Squash (sport)

Squash is a ball sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles squash) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racquet and hit the ball onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court.

The game was formerly called squash rackets, a reference to the "squashable" soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball used in its sister game rackets).

The governing body of Squash, the World Squash Federation (WSF) is recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), but the sport is not part of the Olympic Games, despite a number of applications. Supporters continue to lobby for its incorporation in a future Olympic program.

Squash
Squash court
Two squash players on a squash court
Highest governing bodyWorld Squash Federation (WSF)
First played1830 at Harrow School, London, England, United Kingdom
Characteristics
ContactSemi
Team membersSingles or Doubles
Mixed genderSeparate competitions (mixed sometimes in leagues)
TypeRacket sport
EquipmentSquash ball, squash racket, goggles
VenueIndoor or outdoor (with glass court)
Presence
OlympicNo
ParalympicNo
World Games1997, 2005 – present

History

The use of stringed rackets is shared with real tennis, which dates from the late sixteenth century, though is more directly descended from the game of rackets from England. In "rackets", instead of hitting over a net as in sports such as tennis, players hit a squeezable ball against walls.

Nanoldsquash2
Old and new style squash rackets

Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game rackets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools, eventually becoming an international sport. The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses, chimneys, and ledges. The school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball. Students modified their rackets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions.[1]

The rackets have changed in a similar way to those used in tennis. Squash rackets used to be made out of laminated timber.[2] In the 1980s, construction shifted to lighter materials (such as aluminium and graphite) with small additions of components like Kevlar, boron and titanium. Natural "gut" strings were also replaced with synthetic strings.[2]

In the 19th century the game increased in popularity with various schools, clubs and even private citizens building squash courts, but with no set dimensions. The first squash court in North America appeared at St. Paul's School in Concord, New Hampshire in 1884. In 1904 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the earliest national association of squash in the world was formed as the United States Squash rackets Association, (USSRA), now known as U.S. Squash. In April 1907 the Tennis, rackets & Fives Association set up a sub committee to set standards for squash. Then the sport soon formed, combining the three sports together called “Squash”. In 1912, the RMS Titanic had a squash court in first class. The 1st-Class Squash Court was situated on G-Deck and the Spectators Viewing Gallery was on the deck above on F-Deck. To use the Court cost 50 cents in 1912. Passengers could use the court for 1 hour unless others were waiting. It was not until 1923 that the Royal Automobile Club hosted a meeting to further discuss the rules and regulations and another five years elapsed before the Squash rackets Association was formed to set standards for squash in Great Britain.[1]

Playing equipment

Standard rackets are governed by the rules of the game. Traditionally they were made of laminated wood (typically ash), with a small strung area using natural gut strings. After a rule change in the mid-1980s, they are now almost always made of composite materials or metals (graphite, Kevlar, titanium, boron) with synthetic strings. Modern rackets have maximum dimensions of 686 mm (27.0 in) long and 215 mm (8.5 in) wide, with a maximum strung area of 500 square centimetres (77.5 sq in). The permitted maximum weight is 255 grams (9.0 oz), but most have a weight between 90 and 150 grams (3–5.3 oz.).

Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, and have a weight of 23 to 25 grams.[3] They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players (slower balls tend to "die" in court corners, rather than "standing up" to allow easier shots). Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball has the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures. Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session; cold squash balls have very little bounce. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level (bounciness), and thus the standard of play for which it is suited. The recognized speed colors indicating the degree of dynamism are:

Color Speed (of Play) Bounce Player Level
Double yellow Extra Slow Very low Experienced
Yellow Slow Low Advanced
Red Medium High Medium
Blue Fast Very high Beginner/Junior
Squash Ball Dunlop Revelation Pro 1
A squash ball

Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball that is appropriate for one's skill level. The four different ball types are Intro (Blue dot, 140% of Pro bounce), Progress (Red dot, 120% of Pro bounce), Competition (single yellow dot, 110% of Pro bounce) and Pro (double yellow dot).

The "double-yellow dot" ball, introduced in 2000, is the competition standard, replacing the earlier "yellow-dot" ball. There is also an "orange dot" ball for use at high altitudes.

Players wear comfortable sports clothing. In competition, men usually wear shorts and a T-shirt, tank top or a polo shirt. Women normally wear a skirt or skort and a T-shirt or a tank top, or a sports dress. The National Institutes of Health recommends wearing goggles with polycarbonate lenses.[4]

Many squash venues mandate the use of eye protection and some association rules require that all juniors and doubles players must wear eye protection.

