Stand-up comedy is a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience, usually speaking directly to them. The performer is commonly known as a comic, stand-up comic, comedian, comedienne, stand-up comedian, or simply a stand-up. In stand-up comedy, the comedian gives the illusion that they are dialoguing, but in actuality, they are monologuing a grouping of humorous stories, jokes and one-liners, typically called a shtick, routine, or set. Some stand-up comedians use props, music or magic tricks  to enhance their acts. Stand-up comedy is stated to be the "freest form of comedy writing" that is normally regarded as an "extension of" the person performing. The improvisation of stand-up is often compared to jazz music. A comedian's process of writing is likened to the process of song writing. A comedian's ability to tighten their material has been likened to crafting a samurai sword.
Some of the main types of humor in stand-up comedy include observational comedy, blue comedy, dark comedy, clean comedy, and cringe comedy. Alternative stand-up comedy deviates from the traditional, mainstream comedy by breaking either joke structure, performing in an untraditional scene, or breaking an audience's expectations; this includes, but is not limited to, the use of shaggy dog stories and anti-jokes.
Stand-up comedy is often performed in corporate events, comedy clubs, bars and pubs, nightclubs, neo-burlesques, colleges and theatres (audiences will give applause breaks more often in theaters ). Outside live performance, stand-up is often distributed commercially via television, DVD, CD and the internet.
As the name implies, "stand-up" comedians usually perform their material while standing, though this is not mandatory. Similar acts performed while seated can be referred to as "sit-down comedy".
"Comedians are more likely to exhibit psychotic[-like] traits" than the average person; most comedians display "magical thinking" and are "introverted[ly]" "anhedoni[c]".
In stand-up comedy, from the time the audience enters the building, their feedback is instant and crucial for the comedian's act. Audiences expect a stand-up comedian to provide four to six laughs per minute, and a performer is always under pressure to deliver, especially the first two minutes.
A stand-up comedy show may (rarely) be one comedian; a multi-person, showcase format; or the traditional opener, feature, and headliner. A traditional format typically features an opening act known as a host, compère (UK), master of ceremonies (MC/emcee), or simply "opener" who, for 10-12 minutes, usually warms up the crowd, interacts with audience members, makes announcements, and then introduces the other performers; this is followed by a "middle"/"feature" act that lasts 15-20 minutes but is expected to have "30 minutes of solid material"; the feature act is followed by the headliner, who performs for "an hour." The second definition of an opener is applied when the opening act of a traveling comedian may perform a 25-minute set (the opener doubles as a feature). The "showcase" format consists of several acts who perform for roughly equal lengths of time, typical in smaller clubs such as the Comedy Cellar, or Jongleurs, or at large events where the billing of several names allows for a larger venue than the individual comedians could draw. A showcase format may still feature an MC.
Many smaller venues hold open mic events, where anyone can take the stage and perform for the audience. This offers an opportunity for amateur performers to hone their craft and perhaps to break into the profession, or for established professionals to work on their material. Industry scouts will sometimes go to watch open mics. Breaking into the business requires "10 minute[s]" of "A" material. Roadhouses (remote clubs) start booking people for "20 minutes of 'A' material". "A" material means getting a big laugh at least "75% of the time".
"Bringer shows" are open mics that require amateur performers to bring a specified number of paying guests to receive stage time. Some view this as exploitation, while others disagree. The guests usually have to pay a cover charge and there is often a minimum number of drinks that must be ordered. These shows usually have a "showcase" format. Different comedy clubs have different requirements for their bringer shows. Gotham Comedy Club in New York City, for example, usually has ten-person bringers, while Broadway Comedy Club in New York City usually has six-person bringers. In the '90s, the New York Comedy Club had pre-shows that were bringer shows; they also had audition scams with an "accelerated pre-show program." In metropolitan areas, bringer shows may potentially give comedians better exposure than open mics, because there is usually better audience turnout.
This is an unpaid, five-to-ten-minute time slot (during the emcee's time slot of a professional show) that is essentially an audition to get booked for paid gigs.
In stand-up comedy, a "canned" joke is made of a "premise...point of view" and "twist" ending. A joke contains the least amount of information necessary to be conveyed, understood, and laughed at; the setup contains the information needed by the audience in order to understand the punchline. Most of stand-up comedy's jokes are the juxtaposition of two incongruous things. According to the founding editor of The Onion, there are eleven types of jokes. Stand-up comedians will normally deliver their jokes in the form of a typical joke structure, using comedic timing to deliver the setup and then the punch line. Stand-ups will normally frame their stories as having happened "recently." The comedian's delivery of a joke—the pause, inflection, "ener[gy]," and look—is "everything". Comedians often include taglines (dependent punchlines that follow another punchline) and toppers (independent afterthoughts that follow a punchline). Some sources may use tags, toppers, and afterthoughts as synonyms.
A jokoid is a placeholder joke, which will eventually be superseded by a funnier joke. Stock jokes are similar to jokoids (as placeholders) and are hack jokes that are for "specific situations". A paraprosdokian is a popular method that is used by comedians, creating a surprising punchline that causes the listener to reinterpret the setup. Stand-ups will often use the rule of three. Comedians will normally include stylistic and comedic devices, such as tropes, idioms, and wordplay.
