A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in). The standard gauge is also called Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, International gauge, UIC gauge, uniform gauge, normal gauge and European gauge in the EU and Russia. It is the most widely used railway track gauge across the world, with approximately 55% of the lines in the world using it. All high-speed rail lines use standard gauge except those in Russia, Finland, Portugal and Uzbekistan. The distance between the inside edges of the rails is defined to be 1435 mm except in the United States, where it is still defined in U.S. customary units as exactly "four feet eight and one half inches" (0.1 mm larger than the metric standard).
As railways developed and expanded, one of the key issues was the track gauge (the distance, or width, between the inner sides of the rails) to be used. Different railways used different gauges, and where rails of different gauge met – a "gauge break" – loads had to be unloaded from one set of rail cars and re-loaded onto another, a time-consuming and expensive process. The result was the adoption throughout a large part of the world of a "standard gauge" of 1435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in), allowing interconnectivity and interoperability.
A popular legend that has been around since at least 1937 traces the origin of the 1435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) gauge even further back than the coalfields of northern England, pointing to the evidence of rutted roads marked by chariot wheels dating from the Roman Empire.[a] It is curious that the Roman pace or passus was 4.855 ft or 1435 mm; a thousand such was one Roman mile. Snopes categorised this legend as "false", but commented that "it is perhaps more fairly labelled as 'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons'". The historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles approximately 5 ft (1,524 mm) apart probably derives from the width needed to fit a carthorse in between the shafts. In addition, while road-travelling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims (and there is some evidence that the first railways were measured in this way as well), it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels (and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads) was the important one.
There was never a standard gauge for horse railways, but there were rough groupings: in the north of England none was less than 4 ft (1,219 mm). Wylam colliery's system, built before 1763, was 5 ft (1,524 mm), as was John Blenkinsop's Middleton Railway; the old 4 ft (1,219 mm) plateway was relaid to 5 ft (1,524 mm) so that Blenkinsop's engine could be used. Others were 4 ft 4 in (1,321 mm) (in Beamish) or 4 ft 7 1⁄2 (in Bigges Main (in Wallsend), Kenton, and Coxlodge).
The English railway pioneer George Stephenson spent much of his early engineering career working for the coal mines of County Durham. He favoured 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) for wagonways in Northumberland and Durham, and used it on his Killingworth line. The Hetton and Springwell wagonways also used this gauge.
Stephenson's Stockton and Darlington railway (S&DR) was built primarily to transport coal from mines near Shildon to the port at Stockton-on-Tees. The initial gauge of 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm) was set to accommodate the existing gauge of hundreds of horse-drawn chaldron wagons that were already in use on the wagonways in the mines. The railway used this gauge for 15 years before a change was made to the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge. The historic Mount Washington Cog Railway, the world's first mountain-climbing rack railway, is still in operation in the 21st century, and has used the earlier 4 ft 8 in gauge since its inauguration in 1868.
George Stephenson used the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge (including a belated extra 1⁄2 in (12.7 mm) of free movement to reduce binding on curves) for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, authorised in 1826 and opened 30 September 1830. The success of this project led to Stephenson and his son Robert being employed to engineer several other larger railway projects. Thus the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 gauge became widespread and dominant in Britain. Robert was reported to have said that if he had had a second chance to choose a standard gauge, he would have chosen one wider than 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm). "I would take a few inches more, but a very few".
During the "gauge war" with the Great Western Railway, standard gauge was called narrow gauge, in contrast to the Great Western's 7 ft 1⁄4 in broad gauge. The modern use of the term "narrow gauge" for gauges less than standard did not arise for many years, until the first such locomotive-hauled passenger railway, the Ffestiniog Railway was built.
In 1845, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, a Royal Commission on Railway Gauges reported in favour of a standard gauge. The subsequent Gauge Act ruled that new passenger-carrying railways in Great Britain should be built to a standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm), and those in Ireland to a new standard gauge of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm). In Great Britain, Stephenson's gauge was chosen on the grounds that existing lines of this gauge were eight times longer than those of the rival 7 ft (2,134 mm) (later 7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm)) gauge adopted principally by the Great Western Railway. It allowed the broad-gauge companies in Great Britain to continue with their tracks and expand their networks within the "Limits of Deviation" and the exceptions defined in the Act. After an intervening period of mixed-gauge operation (tracks were laid with three rails), the Great Western Railway finally completed the conversion of its network to standard gauge in 1892. In North East England, some early lines in colliery (coal mining) areas were 4 ft 8 in (1,422 mm), while in Scotland some early lines were 4 ft 6 in (1,372 mm). All these lines had been widened to standard gauge by 1846. The British gauges converged starting from 1846 as the advantages of equipment interchange became increasingly apparent. By the 1890s, the entire network was converted to standard gauge.
