The State Historical Museum (Russian: Государственный исторический музей, Gosudarstvenny istoricheskiy muzyey) of Russia is a museum of Russian history wedged between Red Square and Manege Square in Moscow. Its exhibitions range from relics of prehistoric tribes that lived on the territory of present-day Russia, through priceless artworks acquired by members of the Romanov dynasty. The total number of objects in the museum's collection comes to millions.
The place where the museum now stands was formerly occupied by the Principal Medicine Store, built by order of Peter the Great in the Moscow baroque style. Several rooms in that building housed royal collections of antiquities. Other rooms were occupied by the Moscow University, founded by Mikhail Lomonosov in 1755.
The museum was founded in 1872 by Ivan Zabelin, Aleksey Uvarov and several other Slavophiles interested in promoting Russian history and national self-awareness. The board of trustees, composed of Sergey Solovyov, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Uvarov and other leading historians, presided over the construction of the museum building. After a prolonged competition the project was handed over to Vladimir Osipovich Shervud (or Sherwood, 1833–97).
The present structure was built based on Sherwood's neo-Russian design between 1875 and 1881. The first 11 exhibit halls officially opened in 1883 during a visit from the Tsar and his wife. Then in 1894 Tsar Alexander III became the honorary president of the museum and the following year, 1895, the museum was renamed the Tsar Alexander III Imperial Russian History Museum. Its interiors were intricately decorated in the Russian Revival style by such artists as Viktor Vasnetsov, Henrik Semiradsky, and Ivan Aivazovsky. During the Soviet period the murals were proclaimed gaudy and were plastered over. The museum went through a painstaking restoration of its original appearance between 1986 and 1997.
Notable items include a longboat excavated from the banks of the Volga River, gold artifacts of the Scythians, birch-bark scrolls of Novgorod, manuscripts going back to the sixth century, Russian folk ceramics, and wooden objects. The library boasts the manuscripts of the Chludov Psalter (860s), Svyatoslav's Miscellanies (1073), Mstislav Gospel (1117), Yuriev Gospel (1119), and Halych Gospel (1144). The museum's coin collection alone includes 1.7 million coins, making it the largest in Russia. In 1996, the number of all articles in the museum's collection reached 4,373,757.
A branch of the museum is housed in the Romanov Chambers Zaryadye and Moscow Kremlin. In 1934 The Museum of Women's Emancipation at the Novodevichy Convent became part of the State Historical Museum. Some of the churches and other monastic buildings are still affiliated with the State Historical Museum.
|State Historical Museum|
Государственный Исторический музей
State Historical Museum, as seen from the Red Square
The Chudov Monastery (Чу́дов монасты́рь) (more formally known as Alexius’ Archangel Michael Monastery) was founded in the Moscow Kremlin in 1358 by Metropolitan Alexius of Moscow. The monastery was dedicated to the miracle (chudo in Russian) of the Archangel Michael at Chonae (feast day: September 19 [O.S. September 6]). The Monastery was closed in 1918, and dismantled in 1929.
The construction of the monastery together with its katholikon (cathedral) was finished in 1365. The katholikon was replaced with a new one in 1431 and then once again in 1501–1503. It was traditionally used for baptising the royal children, including future Tsars Feodor I, Aleksey I and Peter the Great. The monastery’s hegumen (abbot) was considered the first among the hegumens of all the Russian monasteries until 1561.
Alongside Simonov Monastery and Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra, the Chudov Monastery was the biggest center of the Muscovite book culture and learning. Prominent monks of the monastery, who dedicated their lives to translating and correcting ecclesiastic books, include Maximus the Greek, Yepifany Slavinetsky and Karion Istomin. Gennady, who as Archbishop of Novgorod, patronized the first complete codex of the Bible in Slavic in 1499, was hegumen of the monastery prior to his archiepiscopate.
Patriarch Hermogenes was starved to death by the Poles in the monastery vaults in 1612. The Time of Troubles over, they opened the Greek-Latin School with support from Patriarch Filaret. In 1744–1833, the cloister accommodated the Moscow Ecclesiastic Consistory. As time went by, new churches were added to the monastery complex. These included the Church of St Alexius the Metropolitan and the Church of the Annunciation (both built in 1680) and the Church of Saint Andrew (1887).
During the French invasion of Russia (1812), the French Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout commandeered the monastery for his own use. A painting by Vasili Vereshchagin shows Davout desecrating the cathedral, using the sanctuary itself as his office. Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the Chudov Monastery was closed down in 1918. All of its structures were dismantled in 1929, as part of the Soviet Union's ongoing policy of state atheism.
