 and his posts had been taken over by Kim Won-hong by April 2012.

In July 2013, U Tong-chuk showed up along with other former officials at events marking the 60th anniversary of the end of the Korean War.

Ukrainian People's Militia

Ukrainian People's Militia or the Ukrainian National Militia (Ukrainian: Українська Народна Міліція), was a paramilitary formation created by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in the General Government territory of occupied Poland and later in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine during World War II. It was set up in the course of the 1941 Operation Barbarossa following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in eastern Poland. The formation, created in June 1941, preceded the official founding of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police in mid-August 1941 by Heinrich Himmler. There is conclusive historical evidence indicating that members of the Ukrainian Militia took a leading role in the 1941 Lviv pogroms, resulting in the massacre of 6,000 Polish Jews, after the German army reached Lwów (Lemberg) at the end of June in Soviet-occupied eastern Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). Initially the Ukrainian militia acted independently, with the blessings of the SS, but later were limited to joint operations (Aktionen) with German units or otherwise functioned directly under the Nazi command.The Ukrainian People's Militia was active in occupied territories behind the Wehrmacht lines, assisting the German Security Police and the Einsatzgruppen while the army kept advancing in the direction of Zhytomyr, Rivne and Kiev. Heinrich Himmler was appointed Chief of SS and Police for the Eastern Territories on 17 July 1941 and decreed the formation of the Schutzmannschaften from among the non-German auxiliaries. In mid-August he regrouped the indigenous militia which had sprung up under the military rule to form the core of the official Ukrainische Hilfspolizei. Before that, members of the Ukrainian militia in formerly Polish cities with sizeable Polish-Jewish presence compiled lists of targets for the branch offices of the KdS and assisted with the roundups (as in Stanisławów, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Łuck).[a] In Korosten, the Militia rounded up 238 Jews described as "a source of continuous unrest" and carried out the killings by themselves. In Sokal, on 30 June 1941 they arrested and executed 183 Jews dubbed "the commissars". Other locations followed.By 7 August 1941 the stations of Ukrainian People's Militia were established in most areas conquered by the Wehrmacht including prominent formerly Polish cities under the Soviet reign of terror since 1939, such as Lviv (Lwów, Lemberg), Ternopil (Tarnopol), Stanislavov (Stanisławów), Lutsk (Łuck), Rivne, Yavoriv, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Drohobych (Drohobycz), Borislav, Dubno, Sambor, Kostopol, Sarny, Kozovyi, Zolochiv, Berezhany, Pidhaytsi, Kolomyya, Rava-Ruska, Obroshyno, Radekhiv, Gorodok, Kosovo, Terebovlia, Vyshnivtsi, Zbarazh, Zhytomyr and Fastov.


VSD may refer to:

.vsd, a file extension for Microsoft Visio diagrams

VSD (French magazine) (Vendredi Samedi Dimanche; i.e. "Friday Saturday Sunday"), a French weekly news magazine

Vaccine Safety Datalink, a Centers for Disease Control database containing vaccination and health records of over 7 million Americans

Variable speed drive, or adjustable-speed drive, is a specific type of a variable-frequency drive

Visible surface determination, also known as hidden surface determination

Video Single Disc, a video disc format based on laserdisc that only was popular in Japan and the rest of Asia

Voluntary Service Detachment, an Australian civil organization during World War II

State Security Department of Lithuania, a Lithuanian intelligence agency

Victory Star Destroyer, a fictional class of ship in the Star Wars universe

Vytautas Pociūnas

Vytautas Pociūnas (September 1957 – 23 August 2006) was a physicist, officer of the Lithuanian State Security Department, and diplomat.


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