A traditional set is made of jokes (setup and punchline), bits (a joke or "3 or 4 jokes"), and chunks (multiple bits linked by a topic that may last "10-15 minutes"). Long bits must have the biggest laugh at their endings. Once a setup is established for a bit, the proceeding "jokes" should get shorter and shorter. A segue is the link between jokes. A callback is a reference to a previous joke. Bombing refers to when a comedian has failed to get an intended laugh. The quality of a comedian's material is more important than their persona, unless they are well known. A good comedian will create a tendentious-like tension that the audience releases with laughter. This is known as a "relief/release" laugh. A comedian's stand-up persona/voice consists of the type of material they perform, the format of the material, the aggregate set, the comedian's rapport with the audience, and the comedian's "own identity."
When a set is consistently bombing, most comedians will perform "crowd work" by communicating with audience members to save face; much of crowd work is prewritten with added improvisation.  Some comedians will use small talk that directs audience members to answer "a question" that the comedian "[has] a topper" for. Other comedians will become more intimate with their questions until they get multiple big laughs, before moving on.  The result of crowd work is often an inside joke.
A "tight five" is a five-minute stand-up routine that is well rehearsed and consists of a stand-up comedian’s best material that reliably gets laughs. It is often used for auditions or delivered when audience response is minimal. A tight five is the stepping stone to getting a paid spot.
Comics memorize their jokes through the use of on-stage practice/blocking. Some comedians employ a mnemonic device called the method of loci (memory palace technique) to remember their jokes. Some write their jokes over and over, while others have a set list in front of them; for professionals, this may be on cue cards or a stage monitor. 
A heckler is a person who interrupts a comedian's set. Comedians will often have a repertoire of comebacks for hecklers.  Comedians will sometimes get into physical altercations with hecklers.
A comedian who "punches down" is committing a comedy taboo by criticizing an individual or the collective whole of a disenfranchised group of people that they themselves are not a part of.
Claiming one can smell the road on a comic is a pejorative phrase for a comedian who has compromised their own originality to get laughs while travelling. Comedian Seth Meyers coined the term "clapter": when an audience cheers for a joke, that they agree with, that is not funny enough to get a laugh.
A hack is a pejorative term for a comedian with rushed, unoriginal, low-quality, or cliché material. One proposed amelioration to hackneyed material is an essay by George Orwell called, Politics and the English Language: The Six Rules.
A warm-up act (crowd warmer) performs at comedy clubs, before the filming of a television comedy in front of a studio audience, or the beginning of music concerts to prepare the crowd for the show or main act.
Stand-up comedy in the United Kingdom began in the music halls of the 18th and 19th centuries. Notable performers who rose through the 20th century music hall circuit were Morecambe and Wise, Arthur Askey, Ken Dodd and Max Miller, who was considered to be the quintessential music-hall comedian. Until 1968, the heavy censorship regime of the Lord Chamberlain's Office required all comedians to submit their acts for censorship. The act would be returned with unacceptable sections underlined in blue pencil (possibly giving rise to the term "blue" for a comedian whose act is considered bawdy or smutty). The comedian was then obliged not to deviate from the act in its edited form.
The rise of the post-war comedians coincided with the rise of television and radio, and the traditional music hall circuit suffered greatly as a result. By the 1970s, music hall entertainment was virtually dead. Alternative circuits had evolved, such as working men's clubs. Some of the more successful comedians on the working men's club circuit—including Bernard Manning, Bobby Thompson, Frank Carson and Stan Boardman — eventually made their way to television via such shows as The Wheeltappers and Shunters Social Club. The "alternative" comedy scene also began to evolve. Some of the earliest successes came from folk clubs, where performers such as Billy Connolly, Mike Harding and Jasper Carrott started as relatively straight musical acts whose between-song banter developed into complete comedy routines. The 1960s had also seen the satire boom, including the creation of the club, the Establishment, which, amongst other things, gave British audiences their first taste of extreme American stand-up comedy from Lenny Bruce. Victoria Wood launched her stand-up career in the early 1980s, which included observational conversation mixed with comedy songs. Wood was to become one of the country's most successful comedians, in 2001 selling out the Royal Albert Hall for 15 nights in a row.
In 1979, the first American-style stand-up comedy club, the Comedy Store was opened in London by Peter Rosengard, where many alternative comedy stars of the 1980s, such as Dawn French and Jennifer Saunders, Alexei Sayle, Craig Ferguson, Rik Mayall and Ade Edmondson began their careers. The stand-up comedy circuit rapidly expanded from London across the UK. The present British stand-up comedy circuit arose from the 'alternative' comedy revolution of the 1980s, with political and observational humor being the prominent styles to flourish. In 1983, young drama teacher Maria Kempinska created Jongleurs Comedy Clubs, now the largest stand-up comedy chain in Europe. Stand up comedy is believed to have been performed originally as a one-man show. Lately, this type of show started to involve a group of young comedians, especially in Europe.