On the spot of the Chudov Monastery and the nearby Ascension Convent the Soviets built the Red Commanders School. All of the monastery’s manuscripts of the 11th-18th centuries were transferred to the State Historical Museum. The relics of Metropolitan Alexius were first moved from the Church of St. Alexius (which he had built) to the Cathedral of the Dormition and then to another church in Moscow. Of the hundred or so other interments in the monastery (including Archbishop Gennady), their remains were lost and their whereabouts are still unknown.A scene in Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov is set at the monastery.Fyodor Pavlovich Reshetnikov
Fyodor Pavlovich Reshetnikov (Russian: Фёдор Павлович Решетников) (July 28 [O.S. July 15] 1906 – December 13, 1988) was a prominent Soviet painter. A preeminent practitioner of "socialist realism", Reshetnikov was recognized by the government for his work and was a member for three and a half decades of the Soviet Academy of Arts. His creations are held in Russia's finest collections, including the Tretyakov Gallery (Moscow), the Russian Museum (Saint Petersburg), the State Historical Museum (Moscow), and others.Iberian Gate and Chapel
Resurrection Gate (Russian: Воскресенские ворота Voskresenskie vorota, also called Иверские ворота Iverskie vorota, or Iberian Gate) is the only existing gate of the Kitai-gorod in Moscow. It connects the north-western end of Red Square with Manege Square and gives its name to nearby Voskresenskaya Square (Resurrection Square). The gate adjoins the ornate building of the Moscow City Hall to the east and the State Historical Museum to the west. Just in front of the chapel is a bronze plaque marking kilometre zero of the Russian highway system.Idaho State Historical Society
The Idaho State Historical Society (ISHS) is a historical society located in the U.S. state of Idaho that preserves and promotes Idaho’s cultural heritage. The society's vision is to inspire, enrich, and reach out to all Idahoans by providing leadership in the areas of preservation and dissemination of the state's dynamic cultural heritage.
The society was founded as the Historical Society of Idaho Pioneers in 1881, nine years before statehood in 1890, and was established as a state agency in 1907. Employing over 50 staff and over 100 volunteers; it includes the Idaho State Historical Museum, the official state museum; the Idaho State Archives, which provides public access to state archives, for which it is responsible, in addition to a variety of other reference material; the State Historic Preservation Office, which maintains records of historic places and archaeological sites in the state; and the Historic Sites Program, which oversees a number of historic sites including the Old Idaho State Penitentiary.Julia Davis Park
Julia Davis Park is a municipal park in the downtown region of Boise, Idaho. Created in 1907 with a land donation from Thomas Jefferson Davis, it is the first park in the "String of Pearls", the group of parks operated by the Boise Parks and Recreation Department that are located along the Boise River. Being centrally located in Boise, the park contains several prominent sites, including museums such as the Boise Art Museum, the Idaho Historical Museum, and the Idaho Black History Museum, as well as other attractions like Zoo Boise, the Idaho Rose Society, and the Gene Harris Band Shell. The Boise River Greenbelt runs through the park, which is bordered by Broadway Avenue to the east, Capital Boulevard to the west, the Boise River to the south, and Myrtle Street to the north. Other amenities at Julia Davis Park include river access, statues, a rose garden, a playground and tennis court, a pond with paddle boat rentals, and a pedestrian bridge that connects the park with Boise State University.Kutaisi State Historical Museum
Kutaisi State Historical Museum, formally known as the Niko Berdzenishvili Kutaisi State History Museum is a museum in Kutaisi, Georgia. A major museum, it is also considered to be one of the most important scientific-research institutions in Georgia with its extensive research library and laboratory.
The museum, which was established in 1921-22 in the former National Bank of Georgia building, contains more than 190,000 artifacts, displaying the archaeological, numismatic, paleographical, ethnographical and spiritual heritage of Georgia.Kvatakhevi
Kvatakhevi (Georgian: ქვათახევი) is a medieval Georgian Orthodox monastery in Shida Kartli, Georgia, 55 km (34 mi) west of the nation’s capital of Tbilisi.
The Kvatakhevi monastic complex is situated near the village Kavtiskhevi at the end of the gorge cut by a stream in the northern slopes of the Trialeti Range, protected on three sides by the steep mountain slopes. It dates to the 12th-13th century, and resembles the monasteries of Betania, Pitareti, and Timotesubani in its architectural form and decoration, reflecting a contemporary canon of a Georgian domed church architecture. The overall plan is nearly a square, with the dome resting upon 2 freely standing pillars and 2 pillars fused with the ledges of the altar. The internal space of the church is formed by the arms of the cross and the dome which surmounts the crossing point.
