Stamford Center for the Arts

The Palace Theatre in downtown Stamford, Connecticut, United States, comprises two facilities on Atlantic Street: the restored Palace Theatre, and the Rich Forum, both within four blocks of each other:

The Palace Theatre [1]
Palace Theatre Stamford
Address61 Atlantic Street (Palace)
307 Atlantic Street (Rich)
Stamford, Connecticut
United States
Coordinates41°03′04″N 73°32′24″W / 41.0511686°N 73.5400128°WCoordinates: 41°03′04″N 73°32′24″W / 41.0511686°N 73.5400128°W
CapacityPalace: 1,580
Truglia: 757
Current useconcert hall (Palace)
television studio (Rich)
Opened1927 (Palace)
1992 (Rich)
ArchitectThomas W. Lamb (Palace)
NBCUniversal (Rich)

Performance and other facilities

  • Palace Theatre at 61 Atlantic, with 1,580 seats, was originally a Thomas W. Lamb designed vaudeville house, which opened in 1927. It was restored and re-opened in 1983 for live theatre, concerts and art exhibitions. A recently completed multi-phase improvement project has provided the Palace Theatre with an enlarged stage, new dressing rooms, new technical-support facilities, and improved services.
  • Rich Forum opened in 1992 at 307 Atlantic. It includes:
Truglia Theatre, a conventional proscenium theatre with 757 seats.
Leonhardt Studio, a black box theatre, for more intimate performance events.
Mercede Promenade, the main lobby and reception area.
Rossi Salon on the upper level has a panoramic view of downtown Stamford.
Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Gallery overlooks the Mercede Promenade.
The Rich Forum is alternately branded as the Stamford Media Center, with operational control held by NBCUniversal, which uses state tax credits to tape three conflict talk shows; Maury, The Jerry Springer Show, and The Steve Wilkos Show, along with Crazy Talk and the American Trisha Goddard Show in the past. Jerry Springer's new court show Judge Jerry will also record at the Rich Forum for the 2019-20 season.

Both the Rich Forum and Palace Theatre seasons include performances by Connecticut Grand Opera and Orchestra, Stamford Symphony Orchestra, New England Lyric Operetta, Ballet School of Stamford, Young Artist Philharmonic, Lumina String Quartet, Zig Zag Ballet, and The Perry Players.

The theaters have presented such performers as Lily Tomlin, Peter, Paul & Mary, Tom Jones, B.B. King, Carrot Top, Harry Belafonte, Ray Charles, Liza Minnelli, Kathy Griffin, Itzhak Perlman, Emanuel Ax, Yo-Yo Ma, Isaac Stern, Willie Nelson, Tony Bennett and Judy Collins.

Palace Stamford History

Part I - The Grand Opera House and The Strand Theatre

"The present home of the Palace Theatre was first the site of the Grand Opera House during the late 1800s and early 1900s. The Grand Opera House was constructed in 1892-1893 by Mortimer and Dr. Philip H. Brown, a dentist who occupied an office on the second floor of the building. The Opera House was for some years the only playhouse in Stamford. It opened to the public on December 1893.

In 1904, two disastrous fires occurred in Stamford. The Town Hall was destroyed in January, and the Grand Opera House suffered the same fate in November of that year. The building was completely gutted, only the exterior walls remaining. The estimated damage exceeded $44,500.

In 1885, the Burlington Arcade Building at 73 Atlantic Street was completed. It is the current site of the Kiwanis Park, adjacent to the Palace Theatre, which opened up in 1968. The Arcade Building was a glass-enclosed “shopping center,” which housed many of Stamford’s most exclusive stores. The Arcade Building was also home to the Strand Theatre, which opened its doors to the public on December 11, 1914. Mrs. Mary Vuono managed the 400-seat theatre for six years until her husband Mr. Charles D. Vuono stepped in and purchased the entire building, giving Mrs. Vuono the control and artistic freedom she had been holding back for years."[2]

Part II - The Strand Theatre and Vuono's Palace Theatre

"The Stamford Advocate reported on July 20, 1920: “A real estate deal involving more than $200,000, and the largest transacted for years, was consummated this morning, with the sale of the former Stamford Opera House and the Arcade Building to Mrs. Charles D. Vuono, proprietress of the Stamford Theatre.”

