Stanisław Wyspiański

Stanisław Wyspiański (pronounced ['staˈɲiswaf vɨˈspjaɲskʲi]; 15 January 1869 – 28 November 1907) was a Polish playwright, painter and poet, as well as interior and furniture designer. A patriotic writer, he created a series of symbolic, national dramas within the artistic philosophy of the Young Poland Movement. Wyspiański was one of the most outstanding and multifaceted artists of his time in Poland under the foreign partitions.[1] He successfully joined the trends of modernism with themes of the Polish folk tradition and Romantic history. Unofficially, he came to be known as the Fourth Polish Bard (in addition to the earlier Three Bards: Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, and Zygmunt Krasiński).

Stanisław Wyspiański
Stanisław Wyspiański3
Born15 January 1869
Died28 November 1907 (aged 38)
Kraków, Austrian Poland
NationalityPolish
EducationSchool of Fine Arts in Kraków
Known forPainting

Biography

Stanisław Wyspiański was born to Franciszek Wyspiański and Maria Rogowska. His father, a sculptor, owned an atelier on Wawel Hill. His mother died of tuberculosis in 1876 when Stanisław was seven years old. Due to problems with alcohol, Stanisław's father could not fulfil his parental responsibilities. Stanisław was adopted by his aunt Joanna Stankiewiczowa and her husband Kazimierz. The Stankiewicz family belonged to the bourgeois intellectual class. In their house, Wyspiański became acquainted with painter Jan Matejko, who was a frequent visitor. Matejko soon recognized that the boy had artistic talent and gave him his first artistic guidance. Wyspiański attended Saint Anne's secondary school. The school was unique for several reasons. First, although the Polish language was forbidden in educational institutions under foreign rule, the lectures at Saint Anne's were delivered in Polish. Second, the teacher's goal was to equip the students with a thorough knowledge of Polish history and literature. Third, graduates of the school, including Lucjan Rydel, Stanisław Estreicher and Henryk Opieński, were considered prominent figures in Kraków's cultural life. As a student, Wyspiański took particular interest in art and literature. According to Joanna Stankiewiczowa, the young Stanisław portrayed small cottages, animals, plants, armors and decorations. Wyspiański also created a dramatic interpretation of Matejko's painting Stefan Batory pod Pskowem (Bathory at Pskov).

In 1887 Wyspiański enrolled in the Faculty of Philosophy at Jagiellonian University and the School of Fine Arts in Kraków. While studying at the university, he attended lectures in art, history and literature. Jan Matejko, the dean of the School of Fine Arts, soon recognized Wyspiański's talent and asked him to join in the creation of a polychrome inside the Mariacki Church.

Wyspianski, Planty o swicie, 1894
Planty Park at Dawn, 1894

The years 1890–1895 were devoted to travel. Wyspiański visited Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Prague and France. His stay in France is regarded as a major point in his artistic life. He studied at the private Académie Colarossi. Since the school fee was very high, Wyspiański applied for a grant. During his stay in France he got acquainted with Paul Gauguin. Together they visited art museums, where Wyspiański was bewitched by the beauty of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes's paintings. He also attended theatre performances based on Shakespeare and classical era plays. His future dramas Daniel i Meleager (Daniel and Meleagra) and Powrót Odysa (Return of Odysseus) were based on the antic tradition. Meanwhile, he worked on several dramas, Królowa Polskiej Korony (The Queen of Polish Crown), Warszawianka (Varsovian Anthem) and the first version of Legenda (Legend). The play Legenda (Legend) was based on the famous Polish legend of Wars and Sawa. In August 1894 he returned to Kraków, where he got involved in the modernist movement. It was then he designed and partially made a polychrome for the Franciscan Church that was composed of flowery, geometrical and heraldic motifs. Moreover, the prior of the church encouraged Wyspiański to design various stained glass windows, such as Blessed Salomea, Saint Francis Stigmata and God the Father. Wyspiański received an award from the Polish Academy of Learning for the landscape of the Kopiec Kościuszki (Kościuszko Mound). As a painter, interior designer and poet he cooperated with the Municipal Theatre in Kraków. First he designed furniture and scenography for the theatre performances, then he staged various dramas on the stage of the theatre.

