Starostwo

Starostwo (Polish: [staˈrɔstfa], "eldership"; Lithuanian: seniūnija; Belarusian: староства, romanizedstarostva; German: Starostei), administrative units established from the 14th century in the Polish Crown and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795. They were jointly referred to as the crown lands (królewszczyzna).

Each starostwo was administered by an official known as starosta. The starosta would receive the office from the king and would keep it until the end of his life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta. His deputy was variously known as podstarosta, podstarości, burgrabia, włodarz, or surrogator.[1]

There were several types of starosta:

  • Starosta Generalny was the administrative official of a specific territorial unit: either the representative of the King or Grand Duke or a person directly in charge.
  • Starosta Grodowy was a county-(powiat)level official responsible for fiscal duties, police and courts, and also the one responsible for the execution of judicial verdicts.
  • Starosta Niegrodowy was the overseer of the Crown lands.

When Poland regained independence in 1918 (until the beginning of the 2nd World War in 1939) and in 1944–1950, the starosta was the head of county (powiat) administration, subordinate to the voivode. Since the local government reforms, which came into effect on 1 January 1999, the starosta is the head of the county (powiat) executive board (zarząd powiatu), and the head of the county administration (starostwo powiatowe), being elected by the county council (rada powiatu).

Starosta. Староста (K. Rusiecki, 1823)
Starosta, by Kanuty Rusiecki, 1823

References

  1. ^ Encyklopedia staropolska, Podstarosta i podstarości"
Bąków, Silesian Voivodeship

Bąków [ˈbɔŋkuf] is a village in Gmina Strumień, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 1,534 (2008). It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia. Former village of Rychułd is now a western part of Bąków.

Dorpat Voivodeship

The Dorpat Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo dorpackie or województwo derpskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, from 1598 until the Swedish conquest of Livonia in the 1620s. The seat of the voivode was in the town of Dorpat (Tartu), while the regional assembly (sejmik) for the whole province of Livonia was located in Wenden. The area of the Dorpat Voivodeship was app. 9,000 square kilometers, and it had two senators in the Senate of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

The voivodeship was created by King Zygmunt III Waza in 1598, out of the Dorpat Presidency, which had existed since the Truce of Jam Zapolski (1582). It was divided into five districts:

district (starostwo) of Dorpat (Tartu)

district (starostwo) of Oberpahlen (Põltsamaa)

district (starostwo) of Lais (Laiuse)

district (starostwo) of Kirrumpah (Kirumpää)

district (starostwo) of Neuhausen (Vastseliina)It effectively ceased to exist in 1621, when northern Livonia was conquered by the Swedish Empire, and turned into Swedish Livonia (see also Polish–Swedish War (1600–1629)). Officially, the Dorpat Voivodeship was liquidated in 1660, following the Treaty of Oliva. Nevertheless, the title of Voivode of Dorpat was kept until the Partitions of Poland, as the so-called "fictitious title" (Polish: urzad fikcyjny).

Draheim

Draheim (German: Starostei Draheim) or Drahim (Polish: Starostwo Drahimskie) was a starostwo (crown territory) of the Polish kingdom from the 15th century. Pawned to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1657, it was directly incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1772.

Duchy of Samogitia

The Duchy of Samogitia (Lithuanian: Žemaičių seniūnija, Samogitian: Žemaitėjės seniūnėjė, Polish: Księstwo żmudzkie) was an administrative unit of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1422 (and from 1569, a part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth). Between 1422 and 1441 it was known as the Eldership of Samogitia. The Grand Duke of Lithuania also held the title of Duke of Samogitia, although the actual ruler of the province, responsible to the Duke, was known as the General Elder (Seniūnas) of Samogitia.

The Duchy was located in the western part of the present Republic of Lithuania. Historically, in the west it had access to the Baltic Sea; in the north, it bordered the Duchy of Courland and Ducal Prussia in the south. During the Middle Ages and until the last partition in 1795, Samogitia had clearly defined borders as the Duchy of Samogitia. Afterwards the area encompassed the Samogitian Diocese. Today Samogitia is one of several ethnographic regions and is not defined administratively.

Eldership

Eldership may refer to:

Elder (administrative title), used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority

Eldership (Christianity), the governance of a local congregation by elders

Elderships of Lithuania, the smallest Lithuanian administrative divisions

Starostwo (Polish for "eldership"), a medieval Polish office granted by the king

Janovice

Janovice (Polish: Janowice) is a village situated in the foothills of the Moravian-Silesian Beskids mountain range, 6 km south-east from the town Frýdek-Místek and 5 km north-east from Frýdlant nad Ostravicí, Czech Republic.

