Star Television Network

Star Television Network was an attempt at a fifth broadcasting network based in Orlando, Florida. The network was notable as the first television network to have featured exclusively direct response commercials and infomercials among standard programming.[6]

The network featured classic, though cheaper and lesser-known, 1950s and 1960s programming,[3] movies and game shows under the TV Heaven banner, with direct response infomercials rounding out the schedule.[1] Star expected to buy newer programs and originate their own programming once on a firm operating status.[4]

The network was facing competition from the Home Shopping Network and Fox, which went after the bigger markets.[7] In light of this, Star explained that its key advantage is in terms of operating costs for the station, in which a station affiliating with the network could save about 90% on their programming costs, and a national advertiser advertising on Star could pay about 68% of the major network rates.[2]

Star Television Network
Typebroadcasting network
BrandingStar Television Network
TV Heaven[1]
  • Harry Handley
  • Walter Windsor
  • John Tyler
HeadquartersOrlando, Florida
  • Harry Handley
  • Walter Windsor
  • Cathy Bamberg
  • Satellite Music Network Inc.
  • Dale W. Lang
Key people
Dale W. Lang (chair)[1]
Ron Eikens (CEO)[5]
Launch date
September 29, 1990
DissolvedJanuary 14, 1991[5]
Former names


The network was introduced under the Starcast name in October 1987 as needing $15 million to launch and had just started contacting potential affiliates. The network expected to sign up 30 stations by the April 1989 launch date and have 18 hours of broadcasting a day.[3] After the Black Monday stock market crash in October 1987, Starcast's investors pulled out.[4] By January 1988, the company had 70 stations willing to sign on to the network, since renamed Star Television Network.[7]

By April 1989 the projected launch date, Star pushed back their launch to July due to programming negotiations and financing hold ups. 64 stations had provisionally signed on as affiliates in markets like Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Jacksonville, Florida and Orlando to an estimated reach of 40 million households. The network was then in talks with an additional 33 stations. At this time, an affiliation fee ranging from $2,750 to $60,000 annually would be paid by the stations based on their market size instead of the standard network payments to affiliates. 36 minutes a day would be allocated for advertising sold by the network, with the remainder given to its affiliates.[2] Star missed the July launch due to lack of additional funding and set a new September 1 deadline for enough affiliates to sign on for a possible November 1 launch. The network expected to be based at the then-new Universal Studios Florida in Orlando. At this time, the network restructured its affiliate agreement in dropping the annual carriage fee for the addition of some infomercials and a refundable deposit of $1,500 to $175,000 based on the station's size. The number of affiliates at launch and infomercials was a requirement to bring on replacement investor Dale W. Lang, owner of Lang Communications, which then owned several magazines including Success and Working Woman magazine. The infomercials would bring a steady source of income for the network and were mostly to be provided by Quantum Marketing International.[4]

Missing the September 1, 1989 affiliate total deadline, the network pushed back its launch to September 1990. As of August 12, 1990, there were 21 signed stations reaching 13.7 million households. Also, Star moved operations to a rented studio in Winter Park, Florida.[8] Additionally, broadcasting hours were reduced to 8 hours a day, plus 4 hours of infomercials. The network expected to have revenue reach $100 million in its second year of operations.[1] By July 1990, Star had been granted a federal permit for a station in Austin, Minnesota.[6]

Star launched on September 29, 1990[6] with 10 affiliates reaching 9 million homes, as the additional stations were not ready or failed to receive FCC approval. With fewer stations, Star sold less through the infomercials, thus not meeting company goals. The infomercial companies were having their own problems, and thus unable to produce newer shows. Lang could not add more funding into the company due to difficulties at Lang Communications. Lang and the company sought out other investors, to no avail.[5]

The Star Television Network ceased operations on Monday January 14, 1991 at 4:00 a.m. EST. All 25 staffers working for the network were laid off.[5]


Star's schedule was of four hours of infomercials and eight hours of classic shows under the TV Heaven banner.[6] Some of the programs known to have aired on Star included:[5][9]

Honey West, Judge Roy Bean, Mr. and Mrs. North, and Richard Diamond, Private Detective were also announced as part of Star's line-up in August 1988,[4] though it was unknown if these series had aired.

Infomercials are listed in schedules under various names, such as Star Showcase, Star Opportunities, Star Collections, Star Sensations, Star Innovations, Market Place, Morning Star and Direct to You.[9]

As with other networks, affiliates fill the rest of the time with their own local and syndicated programming, as well as sports, which would preempt Star programming.