Stanisław Wyspiański, Macierzyństwo
Motherhood, 1905

He cooperated with the Kraków Society of Friends of Fine Art and in mid-1898 was named art manager of the weekly Życie (Life). Unfortunately, his first published dramas, Legenda (Legend), (1897) and Daniel i Meleager (Daniel and Meleagra) (1898), did not receive the acclaim of the critics. It was the Warszawianka (Varsovian Anthem) that brought instantaneous acclaim to its author. The premiere of the drama marked his debut as a playwright of national dramas. The theatre premiere of the drama on 2 July 1901 starred Helena Modrzejewska as Maria. The years 1899–1900 marked the publication of Protesilas i Laodamia (Protesilas and Laodamia), Lelewel (Lelevel) and Legion. This drama is regarded to be the author's polemic displaying a romantic vision of history. In 1900, Wyspiański married the mother of his four children, Teodora Pytko. In November the same year he participated in the wedding of his friend Lucjan Rydel in Bronowice, a village near Kraków. The wedding party was the inspiration for his widely acclaimed play Wesele (The Wedding). It is a deeply critical yet sarcastic exposé of Polish society of the 19th century. "Wesele" transformed Wyspianski from a moderately successful visual and verbal artist associated with the Young Poland movement into a national dramatist-visionary whose significance in Poland is comparable to Yeats's in Ireland, O'Neill's in America, or Maeterlinck's in Belgium."[2] The drama made references to the contemporary situation in Poland and depicted a powerless society. Although censorship barred the sale of copies of Wesele (The Wedding), the play was staged in the theatre.

Portret z zona
Self-Portrait with Wife at the Window, 1904

After the success of Wesele (The Wedding) four new plays based on Polish history were published: Wyzwolenie (Liberation), Achilles, Bolesław Śmiały (Boleslaus The Bold) and Legenda II (Legend 2). The following years were devoted to publishing of Skałka and Powrót Odysa (Return of Odysseus); meanwhile Wyspiański translated Corneillea's Cyd (Le Cid) and Voltaire's Zaïre.

In 1906 Wyspiański became a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Kraków. He was also a member of the city council. In his last years Wyspianski's health deteriorated. As a result, he underwent medical treatments in Rymanów and Bad Hall and then settled in his small cottage in the village of Węgrzce. He died of syphilis, which was incurable at the time. His funeral took place in Kraków and became a national day of mourning. Wyspiański was buried in the Crypt of the Distinguished in the Skałka Church.

Creative output

Kraków - Church of St. Francis - Stained glass 01
Stained-glass window in Franciscan Church, designed by Wyspiański

Wyspiański's artistic output is very eclectic. Among dramas and poetry, there are views of Cracow (drawings, sketch-books, oil-paintings, pastel drawings), portraits and self-portraits, designs of stained glass windows and paintings, illustrations, graphic art, and designs for furniture and interiors, and development of Wawel.

Drawings, such as his 1890 self-portrait, and drafts from his journeys across Europe and Poland, are among Wyspiański's better-known works. He later created a herbarium by drawing plants. However, he most frequently used soft pastel techniques; his first pastel drawings were produced between 1890 and 1894. They mainly present the artist's family, friends and other artists. Wyspiański eagerly drew his children in everyday situations such as sleeping or feeding, including Helenka (1900), pastel drawing, owned by the National Museum in Kraków; Śpiący Staś (Sleeping Staś) (1902), pastel drawing, Silesian Museum in Katowice; Śpiący Mietek (Sleeping Mietek) (1904), pastel drawing, Museum of Art in Łódź; Macierzyństwo (Motherhood) (1905), pastel drawing, National Museum in Kraków; and Żona artysty z synkiem Stasiem (The Artist's Wife with Their Son Staś) (1904), pastel drawing, now at the Upper Silesian Museum in Bytom.

