Standard Libraries (CLI)

The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) includes the Standard Libraries in order to encapsulate a large number of common functions, such as file reading and writing, XML document manipulation, exception handling, application globalization, network communication, threading and reflection, which makes the programmer's job easier. It is much larger in scope than standard libraries for most other languages, including C++, and is comparable in scope and coverage to the standard libraries of Java. The Framework Class Library (FCL) is the origin of the Standard Libraries as the .NET Framework, which includes the FCL, is the first implementation of the CLI.

Profiles

The main standard libraries are organized into two Standard Profiles, the Kernel Profile and the Compact Profile.[1] The following standard libraries do not belong to any profile: the Extended Array Library, the Extended Numerics Library, the Parallel Library and the Vararg Library.[2][3][4][5]

Kernel Profile

The Kernel Profile is a subset of the Compact Profile. The Kernel Profile contains the Base Class Library (BCL) and Runtime Infrastructure Library.[6]

Compact Profile

The Compact Profile contains those libraries in the Kernel Profile as well as the Network Library, the Reflection Library and the XML Library.[7]

Libraries

Base Class Library

The Base Class Library is a simple runtime library for modern programming languages. It serves as the Standard for the runtime library for the language C# as well as one of the CLI Standard Libraries. It provides types to represent the built-in data types of the CLI, simple file access, custom attributes, security attributes, string manipulation, formatting, streams, collections, among other things.[8] It defines types in the following namespaces:

System
Defines the Object class which all reference type objects derive from (including value-type objects) and the ValueType class which all value type objects derive from. It also defines the base data types like integers, floating point numbers, character, strings, Boolean, enumeration and more. Support for the environment and platform and a command-line interface is provided along with base classes for exceptions and attributes. It defines arrays and delegates, mathematical functions and many other types.
System.Collections
Defines many common container types used in programming, such as dictionaries, hashtables, lists, queues and stacks.
System.Collections.Generic
Defines generic types of the container types in the System.Collections namespace.
System.Diagnostics
Defines types that provide the ability to diagnose applications. It includes event logging, performance counters, tracing and interaction with system processes.
System.Globalization
Defines types that define culture-related information, including language, country/region, calendars in use, format patterns for dates, currency and numbers and sort order for strings.
System.IO
Defines type that enable reading from and writing to different streams, such as files or other data streams. Also provides a connection to the file system.
System.Security
Defines types that represent the security system and permissions.
System.Security.Permissions
Defines types that control access to operations and resources based on policy.
System.Text
Defines types that support various character encodings, regular expressions and a more efficient mechanism for manipulating strings.
System.Threading
Defines types that enable multithreaded programming.

Runtime Infrastructure Library

The Runtime Infrastructure Library provides the services needed by a compiler to target the CLI and the facilities needed to dynamically load types from a stream in a specified file format.[9] It defines types in the following namespaces:

System
Defines types for the application domain, pointers, handles and more.
System.Reflection
Defines types that provide a managed view of loaded types, methods and fields, and that can dynamically create and invoke types. These types are relevant to the program runtime.
System.Runtime.CompilerServices
Defines types that provide functionality for compiler writers who use managed code to specify attributes in metadata that affect the run-time behavior of the Virtual Execution System.
System.Runtime.InteropServices
Defines types that support Platform Invocation Services (P/Invoke).

Network Library

The Network Library provides simple networking services including direct access to network ports as well as HTTP support.[10] It defines types in the following namespaces:

System
Defines types that provide an object representation of a uniform resource identifier (URI) and easy access to the parts of the URI.
System.Collections.Specialized
Defines specialized and strongly-typed collections; for example, a linked list dictionary, a bit vector, and collections that contain only strings.
System.Net
Defines types that provide a simple programming interface for a number of network protocols.
System.Net.Sockets
Defines type that provide a managed implementation of the Windows Sockets (Winsock) interface for developers who need to tightly control access to the network.

Reflection Library

The Reflection Library provides the ability to examine the structure of types, create instances of types and invoke methods on types, all based on a description of the type.[11] It defines types in the following namespaces:

System
Defines the void type, a return value type for a method that does not return a value.
System.Globalization
Defines type that provide information about a specific culture (called a locale for unmanaged code development). The information includes the names for the culture, the writing system, the calendar used and formatting for dates and sort strings.
System.Reflection
Defines types that provide a managed view of loaded types, methods and fields, and that can dynamically create and invoke types.
System.Security.Permissions
Defines types that control access to operations and resources based on policy. These types are relevant to the reflection.

XML Library

The XML Library provides a simple "pull-style" parser for XML. It is designed for resource-constrained devices, yet provides a simple user model.[12] It defines types in the following namespace.

