The Srebarna Nature Reserve (Bulgarian: Природен резерват Сребърна, transliterated as Priroden rezervat Srebarna) is a nature reserve in northeastern Bulgaria (Southern Dobruja), near the village of the same name, 18 km west of Silistra and 2 km south of the Danube. It comprises Lake Srebarna and its surroundings and is located on the Via Pontica, a bird migration route between Europe and Africa.
The reserve embraces 6 km2 of protected area and a buffer zone of 5.4 km2. The lake's depth varies from 1 to 3 m. There is a museum constructed, where a collection of stuffed species typical for the reserve is arranged.
|Srebarna Nature Reserve|
Location within Bulgaria
|Location||Silistra Province, Bulgaria|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
|Inscription||1983 (7th Session)|
|Area||638 ha (2.46 sq mi)|
|Buffer zone||673 ha (2.60 sq mi)|
|Designated||24 September 1975|
While Lake Srebarna was studied many times in the past by foreign biologists, the first Bulgarian scientist to take an interest in the area was Aleksi Petrov, who visited the reserve in 1911. In 1913, the whole of Southern Dobrudja was incorporated in Romania, but was returned to Bulgaria in 1940, when the area was visited once again by Petrov to examine the colonies of birds that nest there.
The area was proclaimed a nature reserve in 1948 and is a Ramsar site since 1975. The reserve was recognized as World Natural Heritage Site under the 1972 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983.
There are several legends about the origin of the lake's name. The one is about a khan named Srebrist, who died in the neighbourhood whilst engaging in an unequal battle with the Pechenegs. A second one tells about a boat full of silver (srebro in Bulgarian) along the shores of the lake. According to a third one, which is regarded as most plausible, the name comes from the silvery reflections on the lake's surface during full moon.
There are hydrophyte species such as reed in and around the lake. The reserve is home to 139 plant species, 11 of them are in danger of extinction outside the territory of Srebarna.
A wide variety of fauna exists in the area. 39 mammal, 21 reptile and amphibian and 10 fish species inhabit the reserve, which is most famous for the 179 bird species that nest on its territory, some of which include the Dalmatian pelican, the mute swan, the greylag goose, the marsh harrier, the bluethroat, herons and cormorants.
100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria is a Bulgarian national movement established in 1966 to promote tourism among Bulgaria's most significant cultural, historic, and natural landmarks.
As part of this program, sites of cultural and historical significance have been selected, ranging from historic places and monuments to archaeological and architectural sanctuaries, museums, monasteries, as well as national parks, mountain peaks and other geological phenomena. Each of the chosen landmarks has its own individual seal, which is stamped onto pages of an official passport-like booklet issued by the Bulgarian Tourist Union (BTU). A booklet can be purchased at any tourist union center or on location at any of the sites and it costs a symbolic 1 lev. The booklet comes with a separate map which includes a list of the sites, their addresses and working hours. The maximum number of collectible stamps per booklet is 100 and, contrary to the movement's title, the exact number of official sites exceeds the number 100.
A reward scheme has been developed to encourage collection of as many stamps as possible. Depending on the number of stamps collected, participants may receive bronze, silver or gold badges. 25 stamps earn bronze, 50 stamps earn silver and 100 stamps (a complete booklet) earn gold. The National Organizational Committee of the BTU holds an annual lottery for the previous year's badge earners every August. Prizes include domestic and overseas excursions, bicycles, tents, sleeping bags, and other travel-related items.
Some landmarks in the original program highlighted Bulgaria's Communist government, which collapsed on November 10, 1989. In 2003 the BTU removed many of these sites from the official list. Both the original and current lists appear below. The list has since seen minor changes in 2007, 2008 and 2009.
A variety of organizations and institutions participated in developing and promoting the 100 Tourist Sites of Bulgaria. These include:
The Bulgarian Tourist Union
The Ministry of Education and Science of Bulgaria
The Ministry of Culture of Bulgaria
The Bulgarian State Agency for Youth and Sports
The Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church
The Ministry of Environment and Water of Bulgaria
The Union of Bulgarian Motorists
The Bulgarian Red Cross
The Bulgarian National Radio
Bulgarian National TelevisionDalmatian pelican
The Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus) is the most massive member of the pelican family, and perhaps the world's largest freshwater bird, although rivaled in weight and length by the largest swans. They are elegant soaring birds, with wingspans that rival that of the great albatrosses, and their flocks fly in graceful synchrony. It is a short to medium distance migrant between breeding and overwintering areas. No subspecies are known to exist over its wide range, but based on size differences, a Pleistocene paleosubspecies, P. c. palaeocrispus, has been described from fossils recovered at Binagady, Azerbaijan.