Using this technique, he painted many of his acquaintances and artists, among others Kazimierz Lewandowski, Jacek Malczewski, Eliza Pareńska, the Kryształowicz family, Ludwik Solski, Irena Solska, and Jan Stanisławski. He painted landscapes of Kraków – the Kraków Planty Park with desmans (also painted in oil), the Vistula Rudawa River, cottages in Grębowo, and at the end of his life, views from his studio to the Kościuszko Mound. He also created a poster for Maeterlinck's Wnętrze (Interior).

Part of his output constitutes various designs – mainly stained glass windows, polychromes and interiors. Stanisław Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer designed 36 stained glass windows together for the Mariacki Church in Kraków to help Matejko with the church conservation he had been involved with since 1889. During their stay in Paris they both made two boxes for the competition of the Rudolfinum Hall Decoration Design in Prague and curtain designs for the Juliusz Słowacki Theatre in Kraków. However, Wyspiański himself designed stained glass windows and polychromes for the Franciscan Church in Kraków (with the famous stained glass window Stań się), stained glass windows depicting Saint Stanislaus, Kazimierz the Great and Henryk Pobożny for Wawel Cathedral (not executed until 2005–2007 in the Wyspiański 2000 Pavilion), the design of a showroom of the Fine Arts Society (1904), and stairs and hall decoration for the Medical Society. In 1905 Wyspiański and Władysław Ekielski designed a scheme for redevelopment of the Wawel Hill (the so-called Acropolis).

Leading stage plays

  • Warszawianka (Varsovian Anthem) (1898)
  • Klątwa (The Curse) (1899)
  • Protesilas i Leodamia (1899)
  • Meleager (1899)
  • Legion (1900)
  • Wesele (The Wedding) (1901)
  • Wyzwolenie (Liberation) (1903)
  • Weimar 1829 (fragment, 1904)
  • Noc listopadowa (November Night) (1904)
  • Acropolis (1904)
  • Skałka (1907)
  • Powrót Odysa (Return of Odysseus) (1907)
  • Zygmunt August (1907 – unfinished)

Selected paintings

Wyspiański, Sleeping Staś, 1904

Sleeping Staś, 1904
Wyspiański, View of Kościuszko Mound, 1904

View of Kościuszko Mound, 1904
Wyspiański, Motherhood, 1905

Motherhood, 1905
Wyspiański, Rudawa river

Rudawa river

Wyspiański Museum and monuments in his honor

GuentherZ 2007-04-07 0124 Wien02 Praterstrasse72 Gedenktafel Stanislaw Wyspianski
The 1996 memorial plaque for Stanisław Wyspiański at Austria Classic Hotel Wien in Vienna

The Stanisław Wyspiański Museum in Kraków is located in the Szołayski tenement house built in the 17th century.[3] It is a division of the National Museum, Kraków, sometimes referred to as the Szołayski Museum. At All Saints' Square, the Wyspiański 2000 Information Exhibition Pavilion is a rare example of contemporary architecture in the Old Town, featuring three of Wyspiański's stained glass windows.

In 1996 a plaque for Stanisław Wyspiański was unveiled at Hotel Nordbahn (since 2008 Austria Classic Hotel Wien) at Praterstraße 72 in Vienna's Leopoldstadt, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Österreichisch-Polnische Gesellschaft (Austrian-Polish Society) and Wyspiański's frequents stays at the hotel, where among other things he wrote his German dramatic fragment "Weimar 1829" in summer 1904.

In front of the new National Museum building in Kraków on 3-go Maja Street there is a monument to Stanisław Wyspiański. 2007 was named the Year of Stanisław Wyspiański by the Polish Sejm.

Streets of Kraków with Wyspiański connections

26 Krupnicza Street Wyspiański was born at 26 Krupnicza Street in Kraków, in a house that belonged to his grandparents. He lived there until 1873.

25 Kanonicza Street In the summer of 1873 Wyspianski's family moved to the house of Jan Długosz. Wyspiański's younger brother and mother died here. In the autumn of 1880 Wyspiański moved into the house of his uncle and aunt.