With this mega real-estate purchase, Charles D. Vuono had given his wife Mary total control of The Strand Theatre, which she was managing at the time, and of the Grand Opera House building, which would later become The Palace Theatre. Mrs. Vuono didn’t waste any time in making improvements to her newly acquired treasures.

On February 23, 1921, plans for alterations to the Strand Theatre were approved. It was going to be expanded from a 400-seat house into a house seating 1,400 people, by the addition of a balcony and extension to the rear of the building. The Strand Theatre is the current site of Kiwanis Park, adjacent to the Palace Theatre, which opened up in 1968. The new Strand Theatre opened its doors on November 23, 1921 with the motion picture, “The Old Nest.” With the success of the Strand Theatre, Mrs. Vuono engaged Thomas Lamb as the architect to design and build the Palace Theatre, where the Grand Opera House once stood.

The Palace Theatre opened on June 2, 1927 at 8:30PM. A headline from the Stamford Advocate on June 3, 1927 reads: “HUNDREDS TURNED AWAY, UNABLE TO OBTAIN TICKETS, AS THE NEW PALACE THEATRE OPENS DOORS.” Vuono’s Palace Theatre, as it was called at the time, was hailed for its architectural beauty, acoustic excellence, perfect sight lines, and seating comfort – what today would be called “state-of-the-art.”" [3]

Part III - Mary C. Vuono: A True Visionary

If it weren’t for Mary C. Vuono, there might never have been a Palace Theatre and Stamford’s audiences might never have experienced “Connecticut’s Most Magnificent,” as it was dubbed when the theatre opened on June 2, 1927.

She was born Maria Miceli in Potenza, Italy, on March 23, 1882, and moved with her family to Brooklyn, New York, the following year. At age 19, she married Charles D. Vuono, co-founder and president of the Vuono Construction Co. in Stamford.

Mr. Vuono was a very successful businessman at the time, but Mrs. Vuono proved she could be just as successful. In 1915, she rented space to open the Strand Theatre in the Burlington Building, the current site of Kiwanis Park. It did so well that she purchased the entire building. She remodeled and expanded the Strand Theatre, but Mary Vuono wasn’t done. In July 1920, she decided to buy the building next door as well, which would become the Palace Theatre seven years later. “Imagine being a woman in those days, and an Italian, and doing all that… She was amazing,” said Irving Vuono, a grandson of the Vuonos, to Jerry Zezima, a staff writer in an interview for a Stamford Advocate article in 1995.

The vaudeville show for the opening night of Vuono’s Palace was promoted as “a program never before equaled in the history of the theatre.” It was truly a huge event. The Palace was the place everyone talked about in Stamford, and they couldn’t wait to see it. Some of the artists that Mrs. Vuono brought to the Palace include Will Rogers, Lucille Ball, the Three Stooges, Bill “Bojangles” Robinson, Hattie McDaniel, Olsen and Johnson, Red Skelton, Jackie Cooper, Ed Sullivan, Eddie Albert, Buster Crabbe, Donald O’Connor, Paul Whiteman, Jimmy Dorsey, Blackstone the Magician, and opera star Biniamino Gigli. Mary Vuono was a pioneer in the city of Stamford, perhaps the best-known businesswoman in this city. She was years ahead of her time. Mary owned the Palace until her death in 1978. [4]

Part IV - End of the Strand Theatre

"Mrs. Mary C. Vuono opened the Strand Theater in 1915. It was a successful venue that featured vaudeville acts and silent movies, often combining the two for epic entertainment days for area residents. It was also the first “talkie” movie house in Stamford, making the downtown of this thriving city the place to be for the new motion picture phenomenon.

Mrs. Vuono capitalized on the momentum of the Strand Theater’s monetary gains and popularity to build the Palace Theatre, right next door to the Strand in 1927, and the two existed side by side for many years despite the bright new elegance of Vuono’s Palace Theatre, as The Palace was known at the time. The kinds of artists being presented changed a great deal between the 1930s and mid 1950s; from the vaudeville era and silent movies, to hosting live theater companies, and later as a jazz and rock & roll concert venue. Finally, in 1966, the Urban Redevelopment Commission decided as part of its program to take down the once beloved Strand Theater.