The court

US Open Squash Championship 2011 Drexel University
The glass show court used at the 2011 US Open Squash Championships hosted by Drexel University at the Daskalakis Athletic Center.
2 points during the Semi Final between James Willstrop and Nick Matthew in 2011 :[5][6]

The squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right hand sides of the back portion of the court, creating three 'boxes': the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes contain smaller service boxes. The floor-markings on a squash court are only relevant during serves. The dimensions of this entire surface is

Squash Court Length: 9750 mm plus or minus 10 mm Squash Court Width: 6400 mm plus or minus 10 mm Squash Court Height: 5640 mm

Squash Court Diagonals: 11665 mm plus or minus 25 mm.[7]

There are four walls to a squash court. The front wall, on which three parallel lines are marked, has the largest playing surface, whilst the back wall, which typically contains the entrance to the court, has the smallest. The out line runs along the top of the front wall, descending along the side walls to the back wall. There are no other markings on the side or back walls. Shots struck above or touching the out line, on any wall, are out. The bottom line of the front wall marks the top of the 'tin', a half metre-high metal area which if struck means that the ball is out. In this way the tin can be seen as analogous to the net in other racket sports such as tennis. The middle line of the front wall is the service line and is only relevant during serves.

Game play

Service

The players spin a racket to decide who serves first. This player starts the first rally by electing to serve from either the left or right service box. For a legal serve, one of the server's feet must be in the service box, not touching any part of the service box lines, as the player strikes the ball. After being struck by the racket, the ball must strike the front wall above the service line and below the out line and land in the opposite back quarter court. The receiving player can choose to volley a serve after it has hit the front wall. If the server wins the point, the two players switch sides for the following point.

Play

After the serve, the players take turns hitting the ball against the front wall, above the tin and below the out line. The ball may strike the side or back walls at any time, as long as it hits below the out line. It must not hit the floor after hitting the racket and before hitting the front wall. A ball landing on either the out line or the line along the top of the tin is considered to be out. After the ball hits the front wall, it is allowed to bounce once on the floor (and any number of times against the side or back walls) before a player must return it. Players may move anywhere around the court but accidental or deliberate obstruction of the other player's movements is forbidden and could result in a let or a stroke. Players typically return to the centre of the court after making a shot.

Scoring systems

Squash can be played with different scoring systems and players in amateur matches can arbitrarily set a points total to determine a winner. Currently, most games are played according to the point-a-rally system (PARS) to 11 points although many players continue to play by English or Hand-In-Hand-Out (HiHo) scoring to 9 whereby only the server may win a point. Players often experience PARS and Hi-Ho as vastly different games requiring different tactics and player attributes. In addition to English or Hand-In-Hand-Out and PARS, there is American scoring by which games are played to 15 instead of 11 as in PARS.

English or Hand-In-Hand-Out scoring

The original scoring system is known as English scoring, also called hand-out scoring. Under this system, if the server wins a rally, they receive a point, while if the returner wins rally, only the service changes (i.e., the ball goes "hand-out") and no point is given. The first player to reach 9 points wins the game. However, if the score reaches 8–8, the player who was first to reach 8 decides whether the game will be played to 9, as before (called "set one"), or to 10 (called "set two"). At one time this scoring system was preferred in Britain, and also among countries with traditional British ties, such as Australia, Canada, Pakistan, South Africa, India and Sri Lanka.

Point-a-rally scoring

The current official scoring system for all levels of professional and amateur squash is called point-a-rally scoring (PARS). In PARS, the winner of a rally always receives a point, regardless of whether they were the server or returner. Games are played to 11, but in contrast to English scoring, players must win by two clear points. That is, if the score reaches 10–10, play continues until one player wins by two points. PARS to 11 is now used on the men's and women's professional tour, and the tin height has been lowered by two inches (to 17 inches) for all PSA events (men's and women's).