1 Kopernika Street Between 1880 and 1883 he lived in the house of the Stankiewicz family, site of the later PTTK Tourist House and the present Wyspiański Hotel.

2 Zacisze Street Here was the Stankiewicz family's new apartment. It was on the second floor of the now non-extant Central Hotel at the junction of Zacisze and Basztowa streets, with a view onto the Barbakan and the Planty Park. Because of the hotel's expansion, the Stankiewicz family was forced to move out in 1885.

1 Westerplatte Street (then Kolejowa Street) In July 1895 the Stankiewicz family began living here in an apartment on the ground floor at the corner of Kolejowa and Lubicz streets. Currently at this site there are arcades and stairs to an underground passage. At the time Wyspiański had his studio in the nearby village of Grzegórzki, where he worked on stained glass window designs for the Franciscan Church.

10 Poselska Street After a few months at Westerplatte Street, Wyspiański's uncle died and Wyspiański and his aunt went to live at 10 Poselska Street in a second-floor apartment.

9 Mariacki Square In July 1898 Wyspiański rented a room at the junction of 9 Mariacki Square and 4 Rynek Główny. In 1907 the house was taken down and replaced by an Art Nouveau tenement block. The flat was used as a studio. Wyspiański at the time was registered at 23 Szlak Street in the house of his future wife, Teofilia Pytko.

79 Krowoderska Street In 1901 Stanisław Wyspiański received an award from the Academy of Learning for his stained glass windows for the royal castle at Wawel. Thanks to this, he was able to rent a seven-room apartment in a tenement house on the second floor at the corner of Juliusza Słowackiego Avenue (which still exists). He lived here with his family and had his studio here as well. Allegedly there was a sign on the door reading: "Here lives Stanisław Wyspiański and he does not wish to be visited".

Węgrzce near Kraków After another prize for landscapes depicting the Kościuszko Mound awarded by the Academy of Learning, Wyspiański moved to his own house in the village of Węgrzce (nb 5). The house, now demolished, has been replaced by another private residence. There is a stone at the site with a commemorative plaque erected on the 100th anniversary of the artist's birth.

1 Siemiradzkiego Street The hospital where Wyspiański died on 28 November 1907 no longer exists. It was situated on the corner of Siemiradzkiego and Łobzowska streets.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ M. Kantor. Translated by Maya Boncza (Winter 2008). "Year of Stanislaw Wyspianski" (PDF direct download, 2.67 MB). Krakow: Alma Mater. Miesiecznik Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  2. ^ Ann Komaromi, "Wyspianski's Wesele: Poised on the Border," Theatre Journal – Volume 54, Number 2, May 2002, The Johns Hopkins University Press Theatre Journal 54.2 (2002) pp. 187–202, JHU.edu
  3. ^ "Muzeum Stanisława Wyspiańskiego w Kamienicy Szołayskich (Kraków)". Muzea w Polsce. museo.pl. Retrieved 2 November 2012.

References

Bibliography

English Literature

  • Zimmer, Szczepan K. (1959) Stanisław Wyspiański, Biographical Sketch, translated by Helena Maria Zimmer

Polish Literature

  • Brodnicki, W. (1970) Między niebem a piekłem. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Łódzkie.
  • Kępiński, Z. (1984) Stanisław Wyspiański. Warsaw: Literatura.
  • Nelken, H. (1959) Stanisław Wyspiański. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Arkady
  • Skoczylas, L. (1972) Stanisław Wyspiański – życie i twórczość. Cracow: Książnica Powszechna.

German Literature

  • Taborski, Roman (1996) Stanisław Wyspiański – der große Schöpfer der polnischen Moderne : anläßlich der Enthüllung der Wyspiański gewidmeten Gedenktafel in Wien (Ed.: Edward Hałoń) . Vienna: Zentrum für Verbreitung d. Wiss. d. Poln. Akad. d. Wiss.
Apollo (System Copernicus)

Apollo (System Copernicus) is a stained glass window, designed by Stanisław Wyspiański for the Medical Society in Krakow, from 1904.

