The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC; Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会) is the permanent body of the National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China; both exercise the legislative power of the state.
The NPCSC oversees the election of the NPC, and can extend the term of the current NPC by put off election by at most a year with a two thirds majority vote. The NPCSC convenes the NPC once a year, and may do so when it finds it necessary or with a proposal from one fifth of NPC's members. The NPCSC holds power until the succeeding NPC elects its standing committee.
Members of the NPCSC must not, at the same time, hold executive, judicial positions. In contrast, members of the NPC does not have such restriction.
The NPCSC has the power to interpret the laws of the PRC, including its constitution. In contrast to other countries in which stare decisis gives the power of both final interpretation and adjudication to a supreme court, within Mainland China constitutional and legal interpretation is considered to be a legislative activity rather than a judicial one, and the functions are split so that the NPCSC provides legal interpretations while the Supreme People's Court actually decides cases. Because an interpretation of the NPCSC is legislative in nature and not judicial, it does not affect cases which have already been decided.
A notable use of the constitutional interpretation power occurred in 1999 over the Right of Abode issue in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in Lau Kong Yung v. Director of Immigration. The NPCSC interpreted the Basic Law of Hong Kong in accordance with the position taken by the Hong Kong government with respect to the eligibility of permanent residency in Hong Kong.
It is led by a Chairman, Mainland China's top legislator, who is conventionally ranked third in Mainland China's political ranking system, after the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and the Premier of the People's Republic of China. The current Chairman is Li Zhanshu.
Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
|Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress|
Permanent organ of the National People's Congress
Yang Zhenwu, CPC
since March 2018
|Since March 2018: |
|Party-list proportional representation and Approval voting|
|Great Hall of the People, Xicheng District, Beijing City, People's Republic of China|
|Standing Committee of the National People's Congress|
Elected by the 13th National People's Congress at its 1st session's 4th plenary meeting on March 17, 2018:
The Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Issues Relating to the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by Universal Suffrage and on the Method for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2016 (Chinese: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會關於香港特別行政區行政長官普選問題和2016年立法會產生辦法的決定), commonly known as the 31 August Decision (Chinese: 八三一決定; literally: '8 31 decision'), is a decision made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC), the national legislative body of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on 31 August 2014 which set limits for the 2017 Chief Executive election and 2016 Legislative Council election in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR).
The decision states that a Hong Kong Chief Executive candidate has to "love the country [China] and love Hong Kong". For the 2017 Chief Executive election, a nominating committee, similar to the present Election Committee system, would be formed to nominate two to three candidates, each of whom must receive the support of more than half of the members of the nominating committee. After popular election of one of the nominated candidates, the new Chief Executive "will have to be appointed by the Central People's Government.
The process of forming the 2016 Legislative Council would be unchanged, but following the new process for the election of the Chief Executive, a new system to elect the Legislative Council via universal suffrage would be developed with the approval of Beijing. The decision was deemed by the pro-democracy activists as a violation of the principle of free and fair election and led to the large-scale occupation protests which was internationally known as "Umbrella Revolution".Cao Jianming
Cao Jianming (Chinese: 曹建明; pinyin: Cáo Jiànmíng; born September 24, 1955 in Shanghai) was the Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate of the People's Republic of China. Since 2018 he has served as one of the Vice Chairpersons of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body. The current Chairman is Li Zhanshu.
From 1998 to 2013, the position was ranked second in China's political hierarchy since Li Peng was barred from seeking a third term as Premier in 1998. In the political order of precedence, the Chairman ranks below the CPC General Secretary and President. Since 2013 the Chairman has ranked below the Premier, Li Keqiang. The ranking of this position is not necessarily reflective of its actual power, which varies depending on the officeholder.Chen Changzhi
Chen Changzhi (Chinese: 陈昌智; born July 1945 in Hubei Province) is the chairman of the China Democratic National Construction Association, a legally recognized non-Communist political party in China, and one of the Vice Chairmen of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, having served in this capacity since 2008.China Association for Promoting Democracy
The China Association for Promoting Democracy (Chinese: 中国民主促进会) is one of the eight legally recognised political parties in the People's Republic of China that follow the direction of the Communist Party of China and is a member of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. It was formed on December 12, 1945.
The current chairman of the CAPD is Yan Junqi the current vice-chairwoman of the standing committee of the National People's Congress of China.Historical membership of the Politburo Standing Committee
A List of Historical makeup of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China since 1927–present.Ho Iat Seng
Ho Iat Seng (Chinese: 賀一誠; born 12 June 1957 in Macau) is a member of Legislative Assembly of Macau. He became a member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in 2001. He was a Member of the Executive Council of Macau from 2004 to 2009. On April 18, 2019, Ho announced his intention to run for election as the territory’s leader in August.Li Zhanshu
Li Zhanshu (Chinese: 栗战书; pinyin: Lì Zhànshū; born August 30, 1950) is a Chinese politician, and the current Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, head of China's top legislative body. He is a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's top decision-making body. Li began his political career in rural regions of his native Hebei province, methodically rising through the ranks as the Communist Party Secretary of Xi'an, Governor of Heilongjiang province, and the Party Secretary of Guizhou province. In 2012 he was transferred to become chief of the General Office of the Communist Party of China. Following the 18th Party Congress, Li became one of the top advisors to party General Secretary Xi Jinping.List of members of the 12th National People's Congress Standing Committee
This list involves current standing members of the National People's Congress of China, who were last elected by the 12th National People's Congress in March 2013.Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi (pronounced [ljǒu ʂâutɕʰǐ]; Chinese: 刘少奇; 24 November 1898 – 12 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist. He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee from 1954 to 1959, First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1956 to 1966 and Chairman (President) of the People's Republic of China, China's de jure head of state, from 1959 to 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China.