American scoring

Another scoring system is American scoring. The rules of American scoring are identical to PARS, apart from games are played to 15. This system is not widely used because games were considered to last too long and the winner would usually be the fitter player, not necessarily the better player.[8]

Competition matches are usually played to "best-of-five" (i.e. the first player to win three games)

English or Hand-In-Hand-Out vs PARS scoring

PARS is almost universally preferred by the game's top professionals and tournaments. One of the reasons for switching to PARS was that long, taxing matches became less frequent and promotors could more easily predict match and session length. Gawain Briars, who served as the Executive Director of the Professional Squash Association (PSA) when the body decided to switch to PARS in 2004 hoped that PARS would make the "professional game more exciting to watch, [and] then more people will become involved in the game and our chances of Olympic entry may be enhanced."[9] One of the problems with English or Hi-Ho scoring is that games often last longer as players continually win service before losing service to the other player without the score being affected. Consequently, the winner is more often than not the fitter athlete. Moreover, English or Hi-Ho scoring can encourage players to play defensively with the aim of wearing down one's opponent before winning by virtue of one's fitness. Unfortunately, such exhausting, defensive play can affect player's prospects in knock-out tournaments and does not make for riveting TV. However, many amateur players prefer the English or Hi-Ho scoring system for its added psychological and tactical dimension and because players are almost guaranteed more court time, even against fitter and better players. On the other hand, some amateurs prefer PARS as the scoreline more accurately reflects the match; in English or Hi-Ho, one player might win by 9-0 despite the opponent having repeatedly won service, but without converting that service into actual points. Playing according to English or Hi-Ho thus requires the player to cope with the added psychological pressure of first winning service, and then holding their nerve to convert service into points.

Since the World Squash Federation's (WSF) decision in 2009, almost all professional and league games have been played according to the PARS to 11. Although the Professional Squash Association had been using PARS since 2004, the WSF's decision proved controversial in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth where games were usually played according to English or Hi-Ho. When the Veterans Squash Rackets Club of Great Britain surveyed their members in 2012, they found that 80% of their members were against switching from HiHo to PARS.[10] President Philip Ayton argued that PARS would "kill the essence of the game."[11] Ayton was particularly concerned that the "great comebacks" that characterised English or Hi-Ho when "the player who is down in a game can still attack when in hand serving"[12] would disappear as PARS fostered an "ultra-defensive attitude, because every rally counts the same."[13]Jahangir Khan has countered that PARS actually made the game far more attacking, but diminished the psychological aspect of the game: "With the nine points scoring system, matches were more mental and physical and could go longer, but now with the 11-point system, every rally counts, and even if you go behind you can still recover. That makes it a lot more attacking." Maj Madan, one the game's top referees, similarly stated that PARS had "destroyed the fitness element and, more importantly, the cerebral magic of the…game.”[14] HIs comments were unearthed when an email chain of referees discussing the problem of shorter and shorter squash matches was leaked in 2011.

Strategy and tactics

A key strategy in squash is known as "dominating the T" (the intersection of the red lines near the centre of the court, shaped like the letter "T", where the player is in the best position to retrieve the opponent's next shot). Skilled players will return a shot, and then move back toward the "T" before playing the next shot. From this position, the player can quickly access any part of the court to retrieve the opponent's next shot with a minimum of movement and possibly maximising the movement required by the opponent to answer the returned shot.

A common strategy is to hit the ball straight up the side walls to the back corners; this is the basic squash shot, referred to as a "rail," straight drive, wall, or "length." After hitting this shot, the player will then move to the centre of the court near the "T" to be well placed to retrieve the opponent's return. Attacking with soft or "short" shots to the front corners (referred to as "drop shots") causes the opponent to cover more of the court and may result in an outright winner. Boasts or angle shots are deliberately struck off one of the side walls before the ball reaches the front. They are used for deception and again to cause the opponent to cover more of the court. Rear wall shots float to the front either straight or diagonally drawing the opponent to the front. Advantageous tactical shots are available in response to a weak return by the opponent if stretched, the majority of the court being free to the striker.

Rallies between experienced players may involve 30 or more shots and therefore a very high premium is placed on fitness, both aerobic and anaerobic. As players become more skilled and, in particular, better able to retrieve shots, points often become a war of attrition. At higher levels of the game, the fitter player has a major advantage.