The building has two portals, one to the south and one to the west. The façades are covered with finely hewn white stone squares. The decoration abounds in fretwork, especially around the windows and the base of the dome; the eastern façade is adorned with a large ornate cross.
Historically, Kvatakhevi was also a literary center where several manuscripts were copied. It also possessed a treasure with many artifacts of medieval Georgian jewelry, a sizeable portion of which was later acquired by and are now on display at the Moscow State Historical Museum.The monastery was significantly damaged during Timur's invasions of Georgia in the 14th century, but was subsequently repaired, more completely under the patronage of Prince Ivane Tarkhan-Mouravi in 1854. A belfry was added in 1872.List of New Testament lectionaries
A New Testament Lectionary is a handwritten copy of a lectionary, or book of New Testament Bible readings. Lectionaries may be written in uncial or minuscule Greek letters, on parchment, papyrus, vellum, or paper.New Testament lectionaries are distinct from:
New Testament papyri
New Testament uncials
New Testament minusculesLectionaries which have the Gospels readings are called Evangeliaria or Evangelistaria, those which have the Acts or Epistles, Apostoli or Praxapostoli. They appear from the 6th century.
Before Scholz only 57 Gospel lectionaries and 20 Apostoloi were known. Scholz added to the list 58-181 Evangelistarioi and 21-58 Apostoloi. Gregory in 1909 enumerated 2234 lectionaries. To the present day 2453 lectionary manuscripts have been catalogued by the (INTF) in Münster.
The lectionary text is basically Byzantine with detectable Caesarean influence. Lectionaries usually agreed with the Textus Receptus but with some departures.List of U.S. state historical societies and museums
The following is a sortable table of U.S. state and federal district historical societies and history museums.Manezhnaya Square, Moscow
Manezhnaya (Russian: Манежная площадь, IPA: [mɐˈnʲeʐnəjə ˈploɕːɪtʲ], Manege Square) is a large pedestrian open space in the Tverskoy District, at the heart of Moscow. It is bound by the Hotel Moskva to the east, the State Historical Museum and the Alexander Garden to the south, the Moscow Manege to the west, and the 18th-century headquarters of the Moscow State University to the north.
The square forms a vital part of downtown Moscow, connecting Red Square (which sprawls behind the Iberian Gate immediately to the south) with the major traffic artery Tverskaya Street, which starts here and runs northwestward in the direction of Saint Petersburg. It is served by three Moscow Metro stations: Okhotny Ryad, Ploshchad Revolyutsii, and Teatralnaya.Missouri History Museum
The Missouri History Museum is a history museum located in St. Louis, Missouri in Forest Park showcasing Missouri history. The museum is operated by the Missouri Historical Society, which was founded in 1866. The main galleries of the museum are free through a public subsidy by the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum DistrictMoscow City Hall
The former Moscow City Hall is an ornate red-brick edifice situated immediately to the east of the State Historical Museum and notable in the history of architecture as a unique hybrid of the Russian Revival and Neo-Renaissance styles. During Soviet times it served as the V. I. Lenin Museum.Nevada State Museum, Las Vegas
The Nevada State Museum, Las Vegas located at the Springs Preserve, in Las Vegas, Nevada is one of 7 Nevada State Museums operated by the Nevada Department of Tourism and Cultural Affairs. The name was changed from the Nevada State Museum and Historical Society in 2008 when the museum moved from Lorenzi Park in Las Vegas to the Springs Preserve campus. The museum houses items from the development of Las Vegas as well as the natural history of the area. The museum is open Tuesday through Sunday, 9 am to 5 pm, closed Thanksgiving and Christmas.Novgorod First Chronicle
The Novgorod First Chronicle (Russian: Новгородская первая летопись) or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471 is the most ancient extant Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorodian Rus'￼￼. It reflects a tradition different from the Kievan Primary Chronicle. As was first demonstrated by Aleksey Shakhmatov, the later editions of the chronicle reflect the lost Primary Kievan Code (Начальный Киевский свод) of the late 11th century, which contained much valuable data suppressed in the later Primary Chronicle.
The earliest extant copy of the chronicle is the so-called Synod Scroll, dated to the second half of the 13th century, first printed in 1841 and currently preserved in the State Historical Museum. It is the earliest known manuscript of a major East Slavic chronicle, predating the Laurentian Codex of the Primary Chronicle by almost a century. In the 14th century, the Synod Scroll was continued by the monks of the Yuriev Monastery in Novgorod.