As with other pelicans, the males are larger than the females, and likewise their diet is mainly fish. Their curly nape feathers, grey legs and silvery-white plumage are distinguishing features, and the wings appear solid grey in flight. The adults acquire a drabber plumage in winter, however, when they may be mistaken for great white pelicans. Their harsh vocalizations become more pronounced during the mating season. They breed from southeastern Europe to Russia, India and China in swamps and shallow lakes. They usually return to traditional breeding sites, where they are less social than other pelican species. Their nests are crude heaps of vegetation, which are placed on islands or on dense mats of vegetation.
The species' numbers underwent a dramatic decline during the 20th century, partly due to land use, disturbance and poaching activities. The core population survives in Russia, but in its Mongolian range it is critically endangered. Removal of power lines to prevent collisions or electrocution, and the construction of nesting platforms or rafts have reversed declines locally.Danube
The Danube ( DAN-yoob), known by various names in other languages, is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km (1,770 mi), passing through or bordering Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, zander, huchen, Wels catfish, burbot and tench. It is also home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass, mullet, and eel, inhabit the Danube delta and the lower portion of the river.EV6 The Rivers Route
EuroVelo 6 (EV6), named The Rivers Route, is a EuroVelo long-distance cycling route running along 3,653 km (2,270 mi) some of Europe's major rivers, including much of the Loire, some of the Saône, a short section of the upper Rhine and almost the entire length of Europe’s second longest river, the Danube — from the Atlantic coast of France to the city of Constanța on the Black Sea.
The EV6 traverses 10 countries from Saint-Nazaire in France at the mouth of the River Loire, eastward along the Loire to the River Saône, across the border to Switzerland, along the Rhine to Lake Constance, north into Germany, down the River Danube and through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, and Romania to the Danube Delta, before terminating at Constanța on the Black Sea.
The EV6 includes the Danube Bike Path, the most popular holiday cycle route in Europe. This section stretches from Donaueschingen to Passau in Germany, through Austria to Vienna, and continues on to Bratislava in Slovakia, to Novi Sad and Belgrade in Serbia, before continuing on towards the Danube Delta.Geography of Bulgaria
Bulgaria is a country situated in Southeast Europe, bordering Romania to the north, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. The northern border with Romania follows the river Danube until the city of Silistra. The land area of Bulgaria is 110,879 square kilometres (42,811 sq mi), slightly larger than that of Iceland or the U.S. state of Tennessee. Considering its relatively small size, Bulgaria has a great variety of topographical features. Even within small parts of the country, the land may be divided into plains, plateaus, hills, mountains, basins, gorges, and deep river valleys. The geographic center of Bulgaria is located in Uzana.
Bulgaria features notable diversity with the landscape ranging from the snow-capped peaks in Rila, Pirin and the Balkan Mountains to the mild and sunny Black Sea coast; from the typically continental Danubian Plain (ancient Moesia) in the north to the strong Mediterranean climatic influence in the valleys of Macedonia and in the lowlands in the southernmost parts of Thrace. Most of the country is situated within the humid continental climate region, with Alpine climate in the highest mountains and subtropical climate in the southernmost regions.The country has a dense river network but with the notable exception of the river Danube, they are mostly short and with low water flow. The average annual precipitation is 670 mm; the rainfall is lower in the lowlands and higher in the mountains. The driest region is Dobrudzha in the north-eastern part of the Danubian Plain (450 mm), while the highest rainfall has been measured in the upper valley of the river Ogosta in the western Balkan Mountains (2293 mm).Bulgaria has substantial land in agriculture and forest. In 2006 land use and land cover was 5% intensive human use, 52% agriculture including pasture, 31% forest, 11% woodland-shrub, grassland, and non-vegetated, and 1% water.Phytogeographically, Bulgaria straddles the Illyrian and Euxinian provinces of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. The country falls within six terrestrial ecoregions of the Palearctic ecozone: Balkan mixed forests, Rodope montane mixed forests, Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests, East European forest steppe and Pontic–Caspian steppe.List of World Heritage Sites by year of inscription
This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites around the world by year of inscription. The first World Heritage Site in the list is Galápagos Islands, while the country with the largest number of sites (including sites shared with other countries) is Italy, with 54 entries. The country with the largest number of sites by itself alone (excluding sites shared with other countries) is China, with 52 entries. (F) denotes the country's first inscription.List of World Heritage Sites in Eastern Europe