Ability to change the direction of ball at the last instant is also a tactic used to unbalance the opponent. Expert players can anticipate the opponent's shot a few tenths of a second before the average player, giving them a chance to react sooner.[15]

Depending on the style of play, it is common to refer to squash players[16][17] as

Interference and obstruction

Interference and obstruction are an inevitable aspect of this sport, since two players are confined within a shared space. Generally, the rules entitle players to a direct straight line access to the ball, room for a reasonable swing and an unobstructed shot to any part of the front wall. When interference occurs, a player may appeal for a "let" and the referee (or the players themselves if there is no official) then interprets the extent of the interference. The referee may elect to allow a let and the players then replay the point, or award a "stroke" to the appealing player (meaning that he is declared the winner of that point) depending on the degree of interference, whether the interfering player made an adequate effort to avoid interfering, and whether the player interfered with was likely to have hit a winning shot had the interference not occurred. An exception to all of this occurs when the interfering player is directly in the path of the other player's swing, effectively preventing the swing, in which case a stroke is always awarded.

When it is deemed that there has been little or no interference, or that it is impossible to say one way or the other, the rules provide that no let is to be allowed, in the interests of continuity of play and the discouraging of spurious appeals for lets. Because of the subjectivity in interpreting the nature and magnitude of interference, the awarding (or withholding) of lets and strokes is often controversial.

When a player's shot hits their opponent prior to hitting the front wall, interference has occurred. If the ball was travelling towards the side wall when it hit the opponent, or if it had already hit the side wall and was travelling directly to the front wall, it is usually a let. However, it is a stroke to the player who hit the ball if the ball was travelling straight to the front wall when the ball hit the opponent, without having first hit the side wall. Generally after a player has been hit by the ball, both players stand still; if the struck player is standing directly in front of the player who hit the ball he loses the stroke, if he is not straight in front, a let is played. If it is deemed that the player who is striking the ball is deliberately trying to hit his opponent, he will lose the stroke. An exception to all of this occurs when the player hitting the ball has "turned", i.e., let the ball pass him on one side, but then hit it on the other side as it came off the back wall. In these cases, the stroke goes to the player who was hit by the ball.

Referee

The referee is usually a certified position issued by the club or assigned squash league. The referee has dominant power over the squash players. Any conflict or interference is dealt with by the referee. The referee may also issue to take away points or games due to improper etiquette regarding conduct or rules. Refer to “Interference and Obstruction” for more detail. In addition the referee is usually responsible for the scoring of games. Nowadays, three referees are usually used in professional tournaments. The Central referee has responsibility to call the score and make decisions with the two side referees.

In the United States

There are several variations of squash played across the world. In the U.S. hardball singles and doubles are played with a much harder ball and different size courts (as noted above). Hardball singles has lost much of its popularity in North America (in favour of the International version), but the hardball doubles game is still active. There is also a doubles version of squash played with the standard ball, sometimes on a wider court, and a more tennis-like variation known as squash tennis.

The relatively small court and low-bouncing ball makes scoring points harder and rallies usually longer than in its American cousin, racketball, as the ball may be played to all four corners of the court. Since every ball must strike the front wall above the tin (unlike racketball), the ball cannot be easily "killed". Another difference between squash and racketball is the service game. Racketball allows for the entire back court (from 20-feet to 40-feet) to be used as a service return area; this makes returning serves much more challenging in racketball than squash. Racketball serves routinely exceed 140 mph (225 km/h) and are a crucial component of the game, similar to tennis.

Contribution to health

Squash provides an excellent cardiovascular workout. Players can expend approximately 600 to 1,000 food calories (3,000 to 4,000 kJ) every hour playing squash according to English or Hi-Ho scoring.[18] The sport also provides a good upper and lower body workout by exercising both the legs in running around the court and the arms and torso in swinging the racket. In 2003, Forbes rated squash as the number one healthiest sport to play.[18] However, some studies have implicated squash as a cause of possible fatal cardiac arrhythmia and argued that squash is an inappropriate form of exercise for older men with heart disease.[19]

Squash around the world

Squash

According to the World Squash Federation, as of June 2009, there were 49,908 squash courts in the world, with 188 countries and territories having at least one court. England had the greatest number at 8,500. The other countries with more than 1,000 courts, in descending order by number were Germany, Egypt, the United States of America, Australia, South Africa, Canada, Malaysia, France, the Netherlands, and Spain. Today, The United States has the fastest growing squash participation. There are an estimated 20 million squash players worldwide.

In June 2009, there were players from nineteen countries in the top fifty of the men's world rankings, with England and Egypt leading with eleven each.[20] The women's world rankings featured players from sixteen countries, led by England with eleven.

