Adele Stürzl (November 23, 1892 – June 30, 1944) was an Austrian communist and resistance fighter against National Socialism.Bad Wiessee
Bad Wiessee is a municipality in the district of Miesbach in Upper Bavaria in Germany. Since 1922, it has been a spa town and located on the western shore of the Tegernsee Lake. It had a population of around 4800 inhabitants in 2014. The word "Bad" means "spa" or "baths", while "Wiessee" derives from "Westsee", meaning "western part of the lake". Bad Wiessee was first documented in 1017 in the tax book of the Tegernsee Abbey, encouraged to pay goods to the abbey.
Bad Wiessee is known for its healing sulfur-fountain, discovered by the Dutch oil explorer Adriaan Stoop in 1909 while he was drilling for oil. He built the first iodine sulfur bath in 1912 after oil production had been exhausted. People spend their holidays in Bad Wiessee because of its quiet atmosphere and its location at the north side of the Alps.Tourism is one of the main sources of income for the population of Bad Wiessee. Although spa tourism has declined in the last decades, Bad Wiessee is still very popular for its casino and with wealthy people, many of them buying a second home or condo to spend their holidays or retirement there. The hotels, shops and restaurants cater for the medium-price-category traveller but traditional B&B and reasonable priced accommodations are still available all year round.
Bad Wiessee became notorious as the scene of the key events linked to the Night of the Long Knives, 30 June 1934, when Adolf Hitler and the Schutzstaffel (SS) purged the leadership of the Sturmabteilung (SA), many of whom were staying at the resort, in the Hotel Hanselbauer. The key leaders Ernst Röhm, Anton von Hohberg und Buchwald, Karl Ernst, Edmund Heines and Peter von Heydebreck were arrested and taken to Stadelheim Prison where they were later executed.
Bad Wiessee was also the retirement home, in 1939–1945, of Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg, author of "The Hitler oath". Field Marshal Kesselring is interred in the Bergfriedhof Cemetery in Bad Wiessee.Ernst Röhm
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (German: [ˈɛɐ̯nst ˈʁøːm]; 28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party. As one of the members of its predecessor, the German Workers' Party, he was a close friend and early ally of Adolf Hitler and a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung (SA, "Storm Battalion"), the Nazi Party's militia, and later was its commander. By 1934, the German Army feared the SA's influence and Hitler had come to see Röhm as a potential rival, so he was executed during the Night of the Long Knives, also known as the "Röhm Purge".Eugen Leviné
Eugen Leviné (Russian: Евгений Левине) (born 10 May 1883 – 5 July 1919) was a German communist revolutionary and leader of the short-lived Bavarian Council Republic.Günther Strupp
Günther Strupp (March 6, 1912 – 1996) was a German artist, illustrator, and art director. He was a survivor of Kemna concentration camp and of Gestapo imprisonment in Stadelheim Prison.Hans Conrad Leipelt
Hans Conrad Leipelt (18 July 1921 – 29 January 1945) was a member of the White Rose resistance group in Nazi Germany.Hans and Sophie Scholl
Hans and Sophie Scholl, often referred to in German as die Geschwister Scholl (the Scholl siblings), were a brother and sister who were members of the White Rose, a student group in Munich that was active in the non-violent resistance movement in Nazi Germany, especially in distributing flyers against the war and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler. In post-war Germany, Hans and Sophie Scholl are recognized as symbols of the Christian German resistance movement against the totalitarian Nazi regime.Johann Reichhart
Johann Reichhart (29 April 1893 – 26 April 1972) was a state-appointed judicial executioner in Bavaria, Germany from 1924–1946. During the Nazi Germany era, he executed numerous people who were sentenced to death for resisting National Socialism.Josef Ackermann (journalist)
Josef Ackermann (born 31 January 1896, Munich – died 22 August 1959, Zürich) was a German journalist.Katzenberger Trial
The Katzenberger Trial was a notorious Nazi show trial. A Jewish businessman and leading member of the Nuremberg Jewish community, Lehmann (Leo) Katzenberger, was accused of having an affair with a young "Aryan" woman, and on 14 March 1942 was sentenced to death. The presiding judge at the trial, Oswald Rothaug, was later tried at the Nuremberg trials (see Judges' Trial) and sentenced to life imprisonment. The Katzenberger Trial later formed the basis of a subplot in the 1961 film Judgment at Nuremberg.List of victims of Nazism
This is a list of victims of Nazism who were noted for their achievements. Many on the lists below were of Jewish and Polish origin, although Soviet POWs, Serbs, Catholics, Roma and dissidents were also murdered. This list includes people from public life who, owing to their origins, their political or religious convictions, or their sexual orientation, lost their lives as victims of the Nazi regime. It includes those whose deaths were part of the Holocaust as well as individuals who died in other ways at the hands of the Nazis during World War II. Those who died in concentration camps are listed alongside those who were murdered by the Nazi Party or those who chose suicide for political motives or to avoid being murdered.