Art Nouveau in Poland

Art Nouveau in Poland (Polish: Secesja) was part of an international Art Nouveau style, although often absorbed into a local Polish style. It was most popular during 1890–1910.

Artists adopted many of the floral and organic motifs of Art Nouveau into the Young Poland style in Poland. Young Poland, however, was also inclusive of other artistic styles and encompassed a broader approach to art, literature, and lifestyle.The Polish Art Nouveau style was centred in Kraków. Stanisław Wyspiański was the main Art Nouveau artist in Poland; his paintings, theatrical designs, stained glass, and building interiors are widely admired and celebrated in the National Museum in Kraków. Art Nouveau buildings survive in most Polish cities (Łódź, Kraków, Bydgoszcz), with the exception of Warsaw, where the few examples that survived the German Nazi razing of the city were destroyed by the Communist authorities on the grounds that the buildings were decadent.

The Zakopane Style architecture is part of Polish Art Nouveau style. Also Vienna Secession buildings can be found in various Polish cities.

Main centers of Art Nouveau buildings in Poland are Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań and Bydgoszcz.

Notable Polish Art Nouveau architects include Franciszek Mączyński, Tadeusz Stryjeński, Ludwik Wojtyczko, Sławomir Odrzywolski, Beniamin Torbe, Romuald Miller, Wiktor Miarczyński.

Art in Poland

Art in Poland refers to all forms of visual art in or associated with Poland.

Polish art has often reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. The Kraków school of Historicist painting developed by Jan Matejko produced monumental portrayals of customs and significant events in Polish history. He is referred to as the most famous Polish painter or even the "national painter" of Poland.Stanisław Witkiewicz was an ardent supporter of Realism in Polish art, its main representative being Jozef Chełmoński. The Młoda Polska (Young Poland) movement witnessed the birth of modern Polish art and engaged in a great deal of formal experimentation led by Jacek Malczewski (Symbolism), Stanisław Wyspiański, Józef Mehoffer, and a group of Polish Impressionists. Artists of the twentieth-century Avant-Garde represented various schools and trends. The art of Tadeusz Makowski was influenced by Cubism; while Władysław Strzemiński and Henryk Stażewski worked within the Constructivist idiom. Distinguished contemporary artists include Roman Opałka, Wilhelm Sasnal, Leon Tarasewicz, Jerzy Nowosielski, Wojciech Siudmak, Mirosław Bałka, and Katarzyna Kozyra and Zbigniew Wąsiel in the younger generation. Tamara de Lempicka was Polish artist creating Art Deco paintings. The most celebrated Polish sculptors include Xawery Dunikowski, Katarzyna Kobro, Alina Szapocznikow and Magdalena Abakanowicz.,Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide recognition. In the sixties the Polish Poster School was formed, with Henryk Tomaszewski and Waldemar Świerzy at its head.

Beautiful Virgin Mary from Krużlowa

The Beautiful Virgin Mary from Krużlowa is a Gothic sculpture made from linden-tree timber, found 1889 in the Catholic parish church in the Krużlowa Wyżna village (Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Nowy Sącz County, Grybów commune) by Władysław Łuszczkiewicz and Stanisław Wyspiański. Since 1899 the sculpture is part of the National Museum, Kraków collections.The sculpture belongs to the so-called soft style of International Gothic art, and is an example of the “Beautiful Madonnas”.

It was made on the beginning of the fifteenth century by an unknown artist.

The sculpture is 119 cm high and can be watched from three sides; the rear side is deeply hollowed to avoid the cracking of drying timber.

It shows Virgin Mary with naked Baby Jesus holding an apple. The Virgin stands in counterpose, her clothes are rich pleated.

Probably was this sculpture assigned for one of Cracow churches, but in the seventeenth century it was replaced by newer baroque sculptures and carried to the village church of Krużlowa. The first written message was dated 1607, the next from 1766. The sculpture was first placed on the High Altar of the church, but later was moved to the entrance hall, and finally, because of threat of bark beetles was removed to the church attic and forgotten.