The Strand Theater is the current site of Kiwanis Park, adjacent to the Palace Theatre. First Lady Lady Bird Johnson, wife of President Lyndon B. Johnson, dedicated the park in 1968 during the inauguration ceremony and pressed the switch that unleashed the fountain. That fountain was removed when the park went through a transformation in the early 2000s during the Palace Theatre renovations." [5]

Part V - Hartman Theatre Company and 1980s Restoration

"From 1975 through 1980 the Palace Theatre was home to The Hartman Theatre Company, a regional theatre company that produced classic works as well as world premieres. Season 1~1975-6 featured:
11-5-75 to 11-23-75: The Government Inspector [starring Austin Pendleton, with Bob Balaban...]
12-2-75 to 12-21-75: The Hostage [Starring Peter Rogan]
12-30-75 to 1-18-76: The Runner Stumbles [which went to Broadway from there!]
1-27-76 to 2-22-76: Tom Jones
3-2-76 to 3-21-76: Joan of Lorraine
3-30-76 to 4-18-76: An Evening of Tennessee Williams
4-27-76 to 5-16-76: Catch-22 [Starring Adam Arkin; directed by Alan Arkin]
5-27-76 to 5-30-76: Stag at Bay
5-29-76: An Evening of Bananas and Drums with Dick Shawn

Season 2 ~ 1976-7 featured:
11-3-76 to 11-28-76: The Reason We Eat
12-15-76 to 1-9-77: Arsenic and Old Lace
1-19-77 to 2-6-77: Tartuffe
2-23-77 to 3-13-77: Death of a Salesman
2-17-77 to 3-7-77: Company Store Presents Olympian Games
3-17-77 to 4-4-77: Company Store Presents Exit the King
4-14-77 to 5-2-77: Company Store Presents Donita Rosita While She Waits
3-30-77 to 4-17-77: As to the Meaning of Words
4-27-77 to 5-15-77: He Who Gets Slapped
[For remaining seasons, one may contact the Ferguson Library, in Stamford where all Playbills are archived][6]

The theatre went dark from 1980 to 1983, when it was purchased by Cultural Resource Associates. Since the theatre had fallen into disrepair throughout the years, a major restoration began under the direction of Dovetail, Inc., restoration specialists of Lowell, Massachusetts. The restoration and renovation design was completed by Stahl Associates, Inc. and Roger P. Lang, AIA., Architect, Associated Architects of Boston. The theatre was rededicated on December 14, 1983." [7]

Part VI - Lobby Expansion and Renovation 1999-2003

"A major expansion and renovation phase was put into motion in 1999. The four-story building that housed the small lobby was completely torn down, leaving only the façade. The lobby was reconstructed to include two levels, a Grand Staircase to connect them, and the Jaffe Café Teatro.

The process included community-wide input thus engaging the public to participate, encouraging and allowing a truly cooperative effort which resulted in a facility not only for entertainment, but for theatre arts education including writing, direction, scenic design, and performing.

This initiative is a testament to the dedication of F.D. Rich, Jr., the Stamford Center for the Arts Board of Directors (lead at the time by President Michael J. Cacace), the generosity of countless corporations, individual donors, and the continued support of the City of Stamford and the State of Connecticut. The expansion and renovation was completed by Frank Mercede & Sons, Inc. in 2003."


Television studios

In March 2009, it was announced that The Jerry Springer Show, Maury and The Steve Wilkos Show would be broadcast from the Rich Forum complex. Connecticut is promising 30 percent production-tax credit on annual activity and a 20 percent tax credit on infrastructure costs exceeding $1 million. The state has also promised to make $3 million in local infrastructure improvements.[9] The Trisha Goddard Show filmed here from 2012 to 2014.[10]

See also

External links


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ "The Ferguson Library, Stamford, CT". The Ferguson Library.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ There Goes the Neighborhood - New York Post - March 16, 2009
  10. ^ NBC Universal adds 'Trisha' to its Stamford family
Arts and culture in Stamford, Connecticut

Arts and culture in Stamford, Connecticut Stamford, Connecticut. In 2017, the City of Stamford established the Stamford Arts and Culture Commission to help bolster arts and tourism in the city.