Known affiliates

The following stations signed up as affiliates of Star, but did not commence broadcasting until after the network's closure in January 1991:

Star was also reported to have had affiliates in San Jose, California; Spokane, Washington; Las Vegas; Salt Lake City; Anchorage, Alaska; and Cincinnati,[6] though it is unknown which stations in those markets carried programming from Star.


  1. ^ a b c d "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; TV Network Is Planned". New York Times. AP. July 13, 1990. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Strother, Susan G. (April 18, 1988). "Oldies Broadcasts Set To Begin In July Financing And Program Negotiations Stalled Start". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Strother, Susan G. (October 15, 1987). "New Network Would Offer TV's Oldies Orlando Broadcasters Plan To Recycle '50s, '60s Shows". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e Strother, Susan G. (August 25, 1989). "Network Plan Near Deadline". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e Strother, Susan G. (January 17, 1991). "Tv Network Signs Off - Out Of Cash". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "KXLT-TV to return to the airwaves in Rochester in Sept". July 28, 1990. Retrieved November 22, 2015. ...will return to the air in two months as part of Star Television Network Inc.,""...are scheduled to light up again on Sept. 29
  7. ^ a b Strother, Susan G. (January 25, 1988). "Star Television Network..." Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e Strother, Susan G. (July 12, 1990). "Tv Network Plans September Debut". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  9. ^ a b "TV Journal supplement (listings for WAYQ channel 26, 9/30/1990 to 10/6/1990)". Daytona Beach Sunday News-Journal. September 30, 1990. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  10. ^ a b Strother, Susan G. (August 11, 1990). "Independent Tv Stations Struggle To Work Out Financial Problems". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  11. ^ "I Saw Stars While Cleaning My Closet (ad)". TV Guide (Toledo-Lima Edition). October 27, 1990. Retrieved November 22, 2015 – via
  12. ^ FCC Memorandum Opinion and Order: In re: DeSoto Broadcasting, Inc., Venice, Florida, For Modification of Station WBSV-TV's ADI, April 27, 1995.
  13. ^ Sinclair Broadcast Group press release: "Sinclair to Program WTTA in Tampa", October 29, 1998.
Aastha Chaudhary

Aastha Chaudhary is an Indian actress who acts in Hindi television shows and dramas.

Fourth television network

In American television terminology, a fourth network is a reference to a fourth broadcast (over-the-air) television network, as opposed to the Big Three television networks that dominated U.S. television from the 1950s to the 1990s: ABC, CBS and NBC.

When the U.S. television industry was in its infancy in the 1940s, there were four major full-time television networks that operated across the country: ABC, CBS, NBC and the DuMont Television Network. Never able to find solid financial ground, DuMont ceased broadcasting in August 1956. Many companies later began to operate television networks which aspired to compete against the Big Three. However, between the 1950s and the 1980s, none of these start-ups endured and some never even launched. After decades of these failed "fourth networks", many television industry insiders believed that creating a viable fourth network was impossible. Television critics also grew jaded, with one critic placing this comparison in the struggles of creating a sustaining competitor to the Big Three, "Industry talk about a possible full-time, full-service, commercial network structured like the existing big three, ABC, CBS and NBC, pops up much more often than the fictitious town of Brigadoon."The October 1986 launch of the Fox Broadcasting Company was met with ridicule. Despite the industry skepticism and initial network instability (due to its early struggles in launching hit programs), the Fox network eventually proved profitable by the early 1990s, becoming the first successful fourth network and eventually surpassing the Big Three networks in the demographics and overall viewership ratings by the early 2000s.


KATH-LD is a low-powered NBC-affiliated television station licensed to both Juneau and Douglas, Alaska, United States. Owned by Denali Media Holdings (a subsidiary of local cable provider GCI), it broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 35 (or virtual channel 5 via PSIP) from a transmitter located in downtown Juneau. It is also a sister station to low-powered CBS affiliate KXLJ-LD (channel 24).

KSCT-LP in Sitka is a translator of KATH-LD, broadcasting on virtual and VHF channel 5 from a transmitter in downtown Sitka. Programming is identical to KATH-LD with both stations being fed from the Denali Media hub in Anchorage.

KATH-LD is carried on GCI cable in Juneau on channel 15, on Dish Network throughout Southeast Alaska on channel 5/9380, and on DirecTV throughout Southeast Alaska on channel 5. KATH-LD's high definition feed is also available on GCI's basic service on digital channel 652 in Juneau, Sitka, Ketchikan, Petersburg and Wrangell. KATH-LD's standard definition signal is also on GCI cable in Petersburg, Wrangell and Angoon. Daily Alaska news is provided through a partnership with Anchorage's NBC affiliate KTUU-TV (channel 2).