The sculpture was found by the two artists in a very bad condition, coated with a three layers of oil paint, partially erased to the wooden ground. The sculpture was bought by the National Museum, Kraków and first exposed in the Sukiennice Museum at Kraków Cloth Hall, since 1924 in the City Hall tower. 1940 the sculpture was requisitioned by the German occupation forces and posed in the office of the Nazi governor Hans Frank on the Wawel castle. Since October 2007 the sculpture is part of the art collections of the Erasmus Ciołek Bishop’s Palace, a part of the Kraków National Museum.

Chłopomania

Chłopomania (Polish: [xwɔpɔˈmaɲja]) or Khlopomanstvo (Ukrainian: Хлопоманство, IPA: [xlopoˈmɑnstβo]) are historical and literary terms inspired by the Young Poland modernist movement and the Ukrainian Hromady. The expressions refer to the intelligentsia's fascination with, and interest in, the peasantry in late-19th-century Galicia and right-bank Ukraine.

Though originally used in jest, with time the renewed interest in folk traditions influenced the national revivals in Poland and Ukraine, both ruled by foreign empires. "Peasant-mania", a manifestation of both neo-romanticism and populism, arose during Galicia's rule by Austria–Hungary and touched both Poles and Ukrainians. It also manifested itself in the Russian Empire, where it strongly contributed to the shaping of modern Ukrainian culture.

God the Father (stained glass)

God the father - Arise is a stained glass window by Stanislaw Wyspianski in the Church of St. Francis of Assisi in Kraków, Poland. From about 1904, the work has bright modern motifs, geometric and natural shapes, heraldic elements.

Jacek Papla

Włodzimierz Jacek Papla (born 16 January 1951 in Poznań) is a Polish graphic artist and painter, a director of the Institute of Fine Arts at the University of Zielona Góra.

Papla, who graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań in 1976, is an exhibiting artist since 1975. He took part in numerous leading national and international shows, and in 1985 was awarded the Stanisław Wyspiański Prize for the Young Artists. Papla is the president of Stowarzyszenie Polskich Artystów Malarzy i Grafików "Wielkopolska".

Jan Matejko

Jan Alojzy Matejko (Polish pronunciation: [jan aˈlɔjzɨ maˈtɛjko] (listen); also known as Jan Mateyko; 24 June 1838 – 1 November 1893) was a Polish painter known for paintings of notable historical Polish political and military events. His works include large oil on canvas paintings like Rejtan (1866), Union of Lublin (1869) or Battle of Grunwald (1878), numerous portraits, a gallery of Polish kings, and murals in St. Mary's Basilica, Kraków. He is referred to as the most famous Polish painter or even the "national painter" of Poland.Matejko spent most of his life in Kraków. His teachers at the Kraków Academy of Fine Arts included Wojciech Korneli Stattler and Władysław Łuszczkiewicz. Later, he became a director at this institution, which eventually was renamed the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts. A number of his students became prominent painters themselves, including Maurycy Gottlieb, Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer and Stanisław Wyspiański.

Juliusz Osterwa

Juliusz Osterwa, born Julian Andrzej Maluszek (Kraków, 23 June 1885 – 10 May 1947, Warsaw), was a renowned Polish actor, theatre director and art theoretician active in the interwar period. He was the founder of Theatre Reduta, the first experimental stage in Warsaw following Poland's return to independence at the end of World War One. Osterwa began his Warsaw career at the age of 33 by staging the works of Poland's revolutionary dramatists including Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Stefan Żeromski, Jerzy Szaniawski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, and Cyprian Norwid. This team was commonly known as the actor's commune, resembling an ascetic monastery devoted to spiritual practice.

National Museum, Kraków

The National Museum in Kraków (Polish: Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie), popularly abbreviated as MNK, established in 1879, is the main branch of Poland's National Museum, which has several independent branches with permanent collections around the country. The Museum consists of 21 departments which are divided by art period; 11 galleries, 2 libraries, and 12 conservation workshops. It holds some 780,000 art objects, spanning from classical archeology to modern art, with special focus on Polish painting.