The Royal Commission made no comment about small lines narrower than standard gauge (to be called "narrow gauge"), such as the Ffestiniog Railway. Thus it permitted a future multiplicity of narrow gauges in the UK. It also made no comments about future gauges in British colonies, which allowed various gauges to be adopted across the colonies.
Parts of the United States, mainly in the Northeast, adopted the same gauge, because some early trains were purchased from Britain. The American gauges converged, as the advantages of equipment interchange became increasingly apparent. Notably, all the 5 ft (1,524 mm) broad gauge track in the South was converted to "almost standard" gauge 4 ft 9 in (1,448 mm) over the course of two days beginning on 31 May 1886. See Track gauge in the United States.
In continental Europe, France and Belgium adopted a 1,500 mm (59 in) gauge from axis to axis of rail for their early railways. The gauge between the interior edges of the rails (the measurement adopted from 1844) differed slightly between countries, and even between networks within a country (for example, 1440 to 1445 mm in France).
The first tracks in Austria and in the Netherlands had other gauges (1,000 mm or 3 ft 3 3⁄8 in in Austria for the Donau Moldau linen and 1,945 mm or 6 ft 4 9⁄16 in in the Netherlands for the Hollandsche IJzeren Spoorweg-Maatschappij), but for interoperability reasons (the first rail service between Paris and Berlin began in 1849, first Chaix timetable) Germany adopted standard gauges, as did most other European countries.
The modern method of measuring rail gauge was agreed in the first Berne rail convention of 1886, according to the "Revue générale des chemins de fer, July 1928".
|Albania||National rail network||339 km (211 mi)|
|Algeria||National rail network||3,973 km (2,469 mi)|
|Argentina||General Urquiza Railway (except for Ferrocarril Económico Correntino, which used 600 mm or 1 ft 11 5⁄8 in before its closing)
Buenos Aires Underground
Tren de la Costa
|Other major lines are mostly 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge, with the exception of the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge General Belgrano Railway.|
|Australia||Pacific National, Pilbara Railways, Sydney Metro, Melbourne trams, Glenelg tram, Gold Coast tram||Victoria built the first railways to the 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) Irish broad gauge. New South Wales then built to the standard gauge, so trains had to stop on the border and passengers transferred, which was only rectified in the 1960s. Queensland still runs on a narrow gauge but there is a standard gauge line from NSW to Brisbane.|
|Austria||Österreichische Bundesbahnen||The Semmering railway has UNESCO World Heritage Site status.|
|Bangladesh||To be used only for rapid transit system, Dhaka Metro Rail|
|Belgium||NMBS/SNCB, Brussels Metro and tramway|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Željeznice Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine and Željeznice Republike Srpske,
|Brazil||Estrada de Ferro do Amapá; from Uruguaiana to the border with Argentina and from Santana do Livramento to the border with Uruguay (both mixed gauge 1,435 mm and 1,000 mm or 3 ft 3 3⁄8 in metre gauge); remaining tracks at Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul (currently inoperable); Rio de Janeiro Light Rail; São Paulo Metro lines 4 and 5; Salvador Metro||194 km (121 mi)|
|Bulgaria||National Railway Infrastructure Company (NRIC),
Bulgarian State Railways (BDZ),
part of Sofia Tramway system
|Canada||National rail network (including commuter rail operators like GO Transit, West Coast Express, AMT and Union Pearson Express).||49,422 km (30,709 mi) |
The Toronto Transit Commission uses 4 ft 10 7⁄8 in (1,495 mm) gauge on its streetcar and subway lines.