For 15 years, President Liu was the third most powerful man in China, behind only Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai. Originally groomed as Mao's successor, Liu antagonized him in the early 1960s before the Cultural Revolution, and from 1966 onward was criticized, then purged, by Mao. Liu disappeared from public life in 1968 and was labelled the "commander of China's bourgeoisie headquarters", China's foremost "capitalist-roader", and a traitor to the revolution.
He died under harsh treatment and torture during the Cultural Revolution, but was posthumously rehabilitated by Deng Xiaoping's government in 1980 and granted a national memorial service.Peng Zhen
Peng Zhen (pronounced [pʰə̌ŋ ʈʂə́n]; October 12, 1902 – April 26, 1997) was a leading member of the Communist Party of China. He led the party organization in Beijing following the victory of the Communists in the Chinese Civil War in 1949, but was purged during the Cultural Revolution for opposing Mao's views on the role of literature in relation to the state. He was rehabilitated under Deng Xiaoping in 1982 along with other 'wrongly accused' officials, and became the inaugural head of the CPC Central Political and Legislative Committee.Qiao Shi
Qiao Shi (24 December 1924 – 14 June 2015) was a Chinese politician and one of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China. He was a member of the party's top decision-making body, the Politburo Standing Committee, from 1987 to 1997. He was a contender for the paramount leadership of China, but lost out to his political rival Jiang Zemin, who assumed the post of General Secretary of the party in 1989. Qiao Shi instead served as Chairman of the National People's Congress, then the third-ranked political position, from 1993 until his retirement in 1998. Compared with his peers, including Jiang Zemin, Qiao Shi adopted a more liberal stance in political and economic policy, promoting the rule of law and market-oriented reform of state-owned enterprises.Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China
The Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国道路交通安全法) is a law which was passed by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China on October 28, 2003, promulgated by Decree No. 8 of the President of the PRC Hu Jintao, and took effect on May 1, 2004 on all parts of mainland China (but not in Hong Kong and Macau which have their own judicial systems.) It is the People's Republic of China's first-ever law on road traffic safety, and was intended to address an alarmingly high traffic fatality rate, which is four or five times greater than other nations.Sang Guowei
Sang Guowei (Chinese: 桑国卫; pinyin: Sāng Guówèi; born November 1941 in Wuxing, Zhejiang) is a Chinese pharmacologist, physician and politician. He graduated from Shanghai Medical College and was elected an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering. He served as the chairman of the Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party, a recognized minor political party in China, and was a Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress between 2008 and 2013.Secretary-General of the National People's Congress
The Secretary-General of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) is a political office in the People's Republic of China.Vice Chairperson of the National People's Congress
The Vice Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (simplified Chinese: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会副委员长; traditional Chinese: 全國人民代表大會常務委員會副委員長; pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì Fùwěiyuánzhăng) is a political office in the People's Republic of China. According to the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Vice-Chairpersons are responsible for assisting the Chairman in performing his duties as chair of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Since 1982, Vice-Chairpersons are appointed for a term of five years, and cannot serve for more than two terms, similar with the “Deputy Speaker of the Chinese Parliament”.Wan Li
Wan Li (1 December 1916 – 15 July 2015) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and politician. During a long administrative career in the People's Republic of China, he served successively as Vice Premier, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), and a member of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Secretariat and its Politburo.
Wan joined the Communist Party of China in 1936 and led revolutionary and wartime resistance activities in his native Shandong province. After the founding of the communist state in 1949, Wan served in a series of government ministries, then worked as a member of the municipal leadership in Beijing. He was purged during the Cultural Revolution, but was eventually rehabilitated and returned to work as party chief of Anhui province, where he led the implementation of successful agrarian reforms centered on the household-responsibility system.
In the 1980s, Wan became one of the leading moderate reformers in China's top leadership, advocating for constitutional reforms, the strengthening of legislative institutions, and the abolition of 'lifelong-terms' of top political leaders. He was named head of the national legislature (i.e., the NPC) in 1988. He retired in 1993.Wu Bangguo
Wu Bangguo (born 12 July 1941) is a retired high-ranking politician in the People's Republic of China. He was the Chairman and Party secretary of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 2003 to 2013, a position that made him China's chief legislator. He ranked second in official rankings of state and party leaders of China.
A native of Anhui, Wu is an electrical engineer by profession, and rose to national fame through regional work as the party chief of Shanghai and as Vice-Premier.Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying (simplified Chinese: 叶剑英; traditional Chinese: 葉劍英; pinyin: Yè Jiànyīng; Wade–Giles: Yeh Chien-ying; Jyutping: Yip Gim-ying; 28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1978 to 1983, Ye was the head of state of China.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì Chángwù Wěiyuánhuì|
|Yale Romanization||Chyùhn gwok Yàhn màhn Doih bíu Daaih wuih Sèuhng mouh Wái yùhn wuih|
|Jyutping||Cyun4 gwok3 Jan4 man4 Doi6 biu2 Daai6 wui6 Soeng4 mou6 Wai2 jyun4 wui6|
Central state organs of the People's Republic of China