Although the antecedents of this genre can be traced back to the monologues of Miguel Gila in the 1950s, the rise of live comedy in Spain took a long time in comparison with the American continent. The first generalized relationship with this comic genre occurred in 1999 with the creation of the Paramount Comedy channel, which included the New Comics program as one of its flagship programs, where monologuists such as Ángel Martín, José Juan Vaquero, David Broncano, and Joaquín Reyes stood out. Also, in 1999 began the journey of the program The club of comedy, an open adaptation of the popular comic format. In its first stage (1999-2005), it underwent several chain changes and released comedians like Luis Piedrahita, Alexis Valdes or Goyo Jiménez. In its new stage, starting in 2011 in La Sexta and presented by Eva Hache, it tries to start in the genre of comic monologue media characters from different artistic fields such as: Imanol Arias, José Luis Gil, Isabel Ordaz and Santiago Segura. Special mention deserves the Buenafuente program, started in 2005. The presenter, Andreu Buenafuente, made an initial monologue of about 9 to 11 minutes where he links current issues with everyday humorous situations. This became the most famous part of the program and made him one of the most recognized comedians in Spain, for his connection with the public and his ability to improvise. On the other hand, the comedian Ignatius Farray became one of the most representative icons of this genre today.
Stand-up comedy in the United States got its start from the stump-speech monologues of minstrel shows in the early 19th century. It also has roots in various traditions of popular entertainment of the late 19th century, including vaudeville, English music hall, burlesque or early variety shows, humorist monologues by personalities such as Mark Twain, and circus clown antics. With the turn of the century and ubiquitousness of urban and industrial living, the structure, pacing and timing, and material of American humor began to change. Comedians of this era often depended on fast-paced joke delivery, slapstick, outrageous or lewd innuendo, and donned an ethnic persona—African, Scottish, German, Jewish—and built a routine based on popular stereotypes. Jokes were generally broad and material was widely shared, or in some cases, stolen. Industrialized American audiences sought entertainment as a way to escape and confront city living.
The founders of modern American stand-up comedy include Moms Mabley, Jack Benny, Bob Hope, George Burns, Fred Allen, Milton Berle and Frank Fay all of whom came from vaudeville or the Chitlin' Circuit. They spoke directly to the audience as themselves, in front of the curtain, known as performing "in one". Frank Fay gained acclaim as a "master of ceremonies" at New York's Palace Theater. Vaudevillian Charlie Case (also spelled Charley Case) is often credited with the first form of stand-up comedy, performing humorous monologues without props or costumes. This had not been done before during a vaudeville show.
Nightclubs and resorts became the new breeding ground for stand-ups. Acts such as Alan King, Danny Thomas, Martin and Lewis, Don Rickles, Joan Rivers and Jack E. Leonard flourished in these new arenas.
In the 1950s and into the 1960s, stand-ups such as Mort Sahl began developing their acts in small folk clubs like San Francisco's hungry i (owned by impresario Enrico Banducci and origin of the ubiquitous "brick wall" behind comedians) or New York's Bitter End. These comedians added an element of social satire and expanded both the language and boundaries of stand-up, venturing into politics, race relations, and sexual humor. Lenny Bruce became known as 'the' obscene comic when he used language that usually led to his arrest. After Lenny Bruce, arrests for obscene language on stage nearly disappeared until George Carlin was arrested on 21 July 1972 at Milwaukee's Summerfest after performing the routine "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television" (the case against Carlin was eventually dismissed).
Other notable comics from this era include Woody Allen, Shelley Berman, Phyllis Diller, and Bob Newhart. Some Black American comedians such as Redd Foxx, George Kirby, Bill Cosby, and Dick Gregory began to cross over to white audiences during this time.
In the 1970s, several entertainers became major stars based on stand-up comedy performances. Richard Pryor and George Carlin followed Lenny Bruce's acerbic style to become icons. Stand-up expanded from clubs, resorts, and coffee houses into major concerts in sports arenas and amphitheaters. Steve Martin and Bill Cosby had levels of success with gentler comic routines. The older style of stand-up comedy (no social satire) was kept alive by Rodney Dangerfield and Buddy Hackett, who enjoyed revived careers late in life. Don Rickles, whose legendary style of relentless merciless attacks on both fellow performers and audience members alike kept him a fixture on TV and in Vegas from the 1960s all the way to the 2000s, when he appeared in the wildly popular Pixar Toy Story films as Mr Potato Head, who just happened to share Don's grouchy onstage mannerisms. Television programs such as Saturday Night Live and The Tonight Show helped publicize the careers of other stand-up comedians, including Janeane Garofalo, Bill Maher and Jay Leno.
From the 1970s to the '90s, different styles of comedy began to emerge, from the madcap stylings of Robin Williams, to the odd observations of Jerry Seinfeld and Ellen DeGeneres, the ironic musings of Steven Wright, to the mimicry of Whoopi Goldberg, and Eddie Murphy. These comedians would serve to influence the next generation of comedians.
In terms of live comedy in Mexico, the predecessors of this comic style are:
The new generation of comedians decided to use their own lives as the theme of their comedy, imitating the American style:
Modern stand-up comedy in India is a young artform, however Chakyar koothu was prominent in Trivandrum and southern Kerala during the 16th and 17th centuries. It had all the attributes of modern stand-up comedy and is widely considered to be the oldest known staged comedy act anywhere in the world.
Even though the history of live comedy performances in India traces its early roots back to 1980s, for a long time stand-up comedians were only given supporting/filler acts in various performances (dance or music).
In 1986, India's Johnny Lever performed in a charity show called "Hope 86", in front of the whole Hindi film industry as a filler and was loved by audience. His talent was recognized, and he would later be described as "the iconic comedian of his generation".