KPXM-TV, virtual channel 41 (UHF digital channel 16), is an Ion Television owned-and-operated television station serving the Minneapolis–Saint Paul television market that is licensed to St. Cloud, Minnesota, United States. As such, it is the only commercial full-power television station (not counting satellite stations) that is not licensed to either of the market's two major cities. Owned by Ion Media Networks, KPXM maintains a sales office on 176th Street NW near Big Lake, and its transmitter is located near Anoka.


KXLT-TV is a Fox-affiliated television station licensed to Rochester, Minnesota, United States, serving Southeastern Minnesota and Northeastern Iowa. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 26 (or virtual channel 47 via PSIP) from a transmitter in Grand Meadow Township, Minnesota. Owned by SagamoreHill Broadcasting, KXLT-TV is operated under a shared services agreement (SSA) by Quincy Media, making it a sister station to NBC affiliate KTTC (channel 10, also licensed to Rochester). The two stations share studios in Rochester on Bandel Road Northwest along U.S. 52, and also operate an advertising sales office on Lakeview Drive in Clear Lake, Iowa that also serves Mason City.

List of United States over-the-air television networks

In the United States, for most of the history of broadcasting, there were only three or four major commercial national terrestrial networks. From 1946 to 1956, these were ABC, CBS, NBC and DuMont (though the Paramount Television Network had some limited success during these years). From 1956 to 1986, the "Big Three" national commercial networks were ABC, CBS, and NBC (with a few limited attempts to challenge them, such as National Telefilm Associates [and its NTA Film Network] and the Overmyer Network). From 1954 to 1970, National Educational Television was the national clearinghouse for public TV programming; the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) succeeded it in 1970.

Today, more than fifty national free-to-air networks exist. Other than the non-commercial educational (NCE) PBS, which is composed of member stations, the largest terrestrial television networks are the traditional Big Three television networks (ABC, CBS and NBC). Many other large networks exist, however, notably Fox and The CW which air original programming for two hours each night instead of three like the original "Big Three" do, as well as syndication services like MyNetworkTV and Ion Television which feature reruns of recent popular shows with little to no original programming. Fox has just about the same household reach percentage as the Big Three, and is therefore often considered a peer to ABC, NBC, and CBS since it has also achieved equal or better ratings since the late 1990s. Most media outlets now include Fox in what they refer to as the "Big Four" TV networks.

The transition to digital broadcasting in 2009 has allowed for television stations to offer additional programming options through digital subchannels, one or more supplementary programming streams to the station's primary channel that are achieved through multiplexing of a station's signal. A number of new commercial networks airing specialty programming such as movies, reruns of classic series and lifestyle programs have been created from companies like Weigel Broadcasting, Luken Communications and even owners of the major networks such as Fox Corporation, National Amusements (through the CBS Corporation subsidiary), The Walt Disney Company (through the Walt Disney Television subsidiary) and Comcast (through the NBCUniversal subsidiary). Through the use of multicasting, there have also been a number of new Spanish-language and non-commercial public TV networks that have launched.

Free-to-air networks in the U.S. can be divided into four categories:

Commercial networks – which air English-language programming to a general audience (for example, CBS);

Spanish-language networks – fully programmed networks which air Spanish-language programming to a primarily Latin American audience (for example, Telemundo and Univision);

Educational and other non-commercial broadcast networks – which air English- and some foreign-language television programming, intended to be educational in nature or otherwise of a sort not found on commercial television (for example, PBS);

Religious broadcast networks – which air religious study and other faith-based programs, and in some cases, family-oriented secular programs (for example, Daystar).Each network sends its signal to many local affiliate television stations across the country. These local stations then air the "network feed," with programs broadcast by each network being viewed by up to tens of millions of households across the country. In the case of the largest networks, the signal is sent to over 200 stations. In the case of the smallest networks, the signal may be sent to just a dozen or fewer stations.

As of the 2016–17 television season, there are an estimated 118.4 million households in the U.S. with at least one TV set.

List of former UPN affiliates

This is a list of stations that were affiliated with UPN in the United States at the time of network closure. UPN shut down on September 15, 2006. Former affiliates of UPN became affiliates of The CW Television Network, MyNetworkTV, another network, or reverted to independent status. The Fox-owned stations dropped UPN on August 31 or September 1, 2006.