|China||National rail network||103,144 km (64,091 mi)|
|Colombia||Metro de Medellín, Tren del Cerrejón, Metro de Bogotá|
|Cuba||Ferrocarriles de Cuba|
|Czech Republic||České dráhy,
all tram systems in the country (Liberec has dual gauge 1,000/1,435 mm, with one metre-gauge interurban line to Jablonec nad Nisou),
funicular in Prague
|Denmark||Banedanmark and Copenhagen Metro|
|Djibouti||Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway|
|Egypt||Egyptian National Railways|
|Ethiopia||Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway; Addis Ababa Light Rail||Other standard gauge lines under construction.|
|France||SNCF, RATP (on RER lines)|
|Gabon||Trans-Gabon Railway||669 km|
|Germany||Deutsche Bahn, numerous local public transport providers||43,468 km|
|Greece||Hellenic Railways Organisation (operated by TrainOSE)||All modern Greek network, except in the Peloponnese|
|Hong Kong||MTR (former KCR network – East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line, Light Rail)||Other MTR lines use 1,432 mm (4 ft 8 3⁄8 in) instead of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in|
Budapest metro, HÉV (Suburban railway),
Tram systems in Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, Szeged,
Budapest Cog-wheel Railway
|India||Only used for rapid transit and tram, Bangalore Metro, Chennai Metro, Delhi Metro (Phase 2 onwards), Rapid Metro Gurgaon, Hyderabad Metro, Jaipur Metro, Kochi Metro, Kolkata Metro (Line 2 onwards), Lucknow Metro, Mumbai Metro, Navi Mumbai Metro and Trams in Kolkata. All of the under-construction and future rapid transit systems would be in standard gauge.||Indian nationwide rail system (Indian Railways) uses 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Any future additions to this system would also be in broad gauge.|
|Indonesia||Railways in Aceh Province and Sulawesi||Rest of the country uses 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in).|
|Iran||Islamic Republic of Iran Railways|
|Iraq||Iraqi Republic Railways|
|The Republic of Ireland||Railway Procurement Agency||Luas in Dublin|
|Israel||Israel Railways, CTS, operating the Jerusalem Light Rail|
|Italy||Ferrovie dello Stato|
|Japan||Shinkansen, JR Hokkaido Naebo Works (see Train on Train), Keisei Line, Keikyu Line, Tokyo Metro (Ginza and Marunouchi lines), Toei Subway (Asakusa and Oedo lines), Kintetsu Railway (Osaka, Nara, Nagoya, Yamada, Kyoto, and Keihanna lines and their associated branches), Keihan Railway, Hankyu Railway, Hanshin Railway, Kyoto Municipal Subway, Kobe Municipal Subway, Osaka Metro, Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway, Fukuoka City Subway (Nanakuma Line), Sendai Subway (Tozai Line), Nagoya Municipal Subway (Higashiyama, Meijō, and Meikō lines), Nose Electric Railway, Yokohama Municipal Subway (Blue and Green lines)||4,251 km (2,641 mi), all electrified|
|Kenya||Mombasa-Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway||Inaugurated May 31, 2017|
|Lebanon||All lines out of service and essentially dismantled|
|Libya||Network under construction|
|Lithuania||Rail Baltica||First phase, from Kaunas to the Polish border, completed in 2015. Second phase, from Kaunas north to Tallinn, Estonia, is at planning stage.|
|Luxembourg||Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois|
|Malaysia||RapidKL (Kelana Jaya Line, Ampang Line, MRT Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line, MRT Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line), KLIA Ekspres, MRL East Coast Rail Link (under construction), Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail (planned)|
|Montenegro||Željeznice Crne Gore||3|
|Morocco||Rail transport in Morocco|
|Netherlands||Nederlandse Spoorwegen and regional railways.|
|Nigeria||Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway; Lagos Rail Mass Transit||Under construction; Abuja to Kaduna section operational.|
|North Korea||Railways of the DPRK.|
|North Macedonia||Macedonian Railways|
|Norway||Norwegian National Rail Administration, Rail transport in Norway|
|Pakistan||To be used only for rapid transit system, Lahore Metro||Pakistan's nationwide rail system (Pakistan Railways) uses 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Any future additions to this system would also be in broad gauge.|
|Panama||Panama Railway; Panama Metro||Regauged from 5 ft (1,524 mm) in 2001|
