Standardization Agreement

In NATO, a STANdardization AGreement (STANAG) defines processes, procedures, terms, and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between the member countries of the alliance. Each NATO state ratifies a STANAG and implements it within their own military. The purpose is to provide common operational and administrative procedures and logistics, so one member nation's military may use the stores and support of another member's military. STANAGs also form the basis for technical interoperability between a wide variety of communication and information systems (CIS) essential for NATO and Allied operations. The Allied Data Publication 34 (ADatP-34) NATO Interoperability Standards and Profiles which is covered by STANAG 5524, maintains a catalogue of relevant information and communication technology standards.

STANAGs are published in English and French, the two official languages of NATO, by the NATO Standardization Office in Brussels.

Among the hundreds of standardization agreements (current total is just short of 1300) are those for calibres of small arms ammunition, map markings, communications procedures, and classification of bridges.

Partial list

  • STANAG 1008 (Edition 9, 24 August 2004): Characteristics of Shipboard Electrical Power Systems in Warships of the North Atlantic Treaty Navies
  • STANAG 1022 (Edition 6): Combat Charts, Amphibious Charts and Combat/Landing Charts
  • STANAG 1034 (Edition 17, 24 May 2005): Allied Naval Gunfire Support (ATP-4(E))
  • STANAG 1040 (Edition 23, 16 December 2004): Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS) (ATP-2(B) Vol. 1)
  • STANAG 1041 (Edition 16, 29 March 2001): Anti-Submarine Evasive Steering (ATP-3(B))
  • STANAG 1052 (Edition 32, 12 July 2006): Allied Submarine and Anti-Submarine Exercise Manual (AXP-01(D))
  • STANAG 1059 (Edition 8, 19 February 2004): National Distinguishing Letters for Use by NATO Armed Forces
  • STANAG 1063 (Edition 18): Allied Naval Communications Exercises (AXP-3(C) MXP-3(C))
  • STANAG 1236 (Edition 3, 2 November 2010): Glide Slope Indicators for Helicopter Operations from NATO Ships
  • STANAG 1472 (Edition 1, 7 September 2011): NVD Compatible Flight Deck Status Displays on Single Ships
  • STANAG 2003 (Edition 6): Patrol Reports
  • STANAG 2014 (Edition 7): Operations Plans, Warning Orders, and Administrative/Logistics Orders
  • STANAG 2019 (Edition 6, 24 May 2011): NATO Joint Military Symbology – NATO Military Symbols for Land Based Systems (APP-6)
  • STANAG 2021 Military Load Classification of Bridges, Rafts and Vehicles
  • STANAG 2022 Intelligence Reports
  • STANAG 2033 Interrogation of Prisoners of War (PW)
  • STANAG 2041 (Edition 4): Operations Orders, Tables and Graphics for Road Movement
  • STANAG 2044 (Edition 5): Procedures for Dealing with Prisoners of War
  • STANAG 2083 Radiological Hazards
  • STANAG 2084 (Edition 5): Handling and Reporting of Captured Enemy Equipment and Documents
  • STANAG 2087 Medical Employment of Air Transport in the Forward Area
  • STANAG 2097 (Edition 6): Nomenclature and Classification of Equipment
  • STANAG 2116 - this STANAG covers, among other subjects, NATO official rank grade comparisons covering Ranks and insignia of NATO
  • STANAG 2138 (Edition 4, May 1996): Troop trial Principles and Procedures - Combat Clothing and Personal Equipment
  • STANAG 2143 (Edition 4): Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance/Explosive Ordnance Disposal
  • STANAG 2149 (Edition 3): Intelligence Request
  • STANAG 2154 Regulations for Military Motor Vehicle Movement by Road
  • STANAG 2175 (Edition 3): Classification and Designation of Flat Wagons Suitable for Transporting Military Equipment
  • STANAG 2310 7.62×51mm NATO adopted in the 1950s as the standard infantry rifle cartridge (7.62mm) up until the 1980s[1]
  • STANAG 2324 The adoption of the US MIL-STD-1913 "Picatinny rail" as the NATO standard optical and electronic sight mount and standard accessory rail. See also 4694.
  • STANAG 2345 (Edition 3, 13 February 2003): Evaluation and control of personnel exposure to radio frequency fields - 3 kHz to 300 GHz
  • STANAG 2389 (Edition 1): Minimum Standards of Proficiency for Trained Explosive Ordnance Disposal Personnel
  • STANAG 2404 (Draft): Joint Anti-Armor Operations