Thanks to the geographical location of the village among the nearby industrial region of Ostrava and the traditional agricultural area of the Beskids, Janovice can be called "the gate to the Beskids". The village lies in the historical region of Těšín Silesia.

Kiczyce

Kiczyce [kiˈt͡ʂɨt͡sɛ] is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of about 1127 and lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Kiev Voivodeship

The Kiev Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo kijowskie, Ukrainian: Київське воєводство, Kyivske voyevodstvo) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1471 until 1569 and of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland from 1569 until 1793, as part of Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown.

The voivodeship was established in 1471 upon the death of the last prince of Kiev Simeon Olelkovich and transformation of Duchy of Kiev (appanage duchy of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) into Voivodeship of Kiov (Kiovien Voivodeship).

Kowale, Cieszyn County

Kowale is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of about 610 and lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Międzyświeć

Międzyświeć [mjɛnˈd͡zɨɕfjɛt͡ɕ] is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

Nižní Lhoty

Nižní Lhoty (Polish: Ligota Dolna) is a small village in the Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It has a population of 258 (2006). It lies on the Morávka River, in the historical region of Těšín Silesia.

Poznań County

Poznań County (Polish: powiat poznański) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Greater Poland Voivodeship, west-central Poland. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat is the city of Poznań, although the city is not part of the county (it constitutes a separate city county). The county's administrative offices (starostwo powiatowe) are in the Jeżyce neighbourhood of Poznań.

Poznań County contains 10 towns: Swarzędz, 11 km (7 mi) east of (central) Poznań, Luboń, 8 km (5 mi) south of Poznań, Mosina, 18 km (11 mi) south of Poznań, Murowana Goślina, 20 km (12 mi) north of Poznań, Puszczykowo, 14 km (9 mi) south of Poznań, Kostrzyn, 21 km (13 mi) east of Poznań, Pobiedziska, 27 km (17 mi) north-east of Poznań, Kórnik, 22 km (14 mi) south-east of Poznań, Buk, 28 km (17 mi) west of Poznań, and Stęszew, 21 km (13 mi) south-west of Poznań.

The county covers an area of 1,899.61 square kilometres (733.4 sq mi). As of 2012 its total population is 341.357, out of which the urban population is 132,048 (Swarzędz 29,894, Luboń 26,935, Mosina 12,150, Murowana Goślina 10,140, Puszczykowo 9,311, Kostrzyn 8,539, Pobiedziska 8,329, Kórnik 6,981, Buk 6,181, Stęszew 5,339), and the rural population is 209,309.

Sedliště (Frýdek-Místek District)

Sedliště (Polish: Siedliszcze) is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. It has a population of 1,316 (2006) and lies in the historical region of Těšín Silesia.

Stare Drawsko

Stare Drawsko [ˈstarɛ ˈdrafskɔ] (German: Draheim, old Polish: Drahim before 1945) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czaplinek, within Drawsko County, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-western Poland.

Starosta

The starost or starosta (Cyrillic: старост/а, Latin: capitaneus, German: Starost, Hauptmann) is a Slavic term denoting a community elder whose role was to administer the assets of a clan or family estates. The Slavic root of starost translates as "senior". Since the Middle Ages, it has meant an official in a leadership position in a range of civic and social contexts throughout the Slavic world. In terms of a municipality, a starosta was historically a senior royal administrative official, equivalent to the County Sheriff or the outdated Seneschal, and analogous to a gubernator. In Poland, a starosta would administer crown territory or a delineated district called a starostwo.In the early Middle Ages, the starosta could head a settled urban or rural community or other communities, such as a church starosta, or a artel starosta, etc. The starosta also functioned as the master of ceremonies in traditional Carpatho-Rusyn, Ukrainian, and Polish weddings, similar to the stari svat (стари сват) at Serbian weddings.

Starostwo, Greater Poland Voivodeship

Starostwo [staˈrɔstfɔ] is a settlement in the administrative district of Gmina Skulsk, within Konin County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.

Wiślica, Silesian Voivodeship

Wiślica [viˈɕlit͡sa] is a village in Gmina Skoczów, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of about 764.

Zbytków

Zbytków [ˈzbɨtkuf] is a village in Gmina Strumień, Cieszyn County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 1,262 (June 2008). It lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

The name of the village is derived from personal name Zbytek.

Łazy, Bielsko County

Łazy [ˈwazɨ] is a village in Gmina Jasienica, Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland. It has a population of 903 (2016). It lies in the Silesian Foothills and in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia.

The name is cultural in origin and commonly found in Slavic languages denoting an arable area obtained by slash-and-burn technique.

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