Audra McDonald

Audra Ann McDonald (born July 3, 1970) is an American actress and singer. Primarily known for her work on the Broadway stage, she has won six Tony Awards, more performance wins than any other actor, and is the only person to win all four acting categories. She has performed in musicals, operas, and dramas such as A Moon for the Misbegotten, 110 in the Shade, Carousel, Ragtime, Master Class and Porgy and Bess.

As a classical soprano, she has performed in staged operas with the Houston Grand Opera and the Los Angeles Opera and in concerts with symphony orchestras like the Berlin Philharmonic and New York Philharmonic. In 2008 her recording of Kurt Weill's Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny with the Los Angeles Opera won the Grammy Award for Best Classical Album and the Grammy Award for Best Opera Recording. She has a close working relationship with composer Michael John LaChiusa who has written several works for her, including the Broadway musical Marie Christine, the opera Send (who are you? i love you), and The Seven Deadly Sins: A Song Cycle. With her full lyric soprano voice, she maintains an active concert and recording career throughout the United States performing a wide repertoire from classical to musical theater to jazz and popular songs. In 2016, McDonald was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Barack Obama. In 2017 she was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.On television, McDonald portrayed Dr. Naomi Bennett as a main cast member of Shonda Rhimes's ABC television drama Private Practice from 2007-2011. She also portrayed the recurring character of Liz Lawrence in Season 4 of The Good Wife; a role that she reprises as a main cast member in the spinoff series The Good Fight. In 2013 she performed the role of Mother Superior in The Sound of Music Live! opposite Carrie Underwood as Maria. She has twice been nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Limited Series or Movie for her portrayals of Susie Monahan in Wit opposite Emma Thompson in 2001 and for her performance of Ruth Younger in A Raisin in the Sun in 2008. In 2016 she was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie and a Screen Actors Guild Award for her performance in Lady Day at Emerson's Bar and Grill for HBO in which McDonald portrayed jazz legend Billie Holiday. She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Special Class Program in 2015 for her work hosting the program Live from Lincoln Center.

On film she is best known for her portrayals of Maureen in Ricki and the Flash (2015) opposite Meryl Streep and Madame de Garderobe in the 2017 film version of Disney's Beauty and the Beast. She has been nominated five times for the NAACP Image Awards for her work in television and film.

Christine Andreas

Christine Andreas (born October 1, 1951) is an American Broadway actress and singer.

Geoffrey Horne

Geoffrey Horne (born August 22, 1933) is an American actor, director, and acting coach at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute. His screen credits include The Bridge on the River Kwai, Bonjour Tristesse, The Strange One, Two People, The Twilight Zone episode "The Gift" in 1962, and as Wade Norton in "The Guests" episode of The Outer Limits.

List of awards and nominations received by Liza Minnelli

American actress and singer Liza Minnelli has been honored with numerous awards and nominations for her work in film, television, and theatre. Among the awards she has received is an Academy Award for Best Actress for Cabaret.

Mohegan Sun Arena

The Mohegan Sun Arena is a 10,000 seat multi-purpose arena in Uncasville, Connecticut, located inside the Mohegan Sun casino resort. The arena facility features 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) of configurable exhibition space and a 400-foot (120 m) clear span. It was built by the Perini Building Company, and opened in October 2001.

Music of Connecticut

Connecticut is a state of the United States in the New England region.

New York Dance Festival

The New York Dance Festival is a two week cultural festival of performing arts that starts the 2nd week of July each summer in Auburn and New York City. The Festival is hosted by two of the region’s African American-led performing arts organizations, the Kaleidoscope Dance Theatre and the New York Institute of Dance & Education - NYIDE. The New York Dance Festival includes the New York Summer Dance Intensive, the New York Drum Festival, the New York Musical Theatre Project, the Carmen De Lavallade Awards for Dance, the Thommie Walsh Song & Dance Man Gala, Fellowships, Residencies, and a World Class Concert Series.

