St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)

The Cathedral of St. Patrick (commonly called St. Patrick's Cathedral) is a decorated Neo-Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral church in the United States and a prominent landmark of New York City. It is the seat of the archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York as well as parish church, located on the east side of Fifth Avenue between 50th and 51st Streets in Midtown Manhattan, directly across the street from Rockefeller Center, facing the Atlas statue. It is considered one of the most visible symbols of Roman Catholicism in New York City and the United States.

St. Patrick's Cathedral
StPatCathExt1
LocationMidtown Manhattan,
New York City, New York
CountryUnited States
DenominationRoman Catholic
TraditionLatin Rite
WebsiteSt. Patrick's Cathedral
History
StatusCathedral
DedicationSaint Patrick
DedicatedOctober 5, 1910
Earlier dedicationMay 29, 1879
Architecture
Functional statusActive
Architect(s)James Renwick Jr.
Architectural typeChurch
StyleDecorated Neo-Gothic
Specifications
Length396.7 feet (120.9 m)
Number of spires2
Spire height329.5 feet (100.4 m)[1]
MaterialsTuckahoe marble
Bells19 (29,122.73 lbs)
Administration
ArchdioceseArchdiocese of New York
Clergy
ArchbishopTimothy Michael Cardinal Dolan
RectorRev. Msgr. Robert T. Ritchie
Laity
Director of musicDr. Jennifer Pascual
Organist(s)Daniel Brondel
Michael Hey
RCIA coordinatorSueanne Nilsen
St. Patrick's Cathedral Complex
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan) is located in Manhattan
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
Location within Manhattan
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan) is located in New York City
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
Location within New York City
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan) is located in New York
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
Location within New York (state)
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan) is located in the United States
St. Patrick's Cathedral (Manhattan)
Location within the United States
Coordinates40°45′31″N 73°58′35″W / 40.75861°N 73.97639°WCoordinates: 40°45′31″N 73°58′35″W / 40.75861°N 73.97639°W
Area2 acres (0.81 ha)
Built1878
NRHP reference #76001250
Significant dates
Added to NRHPDecember 8, 1976[4]
Designated NHLDecember 8, 1976[3]
Designated NYCLOctober 19, 1966[2]

History

Purchase of the property

The land on which the present cathedral stands was purchased in 1810.[5][6] The Jesuit community built a college on the site,[7] three miles north of the city. It contained a "fine old house" which was fitted with a chapel of St. Ignatius.[8] The school closed in 1814 and the Jesuits sold the lot to the diocese. In 1813, the diocese gave use of the property to Dom Augustin LeStrange, abbot of a community of Trappists (from the original monastery of La Trappe) who came to America fleeing persecution by French authorities. In addition to a small monastic community, they also looked after some thirty-three orphans. With the downfall of Napoleon in that year, the Trappists returned to France in 1815, abandoning the property. The property at this point was designated for a future cemetery. The neighboring orphanage was maintained by the diocese into the late nineteenth century. Some of the Trappists resettled to Canada and eventually founded St. Joseph's Abbey in Spencer, Massachusetts.[9]

Bishop DuBois reopened the chapel in 1840 for Catholics employed at the Deaf and Dumb Asylum and in the general neighborhood.[8] A modest frame church was built for the parish of St. John the Evangelist and dedicated May 9, 1841 by the Rev. John Hughes, administrator of the diocese. Tickets were sold to the dedication to ease the parish's debt level, managed by a lay Board of Trustees, but to no avail and the property mortgage was finally foreclosed on and the church sold at auction in 1844.[8] The stress is said to have contributed to the death that year of the church's pastor, the Rev. Felix Larkin.[8] The experience was blamed on the management of the trustees and this incident is said to have played a significant role in the abolishment of the lay trusteeship, which occurred shortly thereafter.[8] The young and energetic Rev. Michael A. Curran was appointed to raise funds for the devastated parish, and shortly fitted up an old college hall as a temporary church.[8] Fr. Curran continued raising funds to buy back the church during the Great Famine in Ireland, eventually succeeding and taking the deed in his own name.[8] "The site of St. Patrick's Cathedral, hence, came to the Church through the labors of this young priest and the self-denial of his countrymen and not by the gift of the city."[8] The debt was finally all paid for by 1853 when it was clear a large church was needed and the site was selected as appropriate for the new cathedral.[8]