|Paraguay||Ferrocarril Presidente Don Carlos Antonio López, now Ferrocarril de Paraguay S.A. (FEPASA)||36 km out of Asunción (used as a tourist steam line), plus 5 km from Encarnación to the border with Argentina, carrying mainly exported soy; the rest of the 441-km line awaits its fate, while redevelopment plans come and go with regularity. The section from west of Encarnación to north of San Salvador, plus the entire San Salvador–Abaí branch, have been dismantled by the railway itself and sold for scrap to raise funds.|
|Peru||Railway Development Corporation, Ferrocarril Central Andino (Callao–Lima–La Oroya–Huancayo and La Oroya–Cerro del Pasco lines), Ferrocarril del sur de Peru (operated by Peru Rail) Matarani–Arequipa–Puno and Puno–Cuzco, Ilo–Moquegua mining railway, Tacna–Arica (Chile) international line, (operated by Tacna Province), Lima electric suburban railway|
|Philippines||Manila Light Rail Transit System Lines 1 and 2, and Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 3.||Philippine National Railways currently use Cape Gauge, but upcoming PNR NSCR will use standard gauge. Upcoming Line 7 and Metro Manila Subway will also use standard gauge.|
|Poland||Polskie Koleje Państwowe, Warsaw Metro, most tramway systems throughout the country|
|Portugal||Planned high-speed lines, Braga and Oporto (Guindais) funiculars, Lisbon Metro, Oporto Metro (partly adapted from former 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge; tracks), Metro Transportes do Sul light rail in Almada.||All other railways use 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) (broad gauge); some use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge; Decauville uses 500 mm (19 3⁄4 in) gauge.|
|Romania||Căile Ferate Române, Bucharest Metro,
Tram systems in Botoşani, Brăila, Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Galaţi, Oradea, Ploieşti and Timișoara
|Russia||Rostov-on-Don tramway, lines connecting Kaliningrad with Poland|
|Saudi Arabia||Rail transport in Saudi Arabia|
|Singapore||MRT, Kuala Lumpur–Singapore High Speed Rail (planned)|
|Slovakia||Železnice Slovenskej republiky, Košice tramway system|
|South Africa||Gautrain in Gauteng Province||Rest of country uses 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)|
|Spain||AVE high-speed rail lines from Madrid to Seville, Málaga, Saragossa, Barcelona (-Perthus), Toledo, Huesca, and Valladolid, Barcelona Metro (L2, L3, L4, and L5 lines), Barcelona FGC (lines L6 and L7), and Metro Vallès (lines S1, S2, S5, and S55).||All other railways use 1,668 mm (5 ft 5 21⁄32 in) (broad gauge) and/or 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge.|
|Sweden||Swedish Transport Administration, Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (Stockholm metro, commuter and light rail lines), tram networks in Gothenburg and Norrköping|
|Switzerland||Swiss Federal Railways, BLS, Rigi Railways (rack railway)|
|Syria||Chemins de Fer Syriens|
|Taiwan||Taipei Rapid Transit System, Taiwan High Speed Rail, and Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit|
|Thailand||BTS Skytrain, MRT, and Suvarnabhumi Airport Link|
|Tunisia||Northern part of the network|
|Turkey||Turkish State Railways (also operates Marmaray), metro networks, and tram networks||Some tram networks use 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge.|
|United Arab Emirates||Rail transport in the United Arab Emirates|
|United Kingdom (Great Britain)||Entire rail network in Great Britain (but not Ireland) since standardisation by the Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846||Also used on all metro and tramway systems with the exception of the self-contained Glasgow Subway, which is 4 ft (1,219 mm).|
|United States||Modern national railroad network; see Track gauge in the United States||The Washington Metro uses 4 ft 8 1⁄4 in (1,429 mm) gauge, which is 6 mm (0.24 in) narrower than standard gauge.|
|Uruguay||National rail network|
|Vietnam||North of Hanoi||Includes dual gauge (standard/metre) to the Chinese border.|
The EMD G12 was a class of locomotive built by GM-EMD, and its Canadian affiliate General Motors Diesel. In addition, Australian licensee Clyde Engineering built ten locomotives for New Zealand in 1957, five for Hong Kong, 23 for Queensland, 14 for Western Australia and seven for BHP. Australian licensee Commonwealth Engineering also built 42 for Queensland Rail in 1964–66. Many examples were built in the 1950-1960s for railroads all over the world.