The precursor to today’s New York Dance Festival began at the New York Dance Studio in Auburn, NY in the winter of 1990. During that time, SUNY Purchase alumni Thomas Warfield and Roxanna Young were brought to the Finger Lakes Region of New York by their classmate, Sean McLeod, Artistic Director of the Kaleidoscope Dance Theatre, to teach the classic styles of modern dance and ballet they learned while studying at the Purchase Conservatory of Dance, 40 minutes outside of New York City. In the early years, Kaleidoscope Dance Theatre’s Artistic Director Sean McLeod forged a partnership with Cayuga Community College, Director of Student Services Joy Shortell, and past college President Dr. Larry Poole, along with Purchase Conservatory of Dance alum to create this artistic platform. Additional guest artists invited to join the faculty included; Laurie Lubeck (American Ballet Theatre) and Sheryl Woodmansee (Washington Ballet) to teach in sessions twice a year (known as the Kaleidoscope Dance Theatre Winter and Summer Dance Intensives). In 1999, the name was changed and the New York Dance Festival was established.

The New York Dance Festival has enjoyed major support by New York State Council for the Arts, Altria, Alex G. Nason Foundation, the New England Foundation for the Arts, Tompkins Trust Company, the Citizen Newspaper, Cultural Resource Center, Schweinfurth Memorial Arts Center, Cayuga/Onondaga BOCES, Finger Lakes Arts and Grants Services, Assemblyman Gary Finch’s office, Governor Pataki’s office, Senator Michael Nozzolio's office, Senator Hillary Clinton's Office, Congressman Mike Arcuri and the City of Auburn.

Norfolk Chamber Music Festival

The Norfolk Chamber Music Festival, hosted in Norfolk, Connecticut, is believed to be the oldest active summer music festival in North America. Set among the Litchfield Hills of the lower Berkshires, the Festival traces its roots to the Battell family who started hosting summer concerts on the Norfolk town green in the 1880s. Now under the auspices of the Yale University School of Music, the Festival hosts more than 30 concerts each summer featuring professional performers and graduate music students from around the globe. Among many others, guest performers and composers over the years have included the Tokyo String Quartet, Percy Grainger, Fritz Kreisler, Midori, Pinchas Zukerman, Dave Brubeck, Jean Sibelius and Sergei Rachmaninoff. The Norfolk Festival has played an elemental role in the cultivation and development of classical music in America. Today, with its history and setting, it continues to provide the New England experience with an offering of chamber music.

Regina A. Quick Center for the Arts

The Regina A. Quick Center for the Arts is the major center of theatre and the arts at Fairfield University located in Fairfield, Connecticut. The Center includes events such as popular and classical music, dance, theatre, and programs for young audiences. Westport Magazine recognized the Quick Center as the "cultural epicenter of Fairfield County."The Quick Center was constructed and dedicated in 1990 with the generous support and leadership of Fairfield University benefactor, Leslie C. Quick Jr. and was named for his beloved wife, Regina. Mr. Quick was a member of the Fairfield University Board of Trustees, Chairman of the Board from 1982 through 1995 and received an Honorary Doctorate from the University in 1999.

Stamford, Connecticut

Stamford () is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643. As of 2017, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 131,000, making it the third-largest city in the state (behind Bridgeport and New Haven) and the seventh-largest city in New England. Approximately 30 miles (50 kilometers) from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area which is a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area.

Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, and 13 Courant 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations. This gives Stamford the largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the United States.

The Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts

The Bushnell Center for the Performing Arts (formerly known as Bushnell Memorial Hall or simply The Bushnell) is a performing arts venue at 166 Capitol Street in Hartford, Connecticut. Managed by a non-profit organization, it claims to be Connecticut's premier presenter of the performing arts.

The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial

The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial is a two-act play, of the courtroom drama type, that was dramatized for the stage by Herman Wouk, which he adapted from his own novel, The Caine Mutiny.