Construction of the cathedral

The Diocese of New York, created in 1808, was made an archdiocese by Pope Pius IX on July 19, 1850. In 1853, Archbishop John Joseph Hughes announced his intention to erect a new cathedral to replace the Old Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Lower Manhattan. The new cathedral was designed by James Renwick Jr. in the Gothic Revival style. On August 15, 1858, the cornerstone was laid, just south of the diocese's orphanage. At that time, present-day midtown Manhattan was far north of the populous areas of New York City.[10]

Work began in 1858 but was halted during the Civil War and resumed in 1865. The cathedral was completed in 1878 and dedicated on May 25, 1879, its huge proportions dominating the midtown of that time. The archbishop's house and rectory were added in 1880, both by James Renwick Jr., and an adjacent school (no longer in existence) opened in 1882.[11] The spires were added in 1888, and at 329 feet and 6 inches (100.4 meters) were the tallest structures in New York City and the second highest in the United States.[1] An addition on the east, including a Lady chapel, designed by Charles T. Mathews, was constructed from 1901 to 1906.[11] The Lady Chapel's stained-glass windows were made between 1912 and 1930 by English stained glass artist and designer Paul Vincent Woodroffe.[12] In 1927 and 1931, the cathedral was renovated, which included enlarging the sanctuary and installing the great organ.[13] The cathedral and associated buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.[5][14][15]

Restoration

An extensive restoration of the cathedral was begun in 2012 and lasted 3 years at a cost of $177 million.[16] Overseen by MBB Architects (Murphy Burnham & Buttrick) and Construction Manager Structure Tone, the award-winning restoration reversed decades of decay and soot.[17][18] The restoration was completed by September 17, 2015, before Pope Francis visited the cathedral on September 24 and 25, 2015.[19] The restoration cleaned the exterior marble, repaired stained glass windows, and painted the ceiling, repaired the flooring and steps, among many restorations.[20] The cathedral and the renovations were featured on WNET's television program Treasures of New York.[21]

In 2017, MBB Architects and Structure Tone, along with Landmark Facilities Group and P.W. Grosser, completed the design and installation of a new geothermal system believed to be the largest in New York City.[22] The geothermal system replaced the steam radiators and 1960s-era air conditioning in the cathedral.

Terrorism

On October 13, 1914, a bomb exploded on the northwest corner of St. Patrick's Cathedral. It caused a panic, but not severe damage, splintering some and tearing an 18-inch hole in the floor. Despite a full church that day, there was only one victim – a young boy – whose head was grazed by a flying piece of metal. Authorities believed this event was linked to another bombing earlier that day, downtown at St. Alphonsus Church on West Broadway.[23] The Communists reportedly celebrated bombings at this and other churches, while police suspected an Industrial Workers of the World plot.[24] There were no arrests made that day.

In March 1915, Italian anarchists, Frank Abarno, and Carmine Carbone were arrested for attempting to detonate a bomb in the cathedral. Arbarno and Carbone were under the influence of Luigi Galleani. Abarno was in St. Patrick's ready to light the bomb fuse when Amedeo Polignani, a New York City police detective, who had gone undercover to infiltrate the group, intervened. Polignani had been operating under the direction of the head of the bomb squad, Thomas Tunney. Arbano was arrested at the scene and Carbone was arrested at his home. The two defendants claimed entrapment, but were nonetheless convicted and given sentences of between 6 and 12 years.[25][26][27]

In the 1950s, starting in January 1951, a letter threatened that a bomb would be set off at a Sunday mass, and there would be five more threats between December 1951 and July 1952. On July 12, a voice over the telephone warned "your beautiful cathedral will be blown up before midnight."[28]