It was not until 2005, when the TV show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge garnered huge popularity and stand-up comedy in itself started getting recognised. Thus, a lot more comedians became popular and started performing various live and TV shows. The demand for comedy content continues to increase. Some popular comedians around 2005-2008 include Raju Srivastav, Kapil Sharma, Sunil Pal etc. Most of them performed their acts in Hindi.
Raju Srivastav first appeared on the comedy talent show The Great Indian Laughter Challenge. He finished as second runner-up and then took part in the spin-off, The Great Indian Laughter Challenge — Champions, in which he won the title of "The King of Comedy". Srivastava was a participant on season 3 of Bigg Boss. He has participated in the comedy show Comedy Ka Maha Muqabla.
Kapil Sharma is ranked no. 3 at the most admired Indian personality list by The Economic Times in 2015. Currently he is hosting the most popular Indian comedy show "The Kapil Sharma Show" after "Comedy Nights with Kapil". Sharma had been working in the comedy show Hasde Hasande Raho on MH One, until he got his first break in The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, one of the nine reality television shows he has won. He became the winner of the show in 2007 for which he won 10 lakhs as prize money.
Sharma participated in Sony Entertainment Television’s Comedy Circus. He became the winner of all six seasons of "Comedy Circus" he participated in. He has hosted dance reality show Jhalak Dikhhla Jaa Season 6 and also hosted comedy show Chhote Miyan. Sharma also participated in the show Ustaadon Ka Ustaad.
Around the 2008-2009, two other popular comedians Papa CJ and Vir Das returned to India and started making their marks on Indian comedy scene. Both of them were exposed to UK and US comedy routines and they performed mostly in English. At the same time, a few more youngsters got inspired and started taking plunge into stand-up comedy.
Since 2011, the stand-up comedy has been getting substantial appreciation. The Comedy Store from London opened an outlet in Mumbai's Palladium Mall where people would regularly enjoy comedians from UK. The Comedy Story also supported local comedians and helped them grow. This outlet eventually become Canvas Laugh Club in Mumbai.
Around 2011, people started organizing different comedy open mic events in Mumbai, Delhi (and Gurgaon), Bangalore. All of this happened in association with growth of a counterculture in Indian cities which catered to the appetite of younger generations for live events for comedy, poetry, storytelling, and music. Various stand up events were covered by popular news channels such NDTV / Aajtak etc. and were appreciated by millions of viewers.
As a result of these developments, plus the increasing penetration of YouTube (along with Internet/World Wide Web), Indian stand up comedy started reaching further masses. While the established comedians such as Vir Das, Papa CJ were independently growing through various corporate / international performances, other comedians such as Vipul Goyal, Biswa Kalyan Rath, Kenny Sebastian, Kanan Gill grew popular through YouTube videos. The industry, still in its early stages, now sees a lot more influx of aspiring comedians as it transforms the ecosystem around it.
Mark Twain and Jerry Seinfeld, both American masters of stand-up comedy, believe in practice and rehearsal. Twain prepared, rehearsed, revised and adapted his material for his popular humorous presentations. Seinfeld says: "Most contemporary comedy is profane, outraged and disposable" but his philosophy is to give the best that he has.
Comedy schools work with new comics to workshop material, assisting comics work to overcome stage fright and better their writing skills by helping their classmates improve their sets. Comedy schools offer improvisation classes for comics so that they are more comfortable straying from written material such as when dealing with hecklers. Improvisation is also necessary when working among crowd and interacting with the audience.
Stand-up comedy is the focus of four major international festivals: the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in Edinburgh, Scotland; Just for Laughs in Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario in Canada; HBO's U.S. Comedy Arts Festival in Aspen, CO, and the Melbourne International Comedy Festival in Melbourne, Australia.  A number of other festivals operate around the world, including The Comedy Festival in Las Vegas, the Vancouver Comedy Festival, the New York Comedy Festival, the Boston Comedy and Film Festival, the New York Underground Film Festival, the Sydney Comedy Festival, and the Cat Laughs Comedy Festival in Kilkenny, Ireland. Radio hosts Opie and Anthony also produce a comedy tour called Opie and Anthony's Traveling Virus Comedy Tour, featuring their own co-host, Jim Norton as well as several other stand-up comedians regularly featured on their radio show. There is also a festival in Hong Kong called the HK International Comedy Festival.
The festival format attracts attention from the media to the art of stand-up and is often used as scouting and proving ground by industry professionals seeking new comedy talent.
There are two associations that lead the college circuit: the Association for the Promotion of Campus Activites (APCA) (which has 200 member colleges) and the National Association for Campus Activities (NACA) (which has 1,100 member colleges).
Comedians in the USA and Canada audition for NACA to hundreds of college and university bookers,  first with a 90-second video submission, and then a ten-minute, in-person audtion to perform hour-long sets. 
Sets must not trigger students by "punching down," contain any denigrating material,  or contain dark or blue humor; it must be "intelligent humor" and contain subjects that college-aged adults express contempt for. 
Higher education, that was once seen as the bastion of free speech is now criticized by comedians for being too PC (politically correct).  Many famous comedians no longer desire to perform at colleges and universities.    
The Cruise Lines International Association contains 60 cruise liners. Comedians work an average of two days per week; this circuit is said to not aid in moving up in the field. Cruiseliners have both clean comedy and blue comedy at different times during the day, but opinionated political material is frowned upon.  Hecklers are tolerated more in a cruise setting. 