Wouk's novel covered a long stretch of time aboard the USS Caine, a Navy destroyer minesweeper in the Pacific. It begins with Willis Keith's assignment to the Caine, chronicles the mismanagement of the ship under Philip Francis Queeg, explains how Steve Maryk relieved Queeg of command, gives an account of Maryk's court-martial, and describes the aftermath of the mutiny for all involved.

The play covers only the court-martial itself. Like jurors at a trial, the audience knows only what various witnesses tell of the events on the Caine.

Toad's Place

Toad's Place is a concert venue and nightclub located in New Haven, Connecticut.

Webster Bank Arena

The Webster Bank Arena (formerly The Arena at Harbor Yard) is a 10,000-seat multi-purpose arena at 600 Main Street in Bridgeport, Connecticut, built alongside The Ballpark at Harbor Yard. The Arena opened on October 10, 2001 and is managed by Oak View Group. Webster Bank entered into a 10-year $3.5 million agreement with the City of Bridgeport for naming rights of the Arena on January 6, 2011.The Arena houses 33 executive suites, 1,300 club seats, 3 hospitality suites and a Sony Jumbotron serving as a scoreboard. The Arena offers luxury boxes to corporate sponsors.The Arena is home to the Bridgeport Sound Tigers of the American Hockey League. Starting in 2013, the Arena hosted regular season Connecticut Huskies Men's and Women's Basketball games. The UConn Men's Hockey team, a new member of Hockey East, were also scheduled to play five regular season games in Bridgeport during the 2014–15 season.

XL Center

The XL Center (originally known as the Hartford Civic Center) is a multi-purpose arena and convention center located in downtown Hartford, Connecticut. It is owned by the City of Hartford and operated by Spectra. In December 2007, the Center was renamed when the arena's naming rights were sold to XL Group insurance company in a 6-year agreement. The arena is ranked the 28th largest among college basketball arenas. Opened in 1974 as the Hartford Civic Center and originally located adjacent to Civic Center Mall, which was demolished in 2004. It consists of two facilities: the Veterans Memorial Coliseum and the Exhibition Center.

On March 21, 2007, the Capital Region Development Authority (CRDA) selected the Northland/Anschutz Entertainment Group proposal. It was revealed that Northland will assume total responsibility for the building paying for any and all losses, and will keep any profits. In 2012, the CRDA, put the contract out to bid with hopes of combining the operations with Rentschler Field. In February 2013, Global Spectrum of Philadelphia, was chosen to take over both the XL Center and Rentschler Field with Ovations Food Services taking over all food and beverage operations.

Xfinity Theatre

Xfinity Theatre (originally known as the Meadows Music Theatre) is an outdoor/indoor amphitheatre located in Hartford, Connecticut, owned by Live Nation. The capacity of the venue is 30,000. The indoor area holds 7,500 and the outdoor lawn area holds an additional 22,500 during the summer months making it one of the largest amphitheatres in the country. Live Nation predecessor SFX bought the theatre in 1997.

Zack Norman

Zack Norman (born Howard Jerrold Zuker, May 27, 1940) is an American actor, producer, writer, comedian, musician, film financier, painter, art collector and real estate developer. Born in Boston and raised in nearby Revere, Massachusetts, he is best known for his role as Ira in 20th Century Fox's Romancing the Stone (1984) and as Kaz Naiman in Paramount Classics' Festival in Cannes (2001). He has also co-starred in films such as Ragtime (1981), Cadillac Man (1990) and Chief Zabu (2016), which he also co-wrote, co-produced and co-directed. His latest starring role was in E.N.T.E.R. (2018), which won Best Comedy in October at the first Cutting Room International Short Film Festival in NYC. On television, he has guest-starred in such popular series as The A-Team (1985) and Baywatch (1993), had a recurring role on The Nanny (1993–1995) and was featured in several TV movies including At Home with the Webbers (1993). As Howard Zuker, he has produced, presented and/or financed more than forty motion pictures, including Hearts and Minds (1974), which won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.

Music venues of Connecticut
Theaters and clubs
Universal Parks
& Resorts
NBCU Film and
Broadcast, Cable,
Sports and News
and Digital
Other assets:
and predecessors:

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.