On December 10th, 1989, ACT UP, a pressure group that advocates for AIDS awareness, led a demonstration outside the cathedral as part of their Stop the Church campaign. This campaign was mounted out of disagreement with the Roman Catholic Church's stance on birth control, sex education in the public schools, and abortion. Approximately 4500 people took part. Of these, 130 proceeded to infiltrate the church and disrupted the mass, forcing Cardinal John O'Connor to abandon his sermon. Some of the slogans they chanted included "Stop Killing Us" and "You say, Don't Fuck; we say, Fuck You!"[29] Several protestors laid down in the pews or the aisles to simulate death, while some others threw condoms around the area. One protester walked up to the altar, grabbed a communion wafer and broke it on the floor, saying "This is what I think of your God."[30]

Architectural features

Facade of Saint Patrick's by David Shankbone
Detail of the façade (September 2006)

St. Patrick's Cathedral is the largest decorated Neo-Gothic-style Catholic cathedral in North America. The cathedral, which can accommodate 3,000 people, is built of brick clad in marble, quarried in Massachusetts and New York. The main block of the cathedral is made of Tuckahoe marble.[31] It takes up a whole city block, between 50th and 51st streets, Madison Avenue and Fifth Avenue. At the transepts, it is 174 feet (53.0 meters) wide and 332 feet (101.2 meters) long. The spires rise 330 feet (100.6 meters) from street level. The slate for the roof came from Monson, Maine.[12]

Stained glass

The windows were made by artists in Boston, Massachusetts, and European artists from Chartres, France, and Birmingham, England. Charles Connick created the rose window.[12]

Altar

The Roman artist Paolo Medici designed the Saint Elizabeth altar. The Saint Jean-Baptiste de La Salle altar, one of the few original side-chapel altars, was sculpted by Dominic Borgia. The Papal bull is featured in the adjoining stained-glass window. Tiffany & Co. designed the Saint Louis and the Saint Michael altar.[12]

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, there was a renovation of the cathedral's main altar area under the guidance of Archbishop Francis Spellman, who later became cardinal. The previous high altar and reredos were removed and are now located at Spellman's alma mater, Fordham University, in the University Church. The new items include the sanctuary bronze baldachin and the rose stained glass window. The altar was further renovated in the 1980s, under the direction of Cardinal John Joseph O'Connor. To be more visible to the congregation, a stone altar was built from sections of the side altars and added to the middle of the sanctuary.[12] However, this altar was removed in 2013.

Art works

The Pietà, sculpted by William Ordway Partridge, is three times larger than Michelangelo's Pietà. The cathedral's Stations of the Cross won an 1893 artistry prize at Chicago's World's Columbian Exposition. Commemorating his visit to the city in 1979, Pope John Paul II's bust is located in the rear of the cathedral.[12]

Saint Charbel Shrine

On October 28, 2017, a shrine to Maronite Saint Charbel Makhlouf was inaugurated at St. Patrick's Cathedral.[32] The Lebanese Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi attended the inauguration ceremony giving his blessing and a dedication, as well as Cardinal Timothy M. Dolan. The shrine features a mosaic of Saint Charbel Makhlouf along with national Lebanese emblems such as the Lebanon cedar and a relic of the Saint, and was donated by SGBL bank chairman Antoun Sehnaoui in the name of his parents, May and Nabil Sehnaoui.[33]

Music

Organs

St. Patrick's Cathedral New York 1913
1913 photograph of the cathedral

St. Patrick's Cathedral has two pipe organs. The Gallery Organ is located in the Choir Gallery below the Rose Window over the Fifth Avenue entrance and in the Triforium, near the South Transept. The Chancell Organ is located in the North Ambulatory next to the Chapel of St. Joseph.

First organs

The first organ in the Cathedral was built by George Jardine & Son, one of New York's most distinguished organ builders, and installed in 1879. It was composed of 4 manuals with 51 stops and 56 ranks.

In 1880, J.H. & C.S. Odell, then also from New York City, installed an organ in the chancel. It was composed of 2 manuals with 20 stops and 23 ranks.

Kilgen organs

500 PATRICK V 5537 best
Interior
Detail of the facade of St Patrick's Cathedral in New York City
Detail of the entrance (October 2007)
NYC - Top of the Rock - view of St. Patrick's Cathedral - panoramio
View from Rockefeller Center (2016)

With the addition to the music staff of Pietro Yon in 1927, plans were initiated to replace the organs. The firm of George Kilgen & Son of St. Louis, Missouri, was engaged to build two new instruments according to designs which were heavily influenced by the Cathedral's world-renowned organist.