The list is sorted by occupation and by nationality.Ludwig Quidde
Ludwig Quidde (23 March 1858, Bremen – 4 March 1941) was a German politician and pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic criticism of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Quidde's long career spanned four different eras of German history: that of Bismarck (up to 1890); the Hohenzollern Empire under Wilhelm II (1888–1918); the Weimar Republic (1918–1933); and, finally, Nazi Germany. In 1927, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Born into a wealthy bourgeois merchant family, Quidde grew up in Bremen, read history and also got involved in the activities of the German Peace Society (Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft). In his younger years he had already opposed Bismarck's policies. In 1881 he received his PhD at the University of Göttingen. In 1894 Quidde published a 17-page pamphlet entitled Caligula. Eine Studie über römischen Caesarenwahnsinn (Caligula: A Study of Imperial Insanity). Containing 79 footnotes, the short essay is exclusively about the Roman Empire of the 1st century AD. However, Quidde drew an implicit parallel between the Roman Emperor Caligula and Wilhelm II, de facto accusing both rulers of megalomania. The author had insisted on publishing his pamphlet under his real name, which effectively ended his academic career as a historian when, in some periodical, a short review explained the parallels which otherwise might have gone unnoticed. After he made a derogatory comment on a new medal in honour of William the Great, German Emperor from 1871 to 1888, he was criminally convicted of lèse majesté, and sentenced to three months in prison, which he served in Stadelheim Prison.
After the end of the First World War, Quidde, like most other Germans, vehemently opposed the Treaty of Versailles but for different reasons from German militarists, who hated mainly the vast restrictions laid upon the German armed forces and the impending economic disaster that would be caused by payment of the high reparations that were decreed. He and other German pacifists thought ahead and hoped that US President Woodrow Wilson would win the day, pointing out that such severe conditions would already sow the seeds of a new war:
Ein gedemütigtes, zerrissenes und zu kümmerlichem wirtschaftlichen Dasein verdammtes deutsches Volk wäre ebenso eine stete Gefahr für den Weltfrieden, wie ein in seinen unveräußerlichen Rechten und Daseinsbedingungen geschütztes eine starke Stütze desselben sein würde.
Mögen jene, die heute die Macht haben, über den nächsten Tag hinaus an die Zukunft der Menschheit denken. Eine ungeheure Verantwortung liegt auf ihnen. Etwas ganz Neues kann heute zum Segen aller Völker geschaffen werden. Kurzsichtiger Missbrauch der heutigen Macht kann alles verderben.A humiliated and torn German nation condemned to economic misery would be a constant danger to world peace, just as a protected German nation whose inalienable rights and subsistence are safeguarded would be a strong pillar of such world peace.