  • STANAG 2525: Allied Joint Doctrine for Communications and Information Systems
  • STANAG 2604 (Edition 3, 14 Aug 1992): Braking Systems Between Tractors, Draw Bar Trailer And Semi-trailer Equipment Combinations For Military Use
  • STANAG 2805 Fording and Flotation Requirements for Combat and Support Ground Vehicles
  • STANAG 2832 (Edition 2): Restrictions for the Transport of Military Equipment by Rail on European Railways
  • STANAG 2834 (Edition 2): The Operation of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technical Information Center (EODTIC)
  • STANAG 2866 Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Personnel
  • STANAG 2868 (Edition 4): Land Force Tactical Doctrine (ATP-35(A))
  • STANAG 2873 Medical Support Operations in an NBC Environment
  • STANAG 2889 (Edition 3): Marking of Hazardous Areas and Routes Through Them
  • STANAG 2895 Extreme Climatic Conditions and Derived Conditions for Use in Defining Design/Test Criteria for NATO Forces Materiel
  • STANAG 2920 The adoption of standards for ballistic protection levels and testing
  • STANAG 2931 Distinctive Markings and Camouflage of Medical Facilities and Evacuation Platforms[2]
  • STANAG 2937 Survival, Emergency, and Individual Combat Rations – nutritional values and packaging
  • STANAG 2961 Classes of Supply of NATO Land Forces
  • STANAG 2999 (Edition 1): Use of Helicopters in Land Operations (ATP-49)
  • STANAG 3011: Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP), a Tactical Data Link (TDL) protocol
  • STANAG 3117 Aircraft Marshalling Signals
  • STANAG 3150 Uniform System of Supply Classification
  • STANAG 3151 Uniform System of Item of Supply Identification
  • STANAG 3277 (Edition 6): Air Reconnaissance Request/Task Form
  • STANAG 3350: Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications
  • STANAG 3377: Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Report Forms
  • STANAG 3497 (Edition 1): Aeromedical Training of Aircrew in Aircrew NBC Equipment and Procedures
  • STANAG 3585 (Edition 6): 20mm ammunition and link for aircraft guns
  • STANAG 3596 Air Reconnaissance Requesting and Target Reporting Guide
  • STANAG 3680 AAP-6 NATO Glossary of Terms and Definitions
  • STANAG 3700 (Edition 4): NATO Tactical Air Doctrine (ATP-33(B))
  • STANAG 3736 (Edition 8): Offensive Air Support Operations (ATP-27(B))
  • STANAG 3805 (Edition 4): Doctrine and Procedures for Airspace Control in Time of Crisis and War (ATP-40(A))
  • STANAG 3820 (Edition 3): 27×145mm (Mauser BK-27) aircraft gun ammunition and link
  • STANAG 3838: MIL-STD-1553, mechanical, electrical and functional characteristics of a serial data bus
  • STANAG 3880 (Edition 2): Counter Air Operations (ATP-42(B))
  • STANAG 3910 High Speed Data Transmission Under STANAG 3838 or Fibre Optic Equivalent Control - 1Mbit/sec MIL-STD-1553B data bus augmented by a 20 Mbit/s, Optical or Electrical, High Speed (HS) channel. Revised by prEN 3910, which remains provisional.[4] Optical version implemented (as EFAbus) on the Eurofighter Typhoon (EF2000)) and electrical (as EN 3910) on Dassault Rafale.
  • STANAG 4007 (Edition 2, 31 May 1996): Electrical Connectors Between Prime Movers, Trailers And Towed Artillery
  • STANAG 4082 (Edition 2, 28 May 1969): Adoption of a Standard Artillery Computer Meteorological Message (METCM)
  • STANAG 4090 9×19mm NATO adopted as standard small arms ammunition (9mm)[1]
  • STANAG 4101 (Edition 2, 21 Feb 2000): Towing Attachments
  • STANAG 4107 (Edition 7, August 2006): Mutual Acceptance of Government Quality Assurance and Usage of the Allied Quality Assurance Publications
  • STANAG 4140 (Edition 2, 28 May 2001): Adoption of a Standard Target Acquisition Meteorological Message (METTA)
  • STANAG 4119 (Edition 2, 5 February 2007): Adoption of a Standard Cannon Artillery Firing Table Format)
  • STANAG 4172 The adoption of the 5.56×45mm NATO round as the standard chambering of all NATO service rifles[1][5]
  • STANAG 4184 (Edition 3, 27 November 1998): Microwave Landing System (MLS)
  • STANAG 4203 Technical standards for single channel HF radio equipment
  • STANAG 4222 (Edition 1, 14 March 1990): Standard Specification for Digital Representation of Shipboard Data Parameters
  • STANAG 4232 Digital Interoperability Between SHF Tactical Satellite Communications Terminals