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 77 World Heritage Sites in nine countries (also called "state parties") of Eastern Europe; defined here to mean the former Eastern Bloc countries not including the Baltic Countries (which are in Northern Europe) or former Yugoslavia and Albania (which are in Southern Europe) or the parts of Germany that once comprised East Germany (which are included in Western Europe): Russia, Belarus, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Bulgaria. Only the European part of Russia is included here; the Asian part is included in Central Asia. Although they have territory in Eastern Europe, the uniquely positioned Caucasian countries of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan are not included here but in Western Asia, and Kazakhstan is included in Central Asia.Russia is home to the most inscribed sites with 17 sites, two of which are transborder properties. Seven sites are shared between several countries with some of them located partially in Northern or Western Europe: the Curonian Spit (Lithuania and Russia), Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (Slovakia and Hungary), Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Germany, Slovakia, Ukraine, Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Romania, Slovenia, and Spain), Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Białowieża Forest (Poland and Belarus), Fertö / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (Austria and Hungary), Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski (Germany and Poland) and the Struve Geodetic Arc (ten countries in Northern and Eastern Europe). Moldova has only part of the Struve Geodetic Arc transborder site. The first sites from the region were inscribed in 1978, when Kraków's Historic Centre and the Wieliczka Salt Mine, both in Poland were chosen during the list's conception. Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x). Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Eastern Europe, there are 69 cultural, 8 natural, and no mixed sites.The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." None of the sites in Eastern Europe is currently listed as endangered; two sites, Wieliczka Salt Mine and the Srebarna Nature Reserve, have formerly been listed as endangered but lost this status subsequently; possible danger listing has been considered by UNESCO in a number of cases.List of World Heritage in Danger
The List of World Heritage in Danger is compiled by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through the World Heritage Committee according to Article 11.4 of the World Heritage Convention, which was established in 1972 to designate and manage World Heritage Sites. Entries in the list are threatened World Heritage Sites for the conservation of which major operations are required and for which "assistance has been requested". The list is intended to increase international awareness of the threats and to encourage counteractive measures. Threats to a site can be either proven imminent threats or potential dangers that could have adverse effects on a site.
In the case of natural sites, ascertained dangers include the serious decline in the population of an endangered or other valuable species or the deterioration of natural beauty or scientific value of a property caused by human activities such as logging, pollution, settlement, mining, agriculture and major public works. Ascertained dangers for cultural properties include serious deterioration of materials, structure, ornaments or architectural coherence and the loss of historical authenticity or cultural significance. Potential dangers for both cultural and natural sites include development projects, armed conflicts, insufficient management systems or changes in the legal protective status of the properties. In the case of cultural sites, gradual changes due to geology, climate or environment can also be potential dangers.Before a property is inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, its condition is assessed and a potential programme for corrective measures is developed in cooperation with the State Party involved. The final decision about inscription is made by the committee. Financial support from the World Heritage Fund may be allocated by the committee for listed properties. The state of conservation is reviewed on a yearly basis, after which the committee may request additional measures, delete the property from the list if the threats have ceased or consider deletion from both the List of World Heritage in Danger and the World Heritage List. Of the two Former UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Dresden Elbe Valley was delisted after placement on the List of World Heritage in Danger while the Arabian Oryx Sanctuary was directly delisted. As of 2017, there are 54 entries (17 natural, 37 cultural) on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Some sites have been designated as World Heritage Sites and World Heritage in Danger in the same year, such as the Church of the Nativity, traditionally considered to be the birthplace of Jesus. Arranged by the UNESCO regions 22 of the listed sites are located in the Arab States (of which 7 are located in Syria and 5 in Libya), 15 in Africa (of which 5 are in the Democratic Republic of the Congo), 7 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 6 in Asia and the Pacific, and 4 in Europe and North America (all by 2017). The majority of the endangered natural sites (11) are located in Africa.In some cases, danger listing has sparked conservation efforts and prompted the release of funds, resulting in a positive development for sites such as the Galápagos Islands and Yellowstone National Park, both of which have subsequently been removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger. Despite this, the list itself and UNESCO's implementation of it have been the focus of criticism. In particular, States Parties and other stakeholders of World Heritage Sites have questioned the authority of the Committee to declare a site in danger without their consent. Until 1992, when UNESCO set a precedent by placing several sites on the danger list against their wishes, States Parties would have submitted a programme of corrective measures before a site could be listed. Instead of being used as intended, the List of World Heritage in Danger is perceived by some states as a black list and according to Christina Cameron, Professor at the School of Architecture, Canada Research Chair on Built Heritage, University of Montreal, has been used as political tool to get the attention of States Parties. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) notes that UNESCO has referenced the List of World Heritage in Danger (without actually listing the site) in a number of cases where the threat could be easily addressed by the State Party. The Union also argues that keeping a site listed as endangered over a long period is questionable and that other mechanisms for conservation should be sought in these cases.List of World Heritage sites in Bulgaria
There are ten UNESCO World Heritage sites in Bulgaria. The first four properties were inscribed in the World Heritage List in 1979, and the last in 2017.