May those who are in power today think beyond this day and consider the future of mankind. Their responsibility is enormous. Today, an altogether new order can be created for the benefit of all peoples. Short-sighted misuse of that power can ruin everything.("Announcement of the German Peace Society", 15 November 1918, co-authored by Quidde)When Hitler came to power in 1933, Quidde escaped to Switzerland, finally settling down in Geneva for the rest of his days. He remained an optimist throughout his life. Aged 76, he published his essay "Landfriede und Weltfriede" (1934) at a time when militarism was again on the rise, believing that modern technology might serve as a deterrent from war:
[…] die Entwicklung der Technik, die den modernen Krieg immer mehr zu einem selbstmörderischen Wahnsinn gemacht hat, dem Kriege ein Ende setzen wird. Das hat im Grunde genommen schon Kant vorausgesehen, der die Schaffung eines "ewigen Friedens" nicht etwa von einer Hebung der Moral erwartete, sondern vom Kriege, der so unerträglich werden würde, dass die Menschheit sich genötigt sehen würde, den Frieden zu sichern.[It is] today's technological development which has turned modern war into a suicidal nightmare and which will put an end to war. This was already predicted by Kant, who expected "perpetual peace" to be established not due to the moral perfection of man but due to modern warfare, which would be so unbearable that mankind would see itself forced to guarantee everlasting peace.Ludwig Quidde died in his Swiss exile in 1941, aged 82.Night of the Long Knives
The Night of the Long Knives (German: Nacht der langen Messer ), or the Röhm Purge, also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when Adolf Hitler, urged on by Hermann Göring and Heinrich Himmler, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate his hold on power in Germany, as well as to alleviate the concerns of the German military about the role of Ernst Röhm and the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazis' own mass paramilitary organization. Nazi propaganda presented the murders as a preventive measure against an alleged imminent coup by the SA under Röhm - the so-called Röhm putsch.
The primary instruments of Hitler's action, who carried out most of the killings, were the Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary force under Himmler and its Security Service under Reinhard Heydrich, and the Gestapo, the secret police, under Göring. Göring's personal police battalion also took part in the killings. Many of those killed in the purge were leaders of the SA, the best-known being Röhm himself, the SA's chief of staff and one of Hitler's longtime supporters and allies. Leading members of the socialist-leaning Strasserist faction of the Nazi Party, including its figurehead, Gregor Strasser, were also killed, as were establishment conservatives and anti-Nazis, such as former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and Bavarian politician Gustav Ritter von Kahr, who had suppressed Hitler's Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. The murders of SA leaders were also intended to improve the image of the Hitler government with a German public that was increasingly critical of thuggish SA tactics.
Hitler saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his newly gained political power. He also wanted to conciliate leaders of the Reichswehr, the German military, who feared and despised the SA as a potential rival, in particular because of Röhm's ambition to merge the army and the SA under his own leadership. Additionally, Hitler was uncomfortable with Röhm's outspoken support for a "second revolution" to redistribute wealth. In Röhm's view, President Hindenburg's appointment of Hitler as Chancellor on January 30, 1933 had brought the Nazi Party to power, but had left unfulfilled the party's larger goals. Finally, Hitler used the purge to attack or eliminate German critics of his new regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, as well as to settle scores with old enemies.At least 85 people died during the purge, although the final death toll may have been in the hundreds, with high estimates running from 700 to 1,000. More than a thousand perceived opponents were arrested. The purge strengthened and consolidated the support of the Wehrmacht for Hitler. It also provided a legal grounding for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extrajudicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime. The Night of the Long Knives was a turning point for the German government. It established Hitler as the supreme administrator of justice of the German people, as he put it in his July 13 speech to the Reichstag.
Before its execution, its planners sometimes referred to the purge as Hummingbird (German: Kolibri), the codeword used to send the execution squads into action on the day of the purge. The codename for the operation appears to have been chosen arbitrarily. The phrase "Night of the Long Knives" in the German language predates the killings and refers generally to acts of vengeance.Ostfriedhof (Munich)
The Ostfriedhof ("East(ern) Cemetery") in Munich, situated in the district of Obergiesing, was established in 1821 and is still in use. It contains an area of more than 30 hectares and approximately 34,700 burial plots.