Polish literature

Polish literature is the literary tradition of Poland. Most Polish literature has been written in the Polish language, though other languages used in Poland over the centuries have also contributed to Polish literary traditions, including Latin, Yiddish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, German and Esperanto. According to Czesław Miłosz, for centuries Polish literature focused more on drama and poetic self-expression than on fiction (dominant in the English speaking world). The reasons were manifold, but mostly rested on historical circumstances of the nation. Polish writers typically have had a more profound range of choices to motivate them to write, including historical cataclysms of extraordinary violence that swept Poland (as the crossroads of Europe); but also, Poland's own collective incongruities demanding adequate reaction from the writing communities of any given period.The period of Polish Enlightenment began in the 1730s–40s and peaked in the second half of the 18th century. One of the leading Polish Enlightenment authors included Ignacy Krasicki (1735–1801) and Jan Potocki (1761–1815). Polish Romanticism, unlike Romanticism elsewhere in Europe, was largely a movement for independence against the foreign occupation. Early Polish Romantics were heavily influenced by other European Romantics. Notable writers included Adam Mickiewicz, Seweryn Goszczyński, Tomasz Zan and Maurycy Mochnacki. In the second period, many Polish Romantics worked abroad. Influential poets included Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki and Zygmunt Krasiński.

In the aftermath of the failed January Uprising, the new period of Polish Positivism began to advocate skepticism and the exercise of reason. The modernist period known as the Young Poland movement in visual arts, literature and music, came into being around 1890, and concluded with the Poland's return to independence (1918). Notable authors included Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer, Stanisław Przybyszewski and Jan Kasprowicz. The neo-Romantic era was exemplified by the works of Stefan Żeromski, Władysław Reymont, Gabriela Zapolska, and Stanisław Wyspiański. In 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz received a Nobel Prize in literature for his patriotic Trilogy inspiring a new sense of hope. Literature of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939) encompasses a short, though exceptionally dynamic period in Polish literary consciousness. The socio-political reality has changed radically with Poland's return to independence. New avant-garde writers included Tuwim, Witkacy, Gombrowicz, Miłosz, Dąbrowska and Nałkowska.

In the years of German and Soviet occupation of Poland, all artistic life was dramatically compromised. Cultural institutions were lost. Out of 1,500 clandestine publications in Poland, about 200 were devoted to literature.

Much of Polish literature written during the Occupation of Poland appeared in print only after the conclusion of World War II, including books by Nałkowska, Rudnicki, Borowski and others. The situation began to worsen dramatically around 1949–1950 with the introduction of the Stalinist doctrine by minister Sokorski. Poland had three Nobel Prize winning authors in the later 20th century: Isaac Bashevis Singer (1978), Czesław Miłosz (1980) and Wisława Szymborska (1996).

Provincial Actors

Provincial Actors (Polish: Aktorzy prowincjonalni) is a 1979 Polish drama film directed by Agnieszka Holland. It is her feature-length directorial debut.

The film depicts Slawomir Szczepan (played by Tomasz Zygadlo), a young theater director from Warsaw, arriving in the provinces to put on the play Liberation by Stanisław Wyspiański. There he clashes with the aging lead actor Krzysztof (Tadeusz Huk), who sees it as a chance to make a once-in-a-lifetime performance.

Silesian Theatre

Silesian Theatre (Polish: Teatr Śląski) dedicated to Stanisław Wyspiański is the largest theatre in Silesia. It is located on the market square in Katowice.

It was built as "German Theatre" in the years 1905-1907, from plans by German theatre architect Carl Moritz. Its Golden Age was in the late-1940s and the 1950s.

Skałka (disambiguation)

Skałka is a burial place for distinguished Poles, in Kraków.