Corporate circuit comedy must be clean comedy that neither swears nor references sexual acts ; church (or “squeaky clean”) comedy is preferred; two celebrities that perform this type of comedy are Jim Gaffigan and Brian Regan.  In a lecture given at the University of Oxford, Stewart Lee stated that his character is unable to do corporate gigs, because he takes on the role of being superior to his audience. 
The Christian Comedy Association started in the 90s, in an attempt to use comedy as a "spiritual vehicle."  Comedian Doug Stanhope has criticized Christian comedy.  Heckling is almost nonexistent in the church circuit. Christian comedy is clean comedy that claims to help one's soul. 
Many comedians have day jobs. In a comedian's first five years, they will often lose money doing comedy. Comedians will sometimes be paid for their performances with alcoholic beverages. A stand-up's first comedy job will often be emceeing.
As of 2015, hosts and MCs are paid $0-$150, depending on location and the time of week (emcees average $25); showcase spots get $10-$75; features get approximately $300-$500; a headliner with no following gets $150-$1500, depending on many factors; headliners with a following or TV credits can make $1,500-$7,500 per show. The headliner makes "10 times" more money than the feature act. Famous headliners get paid from "door deals," or a percentage of the revenue, based on the number of seats sold; these comics rely on their notoriety to fill seats, which makes them more money than headliners with no following. Comics will sell merchandise after their shows; this will make up for other expenses, like travelling.
In 2012, Comedy Central routinely offered $15,000 for a half-hour special. As of 2015, Comedy Central will pay comedians about $20,000 for a thirty-minute set; an hour, Comedy Central special can be up to $150,000; as of 2018, Netflix will pay comedians $26,000+ for a fifteen-minute set; Netflix pays celebrity-comedians different amounts from one another.
The cruise-circuit comedian can make up to $10,000 per week, some $85,000 per year; and, a college-circuit comedian can make six figures per year or thousands of dollars per gig. Christian circuit comedy headliners make $1,500-$2,500 per show. Although one source states that newer comics on the national (L.A.) circuit make $1,250-$2,500 per week, another source claims that this is very innacurate, and the amount of money one makes is closer to $20 for a spot.
Famous comedians may pay lesser comedians thousands of dollars for jokes and hire them on as writers, but many famous comedians do not reveal this, as it is considered a taboo to admit purchasing material for stand-up comedy sets. Mark Normand states that a set on Conan will pay "a couple grand" for five minutes.
Many of the earliest vaudeville-era stand-ups gained their greater recognition on radio. They often opened their programs with topical monologues, characterized by ad-libs and discussions about anything from the latest films to a missed birthday. Each program tended to be divided into the opening monologue, musical number, followed by a skit or story routine. A "feud" between Fred Allen and Jack Benny was used as comic material for nearly a decade.
HBO presented comedians uncensored for the first time, beginning with Robert Klein in 1975, and was instrumental in reaching larger audiences. George Carlin was a perennial favorite, who appeared in 14 HBO comedy specials.
Continuing that tradition, most modern stand-up comedians use television or motion pictures to reach a level of success and recognition unattainable in the comedy-club circuit alone.
Late-night talk shows and award show ceremonies are commonly hosted by comedians, delivering monologues similar to stand-up.
On the whole, you have to give the illusion that it’s a dialogue
[A lot of] stand-up comedy…as a general art form…is pre-scripted
I was demonstrating tricks eight to twelve hours a day
[Stand-up] is the only art-form where the intended receiver of the art is present at the delivery, and the art form can be altered according to their appreciation of it, as you go...[like] jazz or improv [theatre]...[The comedian is not limited to] tempo and key.
I'm looking for the connective tissue...link [between bits]. You will shave letters off words. You count syllables...to get it just...it's more like songwriting
the way they [used to] make samurai swords…they bang it…fold it…bang it again…fold it and keep banging it…they pound on it…fold it so that they’re squeezing out all the oxygen...just keep making it perfect…write another hour, and then fold it into that one. And then, get rid of all the impurities and all the bad stuff, and then keep doing that.
A stage presence comes pretty quickly [but] how to write jokes and how to generate material and know it’s going to work; [concerning these, the] first ten years are building the [base] skills
Yeah, bombing can be good…you grow up and realize it’s about continuing to work. It’s about making progress.
A show begins the moment the audience walk into a venue.
Comedy club audiences...expect upwards of four laughs per minute.
If a comedian wants to generate headliner laughter levels, they need to average 4-6+ laughs per minute.
The first two minutes is very important with a stand-up
I call the first two minutes, your flash. And that’s where you…go up there and…hook them with whatever material it is, so that they know exactly what’s funny about you and they trust you and they’ll come along with you for everything.
If you don't make them laugh in the first two minutes, you're fucked
If you have a strong first minute…the minutes that follow will be great, too.
One week, I opened for a show...I was now capable of doing two different twenty-five-minute sets per evening
Open mikes are where, as a comedian [like Daniel Tosh and his controversy], you’re supposed to be allowed to fuck up.
the next day, my friend who was also on the show [in a theatre above a porn shop across from the Port Authority], told me a scout from casting at Fox was in the audience and they wanted to meet with him.
it gets tarred with the brush of new-act exploitation and lumped in with less scrupulous nights and the insidious blight of pay-to-play...[but] I, personally, have found it to be a very nice room.