  • STANAG 4233 Digital interoperability between EHF Tactical Satellite Communications Terminals
  • STANAG 4285 Characteristics of 1200/2400/3600 bit/s single tone MODEMs for HF radio links
  • STANAG 4355 (Edition 3, 17 April 2009): Modified Point Mass Trajectory Model
  • STANAG 4370 Environmental Testing Procedures
  • STANAG 4381 (Edition 1, 8 July 1994): Blackout Lighting Systems For Tactical Land Vehicles
  • STANAG 4383 12.7×99mm NATO adopted as standard small arms ammunition (12.7mm)[1]
  • STANAG 4395 (Edition 2, 10 May 2001): Connector For Tactical Land Wheeled Vehicles With Anti Lock Braking Systems
  • STANAG 4406 The adoption of a military message standard based around the civil X.400 standard[6]
  • STANAG 4420 Display Symbology and Colors for NATO Maritime Units
  • STANAG 4425 A way to determine interchangability of indirect fire ammunition; lists various artillery calibers, including 105 mm and 155 mm
  • STANAG 4458 105 mm ammunition for rifled tank guns
  • STANAG 4525 Explosives, Physical/Mechanical Properties, Thermomechanical Analysis for Determining the Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (TMA)
  • STANAG 4529 Characteristics of single tone MODEMs for HF radio links with 1240 Hz bandwidth
  • STANAG 4545 (Edition 2, 6 May 2013): NATO Secondary Imagery Format (NSIF)
  • STANAG 4559 (Edition 3, Amendment 2, 3 August 2016): NATO Standard Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance Library Interface (NSILI)
  • STANAG 4564 (Edition 1, 25 October 2007): Warship Electronic Chart Display and Information Systems (WECDIS)
  • STANAG 4565 (Edition 1, 26 September 2003): Airborne Multi-Mode Receiver for Precision Approach and Landing
  • STANAG 4569 Protection levels for Occupants of Logistic and Light Armoured Vehicles[7]
  • STANAG 4575 (Edition 4, 2 December 2014): NATO Advanced Data Storage Interface (NADSI)
  • STANAG 4579 The adoption of standard Identification of Friend or Foe hardware that can be recognized and processed between all NATO nations
  • STANAG 4586 Standard Interface of the Unmanned Control System (UCS) for NATO UAV interoperability
  • STANAG 4607 (Edition 3, 14 September 2010): NATO Ground Moving Target Indicator Format (GMTIF)
  • STANAG 4609 (Edition 4, 19 December 2016): NATO Digital Motion Imagery Standard
  • STANAG 4624 30x173mm autocannon ammunition
  • STANAG 4626: Modular and Open Avionics Architectures - Part I - Architecture
  • STANAG 4628 (Edition 1, 16 March 2011): Controller Area Network (Can) Protocols For Military Applications
  • STANAG 4676:(Edition 1, 20 May 2014): NATO Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance Tracking Standard (NITS)
  • STANAG 4694: NATO Accessory Rail
  • STANAG 4748: JANUS, used for underwater acoustic communication
  • STANAG 4774: Confidentiality Label Syntax
  • STANAG 4778: Metadata Binding Mechanism
  • STANAG 5066: The adoption of a Profile for HF Data Communications, supporting Selective Repeat ARQ error control, HF E-Mail and IP-over-HF operation
  • STANAG 5518: Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP), a Tactical Data Link (TDL) protocol
  • STANAG 5524: NATO Interoperability Standards and Profiles, a catalogue of relevant information and communication technology standards
  • STANAG 5602: Standard Interface for Military Platform Link Evaluation (SIMPLE), a Tactical Data Link (TDL) protocol
  • STANAG 5616: Link 16 - ECM Resistant Tactical Data Exchange, a Tactical Data Link (TDL) protocol
  • STANAG 6001 (Edition 4, 12 October 2010) Language Proficiency Levels
  • STANAG 6004 Meaconing, Intrusion, Jamming, and Interference Report
  • STANAG 6010 EW in the Land Battle (ATP-51)
  • STANAG 6022 (Edition 2, 22 March 2010): Adoption of a Standard Gridded Data Meteorological Message (METGM)
  • STANAG 7023 (Edition 4, Amendment 1, 16 June 2016): NATO Primary Image Format (NPIF)
  • STANAG 7024 (Edition 2, 2 August 2001): Imagery Air Reconnaissance Tape Recorder Standard
  • STANAG 7074 Digital Geographic Exchange Standard (DIGEST),
  • STANAG 7141 (Edition 4, 20 December 2006): Joint NATO Doctrine for environmental protection during NATO-led military activities
  • STANAG 7170 (Edition 2, 5 November 2010): Additional Military Layers (AML) — Digital geospatial data products