1 = UPN affiliate which joined The CW Television Network

² = UPN affiliate which joined MyNetworkTV

³ = UPN affiliate which became independent

4 = status uncertain

5 = UPN affiliate which joined Retro Television Network

6 = UPN affiliate which joined CBS and carries MNTV on DT2 subchannel

7 = UPN affiliate which joined FOX on 8/21

8 = UPN affiliate which joined ABC on 9/1

9 = Station has since ceased operations

10 = Station has since ceased operations on its LPTV signal, but is still in operation as a digital subchannel

11 = Station lost UPN affiliation to WNLO in 2003, currently MeTV affiliate

12 = Joined MyNetworkTV after UPN's shutdown, but joined The CW 10 years later (retaining MNTV as a secondary affiliation)

13 = Station has ceased operations but remains as a digital subchannel on a sister station


StarPlus is an Indian pay television channel owned by Star India. The network's programming consists of family dramas, comedies, youth-oriented reality shows, shows on crime and television films. It is also distributed internationally by The Walt Disney Company India, subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company.

Star TV

Star TV may refer to:

E! (Canadian TV channel) (formerly Star!), a Canadian entertainment news channel

Las Estrellas (Spanish for The Stars), the Mexican television network

Estrella TV (Spanish for Star TV), the American Spanish-language network

Fox Networks Group Asia Pacific (formerly Star or Satellite Television Asian Region Limited), an operator of specialty television channels that was based in Hong Kong

Star China Media, a media group in Mainland China, no longer a part of Fox Networks Group Asia Pacific

Star India, previously a part of Star in Hong Kong, now owned by The Walt Disney Company

Star Select, a defunct television package that targeted the Middle East

Star TV (Asian TV networks)

The Movie Channel (formerly Star Channel), an American premium cable and satellite television network

Star Channel (Greece), a Greek television network

Star Channel (Japan), a Japanese group of premium television channels

Star Cinema, a Filipino film and television production company and distributor

Star Television Network, a short-lived American television network based in Orlando, Florida

Startv, a Canadian weekly entertainment television program

Star TV (Australia), a former television network in Queensland

Star TV (Swiss TV channel), an entertainment television channel in Switzerland

Star TV (Tanzania), a television station in Tanzania

Star TV (Turkey), a general entertainment channel in Turkey

Star TV (Ukrainian TV channel), an electronic and club music channel

Zvezda (TV channel) (Russian for Star), a military-themed Russian television channel owned by the Russian Ministry of Defense


WMNT-CD, virtual channel 48 (UHF digital channel 36), is a low-powered, Class A MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to Toledo, Ohio, United States. The station is owned by Matrix Broadcast Group, Inc. WMNT-CD's studios are located in a shopping center at the corner of Reynolds Road and Dussel Drive in Maumee, and its transmitter is located on top of the Fifth Third Building (the old OI Building) at Summit and Cherry streets in downtown Toledo. On cable, the station is available on Toledo's Buckeye CableSystem on channel 58, hence the branding of My 58. It claims no other pay TV carriage in the Toledo market, nor are its subchannels carried by any pay TV provider.


WOPX-TV, virtual channel 56 (UHF digital channel 48), is an Ion Television owned-and-operated television station serving Orlando, Florida, United States that is licensed to Melbourne. The station is owned by Ion Media Networks. WOPX-TV's offices are located on Grand National Drive in Orlando, and its transmitter is located near Holopaw.


WTTA, virtual channel 38 (VHF digital channel 7), is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to St. Petersburg, Florida, United States and also serving Tampa. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as a part of a duopoly with Tampa-licensed NBC affiliate WFLA-TV (channel 8). The two stations share studios on South Parker Street in downtown Tampa along the Hillsborough River, and transmitter facilities in Riverview, Florida. On cable, WTTA is available on Charter Spectrum and Wide Open West channel 6, and on Comcast Xfinity channel 11 in Sarasota County and channel 29 in Hardee County.


WVEN-TV, virtual and UHF digital channel 43, is a Univision-owned television station serving Orlando, Florida, United States that is licensed to Melbourne. The station is owned by the Univision Local Media subsidiary of Univision Communications; Entravision Communications, which owns Daytona Beach-licensed UniMás affiliate WOTF-TV (channel 26), operates WVEN under a local marketing agreement (LMA). The two stations share studios on Douglas Avenue in Altamonte Springs; WVEN's transmitter is located in unincorporated Bithlo, Florida.

On cable, the station is available in standard definition on channel 18 or 16 on both Charter Spectrum and Comcast Xfinity, and channel 26 on CenturyLink Prism, and in high definition on Spectrum channel 1018 and Prism channel 1026.


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