In order to get stage time at [bringer shows]…you [have to] bring…5 to 15 friends, each of whom must show up and agree to buy at least two drinks…Some people think bringers are a scam, and they kind of are. They’re a cash grab for club owners
Some clubs require 10 bringers/show. If you show up with 9 people, you will not get on and your friends will not get their money back.
Clubs like Caroline's will ask for 15 people.
A canned joke is a generally short narrative ending in a punchline…[that] the speaker has memorized.
[T]he Universal Joke Formula: Premise + Point of View + Twist = Joke
we can craft a joke just by creating and then defeating that specific expectation...introduction, validation, violation
a joke is a context-free and self-contained unit of humor that carries within itself all the information needed for it to be understood and enjoyed.
A setup is the information a person needs to get the joke.
The setup is the essential information the audience needs in order to get the punchline
A joke…must have all the information implicit in the setup, so…the punchline…makes sense.
It seems like 99% of comedy comes from juxtaposing two things that don't seem to go together
You turn it into a juxtaposition of two ideas and create jokes.
Incongruity has been and remains the most influential approach to the study of humour even though superiority predates it by approximately two thousand years.
[C]omedians will often say that something happened to them recently when it really happened years ago—or may have never happened at all.
Taglines are...very short [jokes that are]...delivered right as the original laughter from the punchline is dying down.
A jokoid fills the place on the page where a genuinely funny joke will eventually go
Stock jokes are jokes that a comic has...that are pretty much hack jokes used for specific situations...they should only be used in certain situations until you can think of something better.
They have a parades department. New Orleans police department has a parades department. There’s homicide, there’s narcotics, and there’s parades. There’s other departments too, but you know, rule of three, for comedy.
[Three is the] cadence [that makes] it the most important number in comedy.
For every ten jokes you tell, nine will be trash…you’ll need hundreds and hundreds of failed jokes to build a decent body of work.
failure is the road to being a great comic…failure is not succeeding in the moment
For every ten jokes written, only one might be acceptable
a bit, 3 or 4 jokes in and around one central theme or idea…[and then] 10-15 minutes, we call that a chunk
If you have a long bit, the biggest laugh has to be at the end. It has to be. It can't be in the middle or the beginning.
Since the setup has already been established, the second, third, and fourth jokes are short, shorter, shortest.
when the material is good, you can overlook anything
We argue that using the name of someone who people consider funny generates an expectancy of humour when hearing a joke.
The classic theorist would be Freud. Tendentious jokes…a difficult or edgy subject is going to create a certain tension in the audience, and having created the tension, if your punchline is funny, the laugh is bigger.
A good standup creates a tension in the room, which the audience wants to break with laughter. If you can do this, any punch line will work as a release valve.
Every time you start a joke, you create some tension...If the joke works, then all that stored is released at the punchline in the form of laughter.
I would call that a relief laugh…like release laugh.
You start off, and you want to be like your heroes…you start out under the naive belief that you get to choose your style…[but] your style of comedy chooses you…it's a misnomer when people say you need to think about your persona…its all bollocks about persona and timing. I didn’t set out to be a one-liner comic, but I was shit at everything else.
don't stop [your crowd work with a single audience member] until you've got [approximately] 4 big laughs.
‘tight five’ —five minutes of solid go-to jokes that show who you are and reliably get laughs.
A tight 5 minutes of stand-up comedy material generates an average 4-6+ collective audience laughs each performing minute.
If you have an all 'A' [material] 5-minute set, you'll get paid nothing.
To avoid going blank on stage, use the Memory Palace.
I'm currently using memory palaces or I think the loci method
I will put a set list on the stage monitor
I have a list of three or four [comebacks]...and the rest will be off the cuff
American stand-up comedy has its beginnings in the minstrel shows of the early 1800s
Go to festivals, because that's where you get noticed by the media...[and] gauge [yourself against] everybody else.
[A comedian] can talk about [their] experience, but [they] can't make fun of someone else's identity.
Thus, college comedians can mock those groups "liberal" students deride—Evangelical Christians, Scientologists, working-class rural males—yet they dare not even flirt with jokes about race, gender, and sexuality.
I stopped playing colleges…because they’re way too conservative…in their social views and their willingness not to offend anybody.
Judy gold is one of many famous comics, including Jerry Seinfeld and Chris Rock who say they avoid playing college campuses, because they believe younger audiences can't take a joke.
It is notable that the majority of the most vociferous critics of today's student audiences—Seinfeld, Maher, Gottfried, Louis CK, Dennis Miller, Larry the Cable Guy—are middle-aged (or older), white, presumably heterosexual males...Ricky Gervais...too
I can’t ever do the lucrative, corporate gigs that…because in that…people can get paid a lot of money for doing half an hour at a bankers' convention, but you have to be the sort of person that appears to please people…[and not treat them as] deficient
I define Christian comedy as clean comedy that can be good for the soul. I believe God wants us to laugh
I didn’t start getting anywhere until…five years in, financially…even then, it was month to month [in New York City].
It took four or five years before I [Yakov Smirnoff] could make a living as a comedian.
The first paying position a comic can land is to emcee or host a show.
An emcee will make usually from $10-$35 a show. It's usually $25.
If it's somebody starting off in the business it could be $1,500 a show. For somebody who's had some TV credits you could go from $4,500 to $7,500.
the famous comics have what’s called a “door deal” and get paid based on the amount of people in the crowd.