  • STANAG 4179 A type of detachable firearm magazine proposed for standardization based on the USGI M16 rifle magazine.[8]
  • STANAG 4181 A type of stripper clip and guide tool use to load magazines proposed for standardization based on the USGI M16 rifle stripper clips and guide tools.[8]


  1. ^ a b c d "NATO Small Arms Ammunition Interchangeability via Direct Evidence Testing Archived 2013-07-19 at the Wayback Machine", US Army RDECOM, 25 May 2011
  2. ^ US Army Field Manual 4-02.21. Division and Brigade Surgeon's Handbook. Appendix A, Guide for Geneva Conventions Compliance.
  3. ^ "NATO STANAG 3797 MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS FOR FORWARD AIR CONTROLLERS & LASER OPERATORS IN SUPPORT OF FORWARD AIR CONTROLLERS - IHS, Inc". 2009-08-29. Archived from the original on 2009-08-29. Retrieved 2017-12-16.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  4. ^ AECMA Working Group C2-GT9, High Speed Data Transmission Under STANAG 3838 or Fibre Optic Equivalent Control, prEN3910-001, Ed P1, ASD-STAN, 1/31/1996.
  5. ^ STANAG 4172 (Edition 2) 5.56 mm Ammunition (Linked or Otherwise) 5 May 1993
  6. ^ "external 4406 reference".
  7. ^ CRAIG International Ballistics - NIJ EN STANAG Ballistic Standards
  8. ^ a b "NATO Infantry Weapons Standardization Archived 2012-12-01 at the Wayback Machine", NDIA Conference 2008

External links

Classes of supply

The United States Army divides supplies into ten numerically identifiable classes of supply. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) uses only the first five, which NATO allies have agreed to share a common nomenclature with each other based on a NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG). A common naming convention is reflective of the necessity for interoperability and mutual logistical support.