During the building period it was determined that the Gallery would need to be extended to accommodate the new Gallery Organ. In the late 1920s, a concrete reinforced extension to the original Gallery was constructed.

The Chancel Organ was dedicated on January 30, 1928. It is encased in a carved oak screen ornamented with Gothic elements of design and symbolism. It had 1,480 pipes; located on the opposite side of the Ambulatory, diagonally across from the console.

The Gallery Organ, dedicated on February 11, 1930, required three years to build at a cost of $250,000. It has one of the nation's most glorious wood facades. It was designed by Robert J. Reiley, consulting architect of the Cathedral, and is adorned with angels and Latin inscriptions. It contained 7,855 pipes ranging in length from thirty-two feet to one-half inch. The longest pipes run horizontally across the North and South Triforia.

In the 1940s and 1950s tonal changes were made. In the 1970s and 1980s additional renovations were made by Jack Steinkampf of Yonkers, New York, particularly in the revoicing of flutes and reeds, and the addition of the Trumpette en Chamade.

Peragallo restoration

Atlas Vs. St. Patrick's Cathedral
View from across Fifth Avenue, with Lee Lawrie's statue of Atlas in the foreground

In 1993, it was decided that the organs need to undergo major restoration. The first and most essential part of the restoration project was to acquire new consoles for both the Gallery and Chancel Organs to replace the original ones which had deteriorated beyond repair. Twin five-manual consoles were constructed by Robert Turner of Hacienda Heights, California. Solid State Logic, Ltd. of England designed and engineered the combination action. The use of fiber-optic wiring enables both consoles to control the Gallery, Chancel and Nave Organs at the same time. Installation of the Gallery console was finished in time for Christmas Midnight Mass in 1993. The Chancel console was installed in early 1994.

For six weeks in January and February 1994, scaffolding filled the Gallery to provide access for wood craftsmen to begin the arduous process of cleaning, repairing, and oiling the hand-carved organ facade. Meanwhile, the Peragallo Pipe Organ Company of Paterson, New Jersey had been awarded the contract to clean and restore all of the pipework as well as the chests and wind systems. Their first task was to remove all the facade pipes for cleaning and refinishing. It was decided to return the pipework to its original zinc finish, only adding a protective coating to avoid oxidation in the future. After completing work on the facade, Peragallo moved to the interior of the instrument for the purpose of restoring the Great, Choir, Swell, Solo, String and Pedal divisions. The entire Chancel Organ was restored in 1995. Finally, the Echo Organ, situated in the triforium near the center crossing, underwent tonal modifications, making it more useful as the Nave Organ. The organ work was finished in 1997.

The Organs were blessed on September 15, 2007 celebrating the 10th anniversary of their renovations and inaugurating the Bicentennial Concert Series with a performance James E. Goettsche, the Vatican Organist.

The Organs consist of more than 9,000 pipes, 206 stops, 150 ranks and 10 divisions.

Organists and music directors

Name Title Years
William F. Pecher Organist (and Director of Music) 1879–1904
Jacques C. Ungerer Assistant Organist and Director of Chancel Choir
Organist (and Director of Music)
1893-1904
1904–1929
Pietro A. Yon Assistant Organist
Director of Music
1927–1929
1929–1943
Msgr. Joseph I. Rostagno Vice-Director of Music 1929–1935
Paolo Giaquinto First Assistant Organist 1930–1933
Edward Rivetti Assistant Organist 1933–1972
Dr. Charles M. Courboin Director of Music 1943–1970
John Grady Director of Music and Organist 1970–1990
Donald Dumler Associate Organist
Principal Organist
Principal Organist Emeritus
1970–1990
1990–2014
Named 2014
John-Michael Caprio Director of Music 1990–1997
Alan Davis Associate Organist 1991–1995
Stephen J. Tharp Associate Organist 1995–1996
Stanley H. Cox Associate Organist 1997–2007
Robert Long Director of Music 1999–2001
Don Stefano Concordia Director of Music 2001
Johannes Somary Director of Music 2001–2003
Jennifer Pascual Director of Music 2003–present
Christopher Berry Assistant Organist 2006–2007
Daniel Brondel Assistant Organist
Associate Director of Music and Organist
2007–2008
2008–present
Stephen Fraser Assistant Organist 2008–2011
Stephen Rapp Assistant Organist 2012–present
Michael Hey Assistant Director of Music and Organist 2015–present