They are powered by EMD 12-567C prime movers rated at 1,250 hp (930 kW). Some have been rebuilt with EMD 645 engines. The A1A-A1A version had a lower axle loading than the Bo-Bo version.EMD G18
The EMD G18 was an export locomotive introduced by GM-EMD in the late 1960s. The standard EMD suffixes applied after the G18 designation to indicate if the customer purchased locomotives with specific traction motors to fit narrow gauge (U) or broad gauge (W) rails. An (L) indicates a locomotive built with a lightweight frame, and (6) indicates A1A-A1A trucks. The similar EMD GA18 was a G18 designed as an extremely light locomotive with low axle loading and used freight car trucks driven by a cardan shaft and underframe mounted traction motors like its predecessor, the EMD GA8. A further variation was the G18B. They are powered by an EMD 8-645E prime mover rated at 1100 bhp and 1000 hp for traction and were produced with A1A-A1A or B-B trucks.
Several countries have purchased these locomotives.EMD G8
The EMD G8 was a General Motors-built diesel-electric locomotive of which 382 were built between 1954 and 1965 for both export and domestic use. They were built by both Electro-Motive Division in the United States and by General Motors Diesel Division in Canada for use in ten countries, being equipped to operate on several different track gauges.EMD GA8
The EMD GA8 was an export locomotive designed by GM-EMD in the late 1950s as a simplified design for use on overseas railways with light rail and sharp curves.
At the time of its introduction it was described as an extremely lightweight road locomotive capable of handling passenger or freight trains and switching.
The locomotive is notable for its use of freight car trucks that are driven by cardan shafts and two traction motors attached to the underframe. Measuring 32 feet 6 inches, they are equipped with an 8-567C prime mover capable of producing 875 bhp or 800 hp traction.
Due to the design, most servicing and maintenance could be done without removing the traction motors from the underframe or trucks of the locomotive.
The units were built without multiple unit connection capability so electrical components are kept to a minimum.
The EMD GL8 was a derivative design introduced in 1960 that is similar to the GA8 but used standard B-B or A1A-A1A trucks and was equipped with multiple unit capability.
The EMD GA8 prototype demonstrator unit was built in late 1958 or early 1959 and export customer production commenced in 1960. The GA8 demonstrator also attracted considerable attention from several US railroads, although ultimately none would ever purchase the locomotive for domestic use.
Several countries purchased the locomotive and examples are still in operation today.EMD MRS-1
The EMD MRS-1 is a type of road switcher diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division for the United States Army Transportation Corps (USATC) in 1952. They were built with multigauge trucks and to a narrow loading gauge for service anywhere in the world in the event of war. Thirteen of the locomotives were built, with serial numbers 15873–15885. At almost $500,000 each in 1952 dollars,
more than three times the price of a standard locomotive of the period,
these were very expensive locomotives.
Declared un-needed for wartime operations in about 1970, they were then used on various military bases around the United States, with some serving on the Alaska Railroad. Five locomotives are preserved, three currently in operating condition.EMD Model 40
The EMD Model 40 was a two-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by Electro-Motive Corporation (EMC), and its corporate successor, General Motors' Electro-Motive Division (EMD) between August 1940 and April 1943. Nicknamed "critters", eleven examples of this locomotive were built. Powered by twin General Motors Detroit Diesel 6-71 diesel engines, which produce a combined 300 horsepower (224 kW). Original buyers included the Electro-Motive Corporation/EMD Plant #2 switcher, Defense Plant Corporation-4 units, the United States Army 3 units, and the United States Navy 2 units, General Motors Cleveland Diesel Division 1 unit.East African Railway Master Plan
The East African Railway Master Plan is a proposal for rejuvenating the railways serving Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda and adding railways to serve Rwanda and Burundi. The objective is to further the economic development of eastern Africa by increasing the efficiency and speed, and lowering the cost, of transporting cargo between major ports on the Indian Ocean coast and the interior.
All new railways will be standard-gauge, and existing narrow-gauge railways will be rehabilitated. The plan accounts for break of gauge issues and aims for a good interoperability within the resulting hybrid railway network. A later step would expand the eastern Africa railway network to South Sudan, Ethiopia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). The plan is managed by infrastructure ministers from participating East African Community countries in association with transport consultation firm CPCS Transcom Limited.High-speed rail in Latvia
Current plans call for a high-speed Rail Baltica that will connect the Latvian capital Riga with Pärnu and Tallinn to the north and with Kaunas and Warsaw to the south. Reports in March 2011 indicate plans are moving towards a standard gauge railway.The project will be financed by the budget of Latvia (50%) and by the European Union TEN-T budget, Structural and Cohesion Funds provided to the EU New Member States.Railways currently have a low number of passengers along the north-south route in Latvia. If the north-south going railways are converted to standard gauge, the west-east railways are still not likely to be converted, since they are used for freight and passenger trains to Russia and Belarus.