Those T-shirts and CDs we sell are what we make our real money on...And when we do book a paying gig? We spend most of the money on transportation to get there.
Netflix is wooing superstar comics with eight-figure deals, including Dave Chappelle (a reported $60 million), Louis C.K. ($26 million), Amy Schumer ($20 million) and Jim Gaffigan ($10 million).
Hannibal Burress was the most popular comedian in Caponera’s (2009) price range of $2,000.
Keith is one of the kings of the college circuit. A few years ago, he was the most-booked college comic, playing 120 campuses. He charges $2,300 for a single performance.
Headliners can reap $1,500 to $2,500 per church comedy show
A newer comic on the national circuit can earn anywhere from $1,250 to $2,500 per week, according to one prominent touring agent; more established names can pull in anywhere from $10,000 to $100,000 in the same period.
it’s very hard to make that amount even on the road…To mislead someone with a figure that is beyond an exaggeration and just ridiculous.
Bigger name comics have been known to pay thousands for jokes and hire writers...After a famous comic has an HBO Special, they almost always hire writers to help them pump out more material.
Anti-humor is a type of indirect humor that involves the joke-teller delivering something which is intentionally not funny, or lacking in intrinsic meaning. The practice relies on the expectation on the part of the audience of something humorous, and when this does not happen, the irony itself is of comedic value. Anti-humor is also the basis of various types of pranks and hoaxes.
The humor of such jokes is based on the surprise factor of absence of an expected joke or of a punch line in a narration which is set up as a joke. This kind of anticlimax is similar to that of the shaggy dog story. In fact, some researchers see the "shaggy dog story" as a type of anti-joke.Character comedy
Character comedy is a method or genre in which a comedian performs as though they were a character created by the comedian themselves. A good deal of comedians have enjoyed fame from character comedy.Comedian
A comedian or comic is a person who seeks to entertain an audience by making them laugh. This might take many forms including jokes, satirical observations, amusing situations, acting foolish (as in slapstick) or employing prop comedy. A comedian who addresses an audience directly is called a stand-up comedian. Other practises include the sitcom, sketch comedy and improv genres.
A popular saying, variously quoted but generally attributed to Ed Wynn, is, "A comic says funny things; a comedian says things funny", which draws a distinction between how much of the comedy can be attributed to verbal content and how much to acting and persona.
A lot of creative and original comedy is based on surrealism and absurdity. Early pioneers in these comedic forms include Spike Milligan and Monty Python. Current examples include Vic and Bob, Noel Fielding and Sam Simmons. Elements of surreal and absurd comedy include the non-sequitur (where language or events do not follow a logical process/sequence), irony (where a message is conveyed in a way contrary to its content) and deadpan performance (in the face of surreal and absurd situations, furthering the absurdity).
Since the 1980s, a new wave of comedy, called alternative comedy, has grown in popularity with more offbeat and experimental style. Alternative comedy was initially inspired by punk culture and rejected old comedy forms, the establishment and bigoted humour. Ben Elton, Rik Mayall, Malcolm Hardee and Alexi Sayle were among the most well-known 1980's alternative comedians. Alternative comedy experienced a revival around 2010, with Stewart Lee promoting the liberal, progressive values of the movement and many younger comedians in the UK banding together in groups dedicated to alternative comedy including The Alternative Comedy Memorial Society and the Weirdos Collective.
Many comics achieve a cult following while touring famous comedy hubs such as the Just for Laughs festival in Montreal, the Edinburgh Fringe, and Melbourne Comedy Festival in Australia. Often a comic's career advances significantly when they win a notable comedy award, such as the Edinburgh Comedy Award (formerly the Perrier comedy award). Comics sometimes foray into other areas of entertainment, such as film and television, where they become more widely known; e.g., Eddie Izzard or Russell Brand. However, a comic's stand-up success does not guarantee a film's critical or box office success.Comedy Central Presents
Comedy Central Presents is the network's main half-hour program which highlights either one or a series of stand-up comedians each episode. In 2011, the series ended and Comedy Central replaced it with the revamped The Half Hour, now called Comedy Central Stand-Up Presents, 30-minute stand-up specials.Comedy Underground with Dave Attell
Comedy Underground with Dave Attell is a stand-up comedy series on Comedy Central.Comedy club
A comedy club is a venue—typically a nightclub, bar, casino, or restaurant—where people watch or listen to performances, including stand-up comedians, improvisational comedians, impersonators, impressionists, magicians, ventriloquists, and other comedy acts. The term "comedy club" usually refers to venues that feature stand-up comedy, as distinguished from improvisational theatres, which host improv or sketch comedy, and variety clubs (which may also host musical acts).Def Comedy Jam
Def Comedy Jam is an HBO television series produced by Russell Simmons.The series had its original run from July 1, 1992 to May 2, 1997. Simmons was inspired to make Def Comedy Jam by Jerry Lewis' movie The Nutty Professor. The show returned on HBO's fall lineup in 2006. Def Comedy Jam helped to launch the careers of several African-American stand-up comedians.HBO Comedy Half-Hour
HBO Comedy Half-Hour is a stand-up comedy television series of specials by various comedians, usually live from The Fillmore in San Francisco, with the format of a single comedian presenting a routine for thirty minutes. The series ran on HBO from 1994 to 1999. Comedians who appeared on the show include Louis C.K., Janeane Garofalo, Chris Rock, Dave Chappelle, Dave Attell, Gilbert Gottfried, Bobcat Goldthwait, Patton Oswalt, Norm Macdonald, Margaret Cho, Laura Kightlinger, David Cross, Steve Harvey, and many others.Insult comedy
Insult comedy is a comedy genre in which the act consists mainly of offensive insults directed at the performer's audience or other performers.Typical targets for insult include individuals in the show's audience, the town hosting the performance, or the subject of a roast. An insult comedian often maintains a competitive and interactive relationship with his or her audience. The style has been described as "festive abuse".