Skałka may also refer to:

Skałka, a play by Stanisław Wyspiański, 1907

Skałka, Lower Silesian Voivodeship (south-west Poland)

Skałka, Silesian Voivodeship (south Poland)

Skałka, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship (south-central Poland)

Society of Polish Artists "Sztuka"

The Society of Polish Artists "Sztuka" (Polish: Towarzystwo Artystów Polskich "Sztuka"; Sztuka means Art in Polish, artyzm means artistic abilities) founded in 1897 in Kraków, was a gathering of prominent Polish visual artists from around the turn of the century (or fin-de-siècle era) living under the foreign partitions of Poland. Its main goal was to reaffirm the importance and unique character of Polish contemporary art at a time, when Poland could not exist as sovereign nation.The immediate inspiration for the founding of the new society came from the ground-breaking art exhibit inaugurated on May 27, 1897 at Sukiennice in Main Square, Kraków. It was held by Polish modernist painters, and called A Separate Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture (Wystawa osobna obrazów i rzeźb). The show was visited by approximately 6,000 guests, and proclaimed a success. The first meeting of Sztuka Society took place on October 27, 1897. Among its founding members were a generation of academics from the School of Fine Arts who also participated in the show, including future Rectors of the Academy: Leon Wyczółkowski, Teodor Axentowicz, Jacek Malczewski, Józef Mehoffer; as well as artists Józef Chełmoński, Julian Fałat, Antoni Piotrowski, Jan Stanisławski, Włodzimierz Tetmajer and Stanisław Wyspiański.

The Wedding (1901 play)

The Wedding (Polish: Wesele) is a defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the 20th century by Stanisław Wyspiański. It describes the perils of the national drive toward self-determination following the two unsuccessful uprisings against the Partitions of Poland, in November 1830 and January 1863. The plot is set at the wedding of a member of Kraków intelligentsia (the Bridegroom), and his peasant Bride. Their class-blurring union follows a fashionable trend among friends of the playwright from the modernist Young Poland movement.

Wyspiański's play was based on a real-life event: the wedding of his contemporary, Lucjan Rydel at St. Mary's Basilica in Kraków, followed by the wedding reception in the village of Bronowice.

The Wedding (1972 film)

Wesele (The Wedding) is a motion picture made in 1972 in Poland by Andrzej Wajda as an adaptation of a play by the same title written by Stanisław Wyspiański in 1901. Wajda also directed "Wesele" for the theatre.

"Wesele" is a defining work of Polish drama written at the turn of the 20th century. It describes the perils of the national drive toward self-determination after the Polish uprisings of November 1830 and January 1863, the result of the Partitions of Poland. It also refers to the Galician slaughter of 1846. The plot is set at the wedding of a member of Kraków intelligentsia (the Bridegroom, played by Daniel Olbrychski), and his peasant Bride (played by Ewa Ziętek). Their class-blurring union follows a fashionable trend among friends of the playwright from the modernist Young Poland movement.

The play by Wyspiański was based on a real-life event: the wedding of Lucjan Rydel at the St. Mary's Basilica in Kraków and his wedding reception in the village of Bronowice. It was inspired in part also by the modernist painting of Jacek Malczewski and Maksymilian Gierymski.

Young Poland

Young Poland (Polish: Młoda Polska) was a modernist period in Polish visual arts, literature and music, covering roughly the years between 1890 and 1918. It was a result of strong aesthetic opposition to the earlier ideas of Positivism which followed the suppression of the 1863 January Uprising against the occupying army of Imperial Russia. Młoda Polska promoted trends of decadence, neo-romanticism, symbolism, impressionism and art nouveau.

Świętego Jana Street, Kraków

Świętego Jana Street (Polish: Ulica Świętego Jana, lit. St. John's Street) - a historic street in Kraków, Poland.

The street begins in the south by the Main Square northwards to where it is closed off by the Church of the Transfiguration of Jesus by Pijarska Street. The name of the street derives from the Church St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, first being recorded in the fourteenth-century as platea S. Joannie Baptistae.The street features several magnate palaces of the Czartoryski, Lubomirski, Popielów and Wodzicki szlachta families. The street is known for holding several funeral processions, inter alia of Józef Ignacy Kraszewski and Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz in 1887, and Stanisław Wyspiański in 1907.

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