Digital Geographic Exchange Standard

The NATO Standardization Agreement 7074, Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standard (DIGEST), is a product of Defence Geospatial Information Working Group (DGIWG).

This standard is related to a number of other international standards and form a model for exchange of Geographic Information. DGIWG continues to work on interoperability standards for geographic data exchange between various military systems and Geographic information system in general.


The Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol ("JREAP") enables tactical data messages to be transmitted over long-distance networks, e.g. satellite links, thereby extending the range of Tactical Data Links (TDLs).

JREAP is documented in U.S. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 3011 and NATO Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 5518, "Interoperability Standard for the Joint Range Extension Applications Protocol (JREAP)."

Link 16

Link 16 is a military tactical data link network used by NATO and nations allowed by the MIDS International Program Office (IPO). Its specification is part of the family of Tactical Data Links.

With Link 16, military aircraft as well as ships and ground forces may exchange their tactical picture in near-real time. Link 16 also supports the exchange of text messages, imagery data and provides two channels of digital voice (2.4 kbit/s and/or 16 kbit/s in any combination). Link 16 is defined as one of the digital services of the JTIDS / MIDS in NATO's Standardization Agreement STANAG 5516. MIL-STD-6016 is the related United States Department of Defense Link 16 MIL-STD.

NATO Accessory Rail

The NATO Accessory Rail (or NAR), defined by the new modernization agreement Standardization Agreement 4694, is a new rail interface system standard for mounting accessory equipments such as telescopic sights, tactical lights, laser aiming modules, night vision devices, reflex sights, foregrips, bipods and bayonets to small arms such as rifles and pistols.STANAG 4694, was approved by the NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG), Land Capability Group 1 Dismounted Soldier (LCG1-DS) on 8 May 2009. It will be forwarded to the NATO Standardization Agency and then onto individual NATO nations, which will test the NATO Accessory Rail system for final ratification.The NATO Accessory Rail is backwards-compatible with the STANAG 2324/MIL-STD 1913 Picatinny rail, which dates back to 3 February 1995, and was designed in conjunction with weapon specialists like Aimpoint, Beretta, Colt Firearms, FN Herstal and Heckler & Koch. The Heckler & Koch G28 designated marksman rifle features NATO Accessory Rails.

NATO Codification System

The NATO Codification System (NCS for short) is a Standardization Agreement approach to identify, classify and number items of supply. This is applicable to items that are repetitively used and stocked (e.g., repair parts, equipment, food items, etc.). The System has been agreed by all signatories of the NATO and sponsored non-NATO nations for use in identifying equipment and supplies.[1]

The result is a unique identification and a data set that can be easily shared and understood by a wide range of users. The data set may be shared in the form of printed catalogs, on line systems, electronic data exchange, etc. Users include logisticians and manufacturers.

The process of codification (or cataloging) involves naming, classifying, describing the item and assignment of a 13 digit NATO Stock Number (or NSN). The system aids logistics processes, to include supply, purchasing, maintenance, warehousing, transportation, planning, etc. Further, it allows different organizations, even countries, to cooperate in providing logistics support to military, disaster relief, peace keeping and similar operations.