System.Xml
Defines types for processing XML.

Extended Array Library

The Extended Array Library provides support for non-vector arrays. That is, arrays that have more than one dimension or arrays that have non-zero lower bounds.[2] The Extended Array Library doesn't add any extra types, but it does extend the array-handling mechanism.[13]

Extended Numerics Library

The Extended Numerics Library provides support for floating-point (System.Single, System.Double) and extended-precision (System.Decimal) data types. Like the Base Class Library, this library is directly referenced by the C# standard.[3]

Parallel Library

The Parallel Library provides easy parallelism for non-expert programmers, so that multithreaded CPUs can be exploited.[4]

Vararg Library

The Vararg Library provides support for dealing with variable-length argument lists.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ "IV.3 The Standard Profiles". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 437.
  2. ^ a b "IV.5.8 Extended array library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 441.
  3. ^ a b "IV.5.7 Extended numerics library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 441.
  4. ^ a b "IV.5.10 Parallel library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 441.
  5. ^ a b "IV.5.9 Vararg library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 441.
  6. ^ "IV.3.1 The Kernel Profile". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 437.
  7. ^ "IV.3.2 The Compact Profile". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 437.
  8. ^ "IV.5.3 Base Class Library (BCL)". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 440.
  9. ^ "IV.5.2 Runtime infrastructure library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 440.
  10. ^ "IV.5.4 Network library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 440.
  11. ^ "IV.5.5 Reflection library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 440.
  12. ^ "IV.5.6 XML library". Standard ECMA-335 – Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) (Technical report) (6th ed.). Ecma International. June 2012. p. 440.
  13. ^ King, Jason; Easton, Mark (2004). "Chapter 4: The NET Framework Dissected". In Gilmore, Jason (ed.). Cross-Platform .NET Development: Using Mono, Portable.NET, and Microsoft .NET. Apress. p. 110. ISBN 1-59059-330-8. LCCN 2004018339.

External links

.NET Framework

.NET Framework (pronounced as "dot net") is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library named as Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR is an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code". FCL and CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.

FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their source code with .NET Framework and other libraries. The framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Microsoft also produces an integrated development environment largely for .NET software called Visual Studio.

.NET Framework began as proprietary software, although the firm worked to standardize the software stack almost immediately, even before its first release. Despite the standardization efforts, developers, mainly those in the free and open-source software communities, expressed their unease with the selected terms and the prospects of any free and open-source implementation, especially regarding software patents. Since then, Microsoft has changed .NET development to more closely follow a contemporary model of a community-developed software project, including issuing an update to its patent promising to address the concerns.

.NET Framework led to a family of .NET platforms targeting mobile computing, embedded devices, alternative operating systems, and web browser plug-ins. A reduced version of the framework, .NET Compact Framework, is available on Windows CE platforms, including Windows Mobile devices such as smartphones. .NET Micro Framework is targeted at very resource-constrained embedded devices. Silverlight was available as a web browser plugin. Mono is available for many operating systems and is customized into popular smartphone operating systems (Android and iOS) and game engines. .NET Core targets the Universal Windows Platform (UWP), and cross-platform and cloud computing workloads.

Common Language Infrastructure

The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification (technical standard) developed by Microsoft and standardized by ISO and ECMA that describes executable code and a runtime environment that allows multiple high-level languages to be used on different computer platforms without being rewritten for specific architectures. This implies it is platform agnostic. The .NET Framework, .NET Core, Mono, DotGNU and Portable.NET are implementations of the CLI.

Framework Class Library

The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a standard library and Microsoft's .NET Framework implementation of the Standard Libraries as defined in the Common Language Infrastructure. The FCL is a collection of reusable classes, interfaces and value types. The Base Class Library (BCL) is the core of the FCL and provides the most fundamental functionality, which includes classes in namespaces System, System.CodeDom, System.Collections, System.Diagnostics, System.Globalization, System.IO, System.Resources and System.Text.

List of .NET libraries and frameworks

This article contains a list of notable libraries that can be used in .NET languages. While the .NET framework provides a basis for application development, which provides platform independence, language interoperability and extensive framework libraries, the development ecosystem around .NET is dependent on user libraries that are developed independently of the framework.

Standard Libraries (CLI) (including the Base Class Library (BCL)) are not included in this article because they have a separate article.

Standard library

A standard library in computer programming is the library made available across implementations of a programming language. These libraries are conventionally described in programming language specifications; however, contents of a language's associated library may also be determined (in part or whole) by more informal practices of a language's community.

Architecture
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