The style can be distinguished from an act based on satire, or political humor. Insult comedy is often used to deflect or silence hecklers even when the rest of the show is not focused around it.List of original stand-up comedy specials distributed by Netflix
Netflix is an American global on-demand Internet streaming media provider, that has distributed a number of original programs, including original series, specials, miniseries, and documentaries and films.List of programs broadcast by Epix
The following is a list of programs broadcast on Epix.List of programs broadcast by Showtime
Showtime is an American premium cable and satellite television network. Showtime's programming primarily includes theatrically released motion pictures and original television series, along with boxing and mixed martial arts matches, occasional stand-up comedy specials and made-for-TV movies.Observational comedy
Observational comedy is a form of humor based on the commonplace aspects of everyday life. It is one of the main types of humor in stand-up comedy. In an observational comedy act the comedian "makes an observation about something from the backwaters of life, an everyday phenomenon that is rarely noticed or discussed." The humor is based on the premise of "Have you ever noticed?" (or "Did you ever notice?"), which has become a comedy cliché. "Observational humour usually took the form of long monologues of personal narrative, and the punch-line was either hard to predict or never came."One Night Stand (U.S. TV series)
One Night Stand is an HBO stand-up series that first aired on February 15, 1989. The half-hour series aired weekly and featured stand-up comedy specials from some of the top performing comedians. The series originally comprised 55 specials over the course of its four years on HBO. Comedians who performed on One Night Stand include Bill Hicks, Bill Maher, Colin Quinn, Dom Irrera, Gilbert Gottfried, Norm Macdonald, Eddie Griffin, Martin Lawrence, D.L. Hughley, Damon Wayans, Larry Miller, Ellen DeGeneres, Louis C.K., Charles Fleischer, and George Wallace. This first-run of the series ended in 1992, with repeats edited for language and time continuing for years over Comedy Central, a former associate network to HBO.
One Night Stand returned on August 19, 2005. The series aired each Friday at midnight through October 21, 2005, showing a total of ten half-hour stand-up specials. Some of the comedians included are Louis C.K, Jim Norton, Patrice O'Neal, Bill Burr, Bonnie McFarlane, Kevin Brennan, Omid Djalili, Flight of the Conchords, and more. The 2005 version was directed by Linda Mendoza.Premium Blend
Premium Blend was a stand-up comedy series that aired on the American cable television channel Comedy Central from 1997 to 2005.Pulp Comics
Pulp Comics is a television show that aired on Comedy Central from 1996–2000. The show features stand-up comedians performing their acts, interspersed with original short films related to their rantings.The Comedians of Comedy
The Comedians of Comedy is a stand-up comedy tour featuring alternative comedians Patton Oswalt, Zach Galifianakis, Brian Posehn and Maria Bamford that was documented in a 2005 film and 2005 Comedy Central television series of the same name, both directed by Michael Blieden. After Zach Galifianakis left the tour, he was replaced by comedian Eugene Mirman.The Great Indian Laughter Challenge
The Great Indian Laughter Challenge is an Indian reality stand-up comedy series produced by Endemol India. The first four seasons aired on STAR One from 15 June 2005 to 26 September 2008.
The show's fifth season started premiered on 30 September 2017 on STAR Plus and was judged by Akshay Kumar.The show is based on a format where stand-up comedians perform and entertain judges and the studio audience with their comedy skills. The first three seasons of the show saw Shekhar Suman, an eminent TV personality and Navjot Singh Sidhu, former cricketer and current cricket commentator and politician." The show's initial episodes were hosted by Parizaad Kolah Marshall and later she was replaced by Shonali Nagrani. The fifth season is being hosted by Elli AvrRam. The set was designed by noted Bollywood production designer Nitin Chandrakant Desai. In the fourth season Shatrughan Sinha replaced Shekhar Suman as judge.Tom Green
Michael Thomas Green (born July 30, 1971) is a Canadian-American comedian, actor, filmmaker, and talk show host. Known for his own unique brand of shock comedy, he found mainstream prominence via his MTV show aptly titled The Tom Green Show (1994–2000). Green is also known for his roles in the Hollywood films Road Trip (2000), Charlie's Angels (2000), Freddy Got Fingered (2001; directed by Green himself), Stealing Harvard (2002) and Shred (2008). He was briefly married to actress Drew Barrymore (2001–2002), who co-starred with him in Charlie's Angels and Freddy Got Fingered.
In June 2003, Green served as a guest host on Late Show with David Letterman, which led to him hosting his own late-night talk show on MTV titled The New Tom Green Show (2003 only). From 2006 until 2011, he hosted his internet talk show Tom Green's House Tonight from his living room, and began performing stand-up comedy in 2010. From October 2013 to November 2014, Green hosted the weekly talk show Tom Green Live on American cable network AXS TV.