NATO Standardization Office

The NATO Standardization Office (NSO) (former NATO Standardization Agency, NSA; French: Bureau OTAN de normalisation) was a NATO agency created in 1951 to handle standardization activities for NATO. The NSA was formed through the merger of the Military Agency for Standardization and the Office for NATO Standardization. During the Agency Reforms, the NSA was transformed to the NATO Standardization Office (NSO) on 1 July 2014, headed by the Director of the NATO Standardization Office (DNSO).The NSO is composed of military and civilian staff that was created to be responsible for standardization for both the Military Committee and the North Atlantic Council It also provides standardization to NATO members military forces, with the goal of interoperability between member nations. It is also the responsibility of the NSO to initiate, administrate over and promulgate a Standardization Agreement (STANAG).NSO headquarters is located at the main NATO headquarters at Boulevard Léopold III, B-1110 Brussels, which is in Haren, part of the City of Brussels municipality.

SIMPLE (military communications protocol)

The Standard Interface for Multiple Platform Link Evaluation (SIMPLE) is a military communications protocol defined in NATO's Standardization Agreement STANAG 5602.


STANAG 1236 Glide Slope Indicators for Helicopter Operations from NATO Ships is a NATO Standardization Agreement which establishes minimum standard requirements for the nomenclature; light characteristics; beam spread and elevation; intensity and intensity control; stabilisation; and installation of glideslope indicators used in helicopter operations between ships of NATO nations.


STANAG 1472 NVD (Night Vision Device) Compatible Flight Deck Status Displays on Single Ships is a NATO Standardization Agreement which provides guidance in the design of NVD compatible Flight Deck status displays to promote maximum commonality between operating nations.


STANAG 3350 (Analogue Video Standard for Aircraft System Applications) is a NATO analog video Standardization Agreement for military aircraft avionics.

Video-capable sensors such as radars, FLIR, or video-guided missiles often provide a STANAG 3350 video output. STANAG3350 video is supplied as a component RGB signal with timing similar to a corresponding civilian composite video standard such as NTSC, PAL, or RS-343. Only the vertical and carrier frequency of the signal are defined by the standard, the horizontal resolution can vary from one implementation to another and still satisfy the STANAG 3350 standard.


STANAG 4082 - Adoption of a Standard Artillery Computer Meteorological Message (METCM) is a NATO Standardization Agreement to provide meteorological information for External ballistics. The information consists of virtual temperature, pressure, and wind speed/direction.The custodian of this STANAG is the MILMET panel, formerly BMWG, within NATO Headquarters. The most recent promulgated copy is Edition 2, dated 28 May 1969. An Edition 3 is currently undergoing ratification.

For a description of how STANAG 4082 relates to other STANAGs in the areas of ballistics and meteorology please see the following preview (also shown in slide 4 of the following presentation)


STANAG 4119 - Adoption of a Standard Cannon Artillery Firing Table Format is a NATO Standardization Agreement to describe standardized requirements for the development and publication of tabular firing tables for artillery and appropriate

mortar cartridges in both complete and abridged formats.

The format of TFTs was established prior to the advent of digital computers and was intended to allow for their use by gunners in carrying out manual calculations of artillery fire-control solutions. With the general use of computer software to determine

fire-control solutions, the role of TFTs has changed to one of manual backup for software-based fire-control solutions. TFTs are also employed to support exchanges of weapons, cartridges, and fire-control data between nations.

The custodian of this STANAG is Land Capability Group 3 - Sub Group 2 within the NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG). The most recent promulgated copy is Edition 2, dated 5 February 2007. Implementation of the STANAG is often accomplished by adoption of components of the SG2 Shareable (Fire Control) Software Suite (S4).

For a description of how STANAG 4119 relates to other STANAGs in the areas of ballistics and meteorology see the illustration.


STANAG 4140 - Adoption of a Standard Target Acquisition Meteorological Message (METTA) is a NATO Standardization Agreement to provide meteorological information such as refractive index, temperature, pressure and cloud cover for remotely piloted vehicles, drones, weapon locating radars and sound ranging systems.The custodian of this STANAG is the MILMET panel, formerly BMWG, within NATO Headquarters. The most recent promulgated copy is Edition 2, dated 28 May 2001.