There is also a consideration to build a new west-east high-speed railway Riga–Moscow.History of rail transport in Equatorial Guinea
This article is part of the history of rail transport by country seriesThe history of rail transport in Equatorial Guinea began in 1913, when a standard-gauge railway was constructed from the capital of Equatorial Guinea, Santa Isabel, to the nearby villages of Banapa and Basupo. In 1929 this railway was extended to the shore near Basupo but the line was unprofitable and was then closed.There is currently no rail transport in Equatorial Guinea.Isaka–Kigali Standard Gauge Railway
The Isaka–Kigali Standard Gauge Railway is a planned railway line linking the town of Isaka in Tanzania to the city of Kigali in Rwanda.Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway
The Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway is an under construction standard gauge railway across Nigeria, from the Atlantic Ocean port of Lagos to Kano, near the Niger border. The railway will run parallel to the British-built Cape gauge line, which has a lower design capacity and is in a deteriorated condition.The railway is being built in segments. Only the segment between Abuja and Kaduna has been completed so far, and services began officially in July 2016. The segment between Lagos and Ibadan is under construction.Launceston Steam Railway
The Launceston Steam Railway is a 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in (597 mm) narrow gauge railway operating from the town of Launceston in Cornwall. The railway is built on the trackbed of the North Cornwall Railway to 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in (597 mm) narrow gauge and runs for 2 1⁄2 miles (4 km) to Newmills, where there is a farm park.Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway
The Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway is a standard-gauge railway (SGR) in Kenya that connects the large Indian Ocean city of Mombasa with Nairobi, the country's capital and largest city. This SGR runs parallel to the defunct narrow-gauge Uganda Railway that was completed in 1901 under British colonial rule. The East African Railway Master Plan provides for the Mombasa–Nairobi SGR to link with other SGRs being built in the East African Community.At a cost of US$3.6 billion, the SGR is Kenya's most expensive infrastructure project since independence. The prime contractor was the China Road and Bridge Corporation, which hired 25,000 Kenyans to work on the railway. Phase 2A of this project was launched officially in October 2016.The first fare-paying passengers boarded the "Madaraka Express" on Madaraka Day (1 June 2017), the 54th anniversary of Kenya's attainment of self-rule from Great Britain. Commercial freight services began on 1 January 2018. Passenger uptake has exceeded expectations, with the train carrying 2 million riders in the first 17 months of operation.Rail transport in Kenya
Rail transport in Kenya consists of a metre-gauge network that is in poor condition and a new standard gauge railway (SGR). Both railways connect Kenya's main port city of Mombasa to the interior, running through the national capital of Nairobi. The metre-gauge network runs to the Ugandan border, and the Mombasa–Nairobi Standard Gauge Railway, backed by chinese loan, is being extended to the Ugandan border as of June 2017.Rwanda Standard Gauge Railway
The Rwanda Standard Gauge Railway is a railway system, under development, linking the country to the neighboring countries of Tanzania and Uganda. The system is expected to link, in the future, to Rwanda's two other neighbors, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Through Uganda, the SGR will allow, faster access to the Kenyan port of Mombasa, Rwanda's primary access to the oceans. With no previously existing railway network, Rwanda is developing its railway system from scratch.TU7 diesel locomotive
TU7 (ТУ7) - Soviet, later Russian diesel locomotive for gauge 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) – 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in).Uganda Standard Gauge Railway
The Uganda Standard Gauge Railway is a planned railway system linking the country to the neighboring countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Sudan. The new Standard Gauge Railway (SGR), is intended to replace the old, inefficient metre-gauge railway system.Western standard gauge railway line
The Western standard gauge railway line is a standard-gauge railway line in western Victoria, Australia. Opened in 1995, it forms part of the Melbourne–Adelaide rail corridor and serves as the principal interstate rail link between Victoria and the western states. The line replaced a number of former broad gauge routes which were gauge converted, and today sees both intrastate and interstate freight traffic, as well as the twice weekly (in each direction) The Overland passenger service. Major towns on the route include Geelong, Ararat, Horsham and Dimboola.