Other important copies of the Novgorod First Chronicle include the Academic Scroll (241 lists, 1444), Commission Scroll (320 lists, mid-15th century), Trinity Scroll (1563), and Tolstoy Scroll (208 lists, 1720s).Preobrazhenskoye Cemetery
Preobrazhenka Cemetery (Russian: Преображенка, Преображенское кладбище, English: Transfiguration Cemetery) is a cemetery in the eastern part of Moscow long associated with Old Believers. It was inaugurated by a Fedoseevtsy merchant in 1777 as a plague quarantine disguising the Bespopovtsy monastery. At that time the territory of the cemetery was located outside Moscow, but near its border. The cemetery soon became the spiritual and administrative center of all the Fedoseevtsy in Russia (just like the Rogozhskoe cemetery became an administrative and cultural centre for most Popovtsy Old Believers).
The cloister consisted of two equal square areas, a monastery for men and a nunnery for women, separated by a road to the cemetery. Construction work was in progress throughout the 1790s and the first decade of the 19th century. At that time, the monastery asylum was home to 1,500 people, while the chapels were attended by as many as 10,000 Old Believers. Every church within the monastery was styled a chapel; like other Bespopovtsy, the Fedoseevtsy reject priesthood, and so even their largest temples are called chapels rather than churches, since they have no altar. The area was surrounded by brick walls with decorative pseudo-gothic towers.
In the mid-19th century the "male" part of the monastery was confiscated from the Fedoseevtsy by the imperial administration to be transformed into the monastery of the Edinovertsy, the only legal denomination of Old Believers in Imperial Russia. The cloister, which came to be known as the St Nicholas Monastery of the Edinovertsy, boasted the largest collection of Old Believer literature (the Khludov bequest) and as many as 1,300 ancient icons.
After the October Revolution the St. Nicholas Monastery was occupied by the Obnovlentsy, while the icons and the books were taken to the State Historical Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery. Later the monastery was divided between the Pomortsy Old Believers and the nearby parish of the official Russian Orthodox Church. The orthodox parish took a church above the gates with surrounding quarters, a bell-tower and a western part of the temple. The eastern part of the temple and several utilities in the western part of the territory belong to Pomortsy. The two parts of a single temple are currently separated by a thick brick wall, and compartments are occupied by different denominations. The women's part of Preobrazhenka avoided such a dissension, and still belongs to the Fedoseevtsy.
The cemetery is also noted as a place where the first Eternal flame in Moscow was kindled in order to commemorate the World War II dead.Red Square
Red Square (Russian: Кра́сная пло́щадь, tr. Krásnaya plóshchaď, IPA: [ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ]) is a city square in Moscow, Russia. It separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and now the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is often considered to be the central square of Moscow since the city's major streets, which connect to Russia's major highways, originate in the square.State Historical Society of Iowa
The State Historical Society of Iowa (SHSI), a division of the Iowa Department of Cultural Affairs, serves as the official historical repository for the State of Iowa and also provides grants, public education, and outreach about Iowa history and archaeology. The SHSI maintains a museum, library, archives, and research center in Des Moines and a research library in Iowa City, as well as several historic sites in Iowa. It was founded in 1857 in Iowa City, where it was first affiliated with the University of Iowa. As the organization grew in size and collections, it became a separate state agency headquartered near the Iowa Capitol in Des Moines.Tennessee State Museum
The Tennessee State Museum is a large museum in Nashville depicting the history of the U.S. state of Tennessee. The current facility opened on October 4, 2018, at the corner of Rosa Parks Boulevard and Jefferson Street at the foot of Capitol Hill by the Bicentennial Capitol Mall State Park. The 137,000-square-foot building includes a Tennessee Time Tunnel chronicling the state's history by leading visitors though the museum's permanent collection, a hands-on children's gallery, six rotating galleries, a digital learning center, and a two-story Grand Hall. Exhibitions include significant artifacts related to the state's history, along with displays of art, furniture, textiles, and photographs produced by Tennesseans. The museum's Civil War holdings consists of uniforms, battle flags, and weapons. There is no admission charge for visitors.
Museum operations and policies are overseen by the Douglas Henry State Museum Commission, a group of citizens appointed to represent the public interest.Tomić Psalter
The Tomić Psalter (Bulgarian: Томичов псалтир, Tomichov psaltir) is a 14th-century Bulgarian illuminated psalter. Produced around 1360, during the reign of Tsar Ivan Alexander, it is regarded as one of the masterpieces of the Tarnovo literary and art school of the time. It contains 109 valuable miniatures.
Discovered in 1901 in Macedonia by the Serbian research-worker and collector Simon Tomić, whose name it bears, it is exhibited in the State Historical Museum in Moscow, Russia.