Burials and funeral masses

Located underneath the high altar is a crypt in which notable Catholic figures that served the Archdiocese are entombed. They include:

The nine past deceased Archbishops of New York:

Other interments:

In the above list, Cardinal O'Connor declared Pierre Toussaint and Cardinal Cooke to be servants of God, a step in process of being declared a saint of the Catholic Church. Toussaint was declared venerable in 1996 by Pope John Paul II and Archbishop Sheen was declared venerable by Pope Benedict XVI on June 28, 2012.

Four of the Cardinals' galeros (those of Cardinals McCloskey, Farley, Hayes, and Spellman) are located high above the crypt at the back of the sanctuary. Cardinal Spellman's galero was also worn by Pope Pius XII (as Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli) until the latter's election to the papacy at the 1939 Papal conclave. In 1965, the ceremony of the consistory was revised by Pope Paul VI and therefore no galero was presented to Cardinal Cooke or any of his successors.

Some notable people whose Requiem Masses were said at the cathedral include New York Yankees greats Babe Ruth, Roger Maris, and Billy Martin; legendary football coach Vince Lombardi, New York City Police Department officer Steven McDonald, singer Celia Cruz, entertainer and host Ed Sullivan, actor and dancer George M. Cohan, former Attorney General and U.S. Senator from New York Robert F. Kennedy, New York Giants owner Wellington Mara, and former Governor of New York Hugh Carey. Special memorial Masses were also held at the cathedral following the deaths of artist Andy Warhol, baseball player Joe DiMaggio, and noted author William F. Buckley Jr.