STANAG 4140 relates to other Standardization Agreements in the areas of ballistics and meteorology, as shown in the attached pictorial representation (also shown in slide 4 of the following presentation)


STANAG 4355 - The Modified Point Mass and Five Degrees of Freedom Trajectory Model is a NATO Standardization Agreement for surface to surface exterior ballistic modelling in support of Artillery, mortar and rocket systems. This model is not as time consuming to solve as the rigid body system, and uses a force system, axial spin and an estimate of the yaw of repose.

The principal aim of this agreement is to standardize the exterior ballistic trajectory simulation methodology for NATO Naval and Army Forces. The Modified Point Mass model will be used for spin-stabilized projectiles and the Five Degrees of Freedom model will be used for fin-stabilized rockets. This facilitates the exchange of exterior ballistic data and fire control information. The custodian of this STANAG is Integrated Capability Group - Indirect Fires, Sub Group 2 within the NATO Army Armaments Group (NAAG). The most recent promulgated copy is Edition 3, dated 17 April 2009. Implementation of the STANAG is often accomplished by adoption of components of the SG2 Shareable (Fire Control) Software Suite (S4).

For a description of how STANAG 4355 relates to other STANAGs in the areas of ballistics and meteorology please see the following preview (also shown in slide 4 of the following presentation)


NATO AEP-55 STANAG 4569 is a NATO Standardization Agreement covering the standards for the "Protection Levels for Occupants of Logistic and Light Armored Vehicles".The standard covers strikes from Kinetic Energy, artillery, and IED blasts.


STANAG 4626 is a NATO Standardization Agreement which define a set of Open Architecture Standards for Avionics Architecture, particularly in the field of Integrated Modular Avionics. The purpose of this standard is to establish uniform requirements for the architecture for Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) systems as defined by the ASAAC program. A reference implementation is on Sourceforge under a Apache license.


STANAG 5066 (Profile for High Frequency (HF) Radio Data Communication) is a NATO Standardization Agreement specification to enable applications to communicate efficiently over HF radio.

STANAG 5066 provides peer protocols that operate above an HF modem and below the application level. STANAG 5066 includes the mandatory SIS (Subnet Interface Sublayer, sometimes called Subnet Interface Service) protocol that enables an application to connect to an HF modem through a STANAG 5066 server over TCP/IP. This enables a clean separation between application and modem.

The standard also defines two more layers, CAS which is intended to establish connections to other HF nodes and control the status of these connections, and DTS, which controls all the data manipulation for transmission (slicing, directioning, timing...) and the reconstruction in reception.

There are two basic modes of transmission defined by this standard. ARQ and NON-ARQ.

ARQ uses package confirmation (through ACK response packages), and sliding window technique, which size is 128 elements. The "sending-services" can also have delivery confirmation of every package they send. It is necessarily a point-to-point protocol. It can be compared to TCP.

NON-ARQ is a transmission mode in which the receiver node does not confirm the well-reception of the received packages. Receivers try to compose corrupted parts from future receptions, if it is impossible, the STANAG 5066 defines that the package has to be dispatched, and mark it with the known errored parts. This transmission mode allows to use point-to-point, point-to-group and broadcast. It can be compared to UDP in the IP philosophy.STANAG 5066 defines a SIS-to-SIS package size of 2048 bytes maximum, when using point-to-point transmitting mode (ARQ or NON-ARQ), and 4096 bytes when using broadcast (NON-ARQ only).

STANAG magazine

A STANAG magazine or NATO magazine is a type of detachable firearm magazine proposed by NATO in October 1980. Shortly after NATO's acceptance of the 5.56×45mm NATO rifle cartridge, Draft Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 4179 was proposed in order to allow NATO members to easily share rifle ammunition and magazines down to the individual soldier level. The U.S. M16 rifle's magazine proportions were proposed for standardization. Many NATO members, but not all, subsequently developed or purchased rifles with the ability to accept this type of magazine. However the standard was never ratified and remains a "Draft STANAG".

Multilateral relations

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