Bulgaria currently has fourteen additional properties on the Tentative List.List of birds of Bulgaria
This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.
The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.List of protected areas of Bulgaria
This is a list of protected areas in Bulgaria which includes 3 national parks, 11 nature parks and 55 nature reserves. The national policy for governing and management of the protected areas is implemented by the Ministry of Environment and Water. The first nature park in Bulgaria and the Balkan Peninsula is Vitosha Nature Park, established in 1934. All of the nationally protected areas in Bulgaria are also part of the Natura 2000 network of protected natural areas in the territory of the European Union.
Parks in bolded letters are declared PAN Parks
Parks and reserves in italic letters are part of Global 200 ecoregionsSeveroiztochen Planning Region
Severoiztochen Planning Region (Northeast Planning Region) is a planning region in Bulgaria.The region includes four provinces: Silistra Province, Varna Province, Shumen Province and Dobrich Province.
Largest cities are Varna (360,000 - city proper; 500,000 - metro area), Dobrich (105,000 - city; 115,000 - agglomeration), Shumen (95,000), Silistra (42,000 -city; 52,000 - agglomeration). The agglomeration of Varna includes the towns of Provadya (14,000), Devnya (10,000), Aksakovo (7600 - fastest growing town in area) and others. The agglomeration of Silistra includes the largest villages in Bulgaria - Aydemir (7800) and Kalipetrovo (4700).
It is bordered on the east by the Black Sea. The Kamchia river flows through the region.Silistra Municipality
Silistra Municipality (Bulgarian: Община Силистра) is a municipality (obshtina) in Silistra Province, Northeastern Bulgaria, located along the right bank of Danube river, in the Danubian Plain, bounded by Romania to the northeast and north beyond the river. It is named after its administrative centre - the city of Silistra which is also the capital of the province.
The municipality embraces a territory of 515.89 km² with a population of 54,885 inhabitants, as of December 2009.Aside from the historical heritage of the main town, the area is best known with the Srebarna Nature Reserve around the lake of the same name. The main roads I-7, II-21 and II-71 crosses the municipality, connecting the province centre of Silistra with the cities of Shumen, Ruse and Dobrich.Tourism in Bulgaria
Tourism in Bulgaria is a significant contributor to the country's economy. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Bulgaria has been home to many civilizations - Thracians, Greeks, Romans, Eastern Romans or Byzantines, Slavs, Bulgars, and Ottomans. The country is rich in tourist sights and historical artifacts, scattered through a relatively small and easily accessible territory. Bulgaria is internationally known for its seaside and winter resorts.
Bulgaria attracted ~12 million foreign tourists in 2017, according to the Worldbank. Tourists from five countries - Greece, Romania, Turkey, Germany, and Russia - account for approximately 50% of all visitors. The sector contributed to 15% of GDP and supported 150 000 workplaces in 2014.Transboundary protected area
A transboundary protected area (TBPA) is an ecological protected area that spans boundaries of more than one country or sub-national entity. Such areas are also known as transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) or peace parks.TBPAs exist in many forms around the world, and are established for various reasons. The preservation of traditional animal migration patterns, ensuring sufficient food and water sources for population growth, is a critical reason for the creation of TBPAs. However, TBPAs also encourage tourism, economic development and goodwill between neighbouring countries, as well as making it easier for indigenous inhabitants of the area to travel.