In popular culture

  • The underground ruins were the setting for the climax of Beneath the Planet of the Apes (1970) where Taylor destroyed Earth with the Alpha-Omega bomb. Centuries earlier, mutant humans surviving a nuclear holocaust founded a religion on the bomb (later depicted in Battle for the Planet of the Apes), reconsecrated the cathedral to their new religion, and installed the bomb in front of the organ pipes in place of the crucifix.
  • Nelson DeMille's 1981 novel, Cathedral, concerns a fictional seizure and threatened destruction of the cathedral by members of the Irish Republican Army on Saint Patrick's Day. Much of the novel is set in and around the cathedral and details of the cathedral's structure contribute important elements to the plot.
  • The cathedral is also featured in the 1990 film Gremlins 2: The New Batch.
  • In Giannina Braschi's novel Empire of Dreams (1994), the ringing of the church bells at the cathedral marks a pastoral revolution in New York City.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "St. Patrick's Cathedral History & Restoration Facts" (PDF). popefrancisnyc.org. Archdiocese of New York. 2015. Retrieved July 4, 2016. The spires were finished in 1888 and were the tallest in New York City from 1880–1890 and the second tallest in the United States (p. 2). Height to the top of the Spires: 329 feet, 6 inches (p. 3).
  2. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral and Lady Chapel, and Rectory and Cardinal's Residence" (PDF). Neighborhood Preservation Center. New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  3. ^ "National Register Digital Assets". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  4. ^ "National Register of Historic Places". National Park Service. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  5. ^ a b Pitts, Carolyn . "St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence". National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
  6. ^ Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. p. 304.
  7. ^ Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. p. 276.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lafort, Remigius, S.T.D., Censor. (1914). The Catholic Church in the United States of America: Undertaken to Celebrate the Golden Jubilee of His Holiness, Pope Pius X. Volume 3. New York City: The Catholic Editing Company. pp. 339–340.
  9. ^ Farley, John M. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Society for the Propagation of the Faith.
  10. ^ Farley, John Murphy. (1908). History of St. Patrick's Cathedral Society for the propagation of the faith. pp. 49, 111, 115, 122.
  11. ^ a b White, Norval, and Elliot Willensky. AIA Guide to New York City. 5th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 2010. Print.
  12. ^ a b c d e f St. Patrick’s Cathedral (RC). New York City Architecture. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  13. ^ Cathedral of Saint Patrick. The NYC Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  14. ^ St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory and Cardinal's Residence Archived October 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. National Historic Landmark summary listing, September 18, 2007. National Park Service.
  15. ^ St. Patrick's Cathedral, Lady Chapel, Rectory, and Cardinal's Residence. National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination. August 1976. National Park Service.
  16. ^ St. Patrick’s Cathedral Set To Undergo $177 Million Restoration. CBS News New York. July 7, 2012.
  17. ^ AIA Names 18 Projects as Best New Architecture in US. ArchDaily. January 15, 2016.
  18. ^ St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Born Anew After a $177 million Restoration Architectural Digest. November 11, 2015.
  19. ^ "A Gift to New York, in Time for the Pope". The New York Times. September 17, 2015. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  20. ^ "St. Patrick's Cathedral Gets an Update Fit for the Pope". Retrieved 2015-09-19.
  21. ^ Treasures of New York: St. Patrick's Cathedral WNET Channel 13. August 25, 2015.
  22. ^ "The New, Green Pride of St. Patrick's Cathedral Is Underground". The New York Times. March 14, 2018.
  23. ^ "Terror on Sunday: The Failed Plot to Blow Up St. Patrick's Cathedral." Audio blog post. The Bowery Boys: New York City History. The Bowery Boys, March 4, 2015. Web.
  24. ^ Bomb at St. Patrick’s Cathedral, 1914
  25. ^ Frank Arbano
  26. ^ Detective Lit Bomb, Abarno Tells Court
  27. ^ During World War I, Germany Unleashed 'Terrorist Cell In America' By Editor • February 25, 2014
  28. ^ Daytonian in Manhattan, September 27, 2011, St. Patrick's Cathedral – 5th Avenue at 50th Street
  29. ^ The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice, Phillip Jenkins, pg 3
  30. ^ Jesus Acted Up, Robert Gross, pg 147
  31. ^ Diane S. Kaese and Michael F. Lynch (2008). "Marble in (and Around) the City Its Origins and Use in Historic New York Buildings" (PDF). Common Bond. 22 (2 (Autumn 2008)): 7.
  32. ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Lebanon-News/2017/Oct-29/424307-st-charbel-shrine-revealed-in-prominent-new-york-cathedral.ashx
  33. ^ https://saintpatrickscathedral.org/news/dedication-of-the-chapel-of-saint-sharbel

External links

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The church was designated a New York City landmark in 1966, and the cathedral complex was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. It was declared a minor basilica by Pope Benedict XVI on March 17, 2010.

Symphony No. 5 (Mahler)

Symphony No. 5 by Gustav Mahler was composed in 1901 and 1902, mostly during the summer months at Mahler's holiday cottage at Maiernigg. Among its most distinctive features are the trumpet solo that opens the work with a rhythmic motive similar to the opening of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, the horn solos in the third movement and the frequently performed Adagietto.

The musical canvas and emotional scope of the work, which lasts over an hour, are huge. The symphony is sometimes described as being in the key of C♯ minor since the first movement is in this key (the finale, however, is in D major). Mahler objected to the label: "From the order of the movements (where the usual first movement now comes second) it is difficult to speak of a key for the 'whole Symphony', and to avoid misunderstandings the key should best be omitted."

Timeline of New York City

This article is a timeline of the history of New York City in the state of New York, US.

Willie Basse

Wilber Cornelius Rice, Jr. ((1956-08-06)August 6, 1956 – (2018-10-28)October 28, 2018), known by the stage name Willie Basse, was an American hard rock vocalist, bassist, music producer, engineer and songwriter. He was the frontman for Black Sheep, a 1980s metal band that featured a number of noteworthy musicians throughout its line-up changes. The last known line-up consisted of Basse on bass, Marshall Harrison and Brian Conroy on guitars, and James Kottak on drums. Other members included Slash, Paul Gilbert, Randy Castillo, Kurt James and Mitch Perry. In 1985, the band released a full-length album, “Trouble In The Streets”, on William and Wesley Hein’s Enigma Records for which Billboard Magazine noted Basse as the producer. Their EP “Sacrifice” was released on Quicksilver in 1999.

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