The buildings were constructed between 1894 and 1900 to plans by Hans Grässel. In 1929 a crematorium was opened. The bodies of thousands of opponents of the National Socialist régime were cremated here in the years between 1933 and 1945, and their ashes mostly disposed of without memorial. These included people executed in Stadelheim Prison, victims of the concentration camps Dachau, Birkenau and Auschwitz, and of the Aktion T4 campaign. In 1946 the bodies of several of those condemned to death at the Nuremberg War Crimes trials and also of Hermann Göring were cremated here, and the ashes scattered.Peter von Heydebreck
Hans-Adam Otto von Heydebreck, called Peter von Heydebreck (1 July 1889, in Köslin – 30 June 1934, in Stadelheim Prison) was a German Freikorps- and SA leader, member of the Reichstag and a national socialist.
Heydebreck served as an officer in the German Army in World War I. During the German revolution of November 1918, he founded the Freikorps named after him.
During the Third Silesian Uprising in 1921, his troops were foremost in the reconquest of the low mountain at the centre of the Battle of Annaberg, gaining for Von Heydebreck the epithet "the Hero of Annaberg".
He made a career for himself in the Nazi party, but, during the Röhm-Putsch in 1934, he was brought to Stadelheim Prison and killed by the SS, becoming one of the victims of the Night of the Long Knives.Sophie Scholl
Sophia Magdalena Scholl (9 May 1921 – 22 February 1943) was a German student and anti-Nazi political activist, active within the White Rose non-violent resistance group in Nazi Germany.She was convicted of high treason after having been found distributing anti-war leaflets at the University of Munich (LMU) with her brother, Hans. As a result, she was executed by guillotine. Since the 1970s, Scholl has been extensively commemorated for her anti-Nazi resistance work.Stadelheim
Stadelheim may refer to:
Stadelheim Prison in Munich's Giesing district
Cell 70 of Stadelheim Prison
Stadelheim Transmitter, a medium-wave broadcast transmitter in Munich-Stadelheim, built 1926 and last used around 1933Stadelheim Transmitter
Stadelheim Transmitter was a medium wave broadcast transmitter in Munich-Stadelheim, built in 1926 in the neighbourhood of the famous Stadelheim Prison. It took up experimental operation on March 1, 1926 and full operation on April 1, 1926. As antenna, this transmitter used a t-antenna hung up on two 100 metre high free standing steel framework towers. The transmitter used a tube transmitter and a machine transmitter from the company C Lorenz AG, the company which made the Lorenz cipher machine. However the machine transmitter had numerous technical problems.Walter Klingenbeck
Walter Klingenbeck (30 March 1924, in Munich – 5 August 1943, in Munich-Stadelheim) was a German resistance fighter in the time of the Third Reich.
Walter Klingenbeck came from a Catholic family. He was a member of the St. Ludwig Catholic Youth Troop until it was banned and dissolved by the Nazi régime. This experience laid the groundwork for his critical stance towards the aforesaid régime, which was further strengthened when the young radio enthusiast listened to German-language broadcasts from the BBC, Radio Vatican, and other forbidden broadcasting stations.
Early in 1941, a number of young people with similar political and religious views like Klingenbeck's formed a group under his leadership. They planned to spread leaflets and built a radio transmitter through which they broadcast opposition propaganda, and called for the overthrow of the Nazi régime. In the summer of 1941, an appeal came over the BBC to spread the "V-for-Victory" sign to herald the foreseen Allied victory in the Second World War, whereupon Klingenbeck did just that, by painting the sign on some forty buildings in Munich with gloss paint.
Klingenbeck rather carelessly told of this exploit, which led to his denunciation and arrest on 26 January 1942. On 24 September 1942, he was sentenced to death by the Volksgerichtshof, and on 5 August 1943, he was put to death at Stadelheim Prison, aged only 19. Two of his friends, Hans Haberl and Daniel von Recklinghausen, were at first likewise condemned, but on 2 August 1943, their sentences were commuted to eight years at hard labour in a Zuchthaus.
In January 1998, a formerly unnamed lane in Maxvorstadt, a neighbourhood in the center of Munich, was named for Klingenbeck. A Realschule in Taufkirchen is also named after him.