The men's and women's Professional Squash Association tour, men's rankings and women's rankings are run by the Professional Squash Association (PSA).

The Professional Squash Tour is a tour based in the United States.[21]

Wider acceptance

Logo Squash Back the Bid 2020

Squash has been featured regularly at the multi-sport events of the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games since 1998. Squash is also a regular sport at the Pan American Games since 1995. Squash players and associations have lobbied for many years for the sport to be accepted into the Olympic Games, with no success to date. Squash narrowly missed being instated for the 2012 London Games and the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Games (missed out again as the IOC assembly decided to add golf and rugby sevens to the Olympic programme).[22] Squash also missed out as an event in the 2020 Olympic Games.[23] At the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires, the IOC voted for Wrestling instead of Squash or Baseball/Softball. The usual reason cited for the failure of the sport to be adopted for Olympic competition is the difficulty of spectators to follow the action, especially via television.

Squash was accepted as a demonstration sport for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[24] The World Squash Federation hopes that this inclusion will create a strong bid for a potential inclusion at the 2024 Summer Olympics.[25]

Players, records and rankings

Nicol2009
Nicol David; widely regarded as the most successful Malaysian squash player ever.

The (British) Squash Rackets Association (now known as England Squash) conducted its first British Open championship for men in December 1930, using a "challenge" system. Charles Read was designated champion in 1930, but was beaten in home and away matches by Don Butcher, who was then recorded as the champion for 1931. The championship continues to this day, but has been conducted with a "knockout" format since 1947.

Jahangir Khan-2010-20-09
Jahangir Khan of Pakistan is widely considered to be the greatest player in the history of the game.[26][27][28]

The women's championship started in 1921, and has been dominated by relatively few players:[29] Joyce Cave, Nancy Cave, Cecily Fenwick (England) in the 1920s; Margot Lumb & Susan Noel (England) 1930s; Janet Morgan (England) 1950s; Heather McKay (Australia) 1960s and 1970s; Vicki Cardwell (Australia) and Susan Devoy (New Zealand) 1980s; Michelle Martin and Sarah Fitz-Gerald (Australia) 1990s and Nicol David (Malaysia) 2000s.

The Men's British Open has similarly been dominated by relatively few players:[29] F.D. Amr Bey (Egypt) in the 1930s; Mahmoud Karim (Egypt) in the 1940s; brothers Hashim Khan and Azam Khan (Pakistan) in the 1950s and 1960s; Jonah Barrington (Great Britain and Ireland) and Geoff Hunt (Australia) in the 1960s and 1970s, Jahangir Khan (Pakistan) 1980s ; Jansher Khan (Pakistan) in the 1990s and more recently, David Palmer and Nick Matthew.

The World Open professional championship was inaugurated in 1976 and serves as the main competition today. Jansher Khan holds the record of winning eight World titles followed by Jahangir Khan with six, Geoff Hunt & Amr Shabana four, Nick Matthew & Ramy Ashour three. The women's record is held by Nicol David with eight wins followed by Sarah Fitzgerald five, Susan Devoy four, and Michelle Martin three.

Heather McKay remained undefeated in competitive matches for 19 years (between 1962 and 1981) and won sixteen consecutive British Open titles between 1962 and 1977.[30]

Previous world number one Peter Nicol stated that he believed squash had a "very realistic chance" of being added to the list of Olympic sports for the 2016 Olympic Games,[31] but it ultimately lost out to golf and rugby sevens.

Current rankings

The Professional Squash Association (PSA) publishes monthly rankings of professional players: Dunlop PSA World Rankings.

Men's

PSA Men's World Rankings, of December 2017[32]
Rank Player Tournaments Points Average
1  Grégory Gaultier (FRA) 11 16,505 1,651
2  Mohamed El Shorbagy (EGY) 12 14,710 1,429
3  Ali Farag (EGY) 12 12,650 1,209
4  Karim Abdel Gawad (EGY) 11 10,590 1,040
5  Marwan El Shorbagy (EGY) 13 8,225 761
6  Nick Matthew (ENG) 10 7,560 756
7  Tarek Momen (EGY) 14 8,645 724
8  Paul Coll (NZL) 13 6,705 608
9  Simon Rösner (GER) 12 6,235 571
10  James Willstrop (ENG) 12 5,905 554

Women's

PSA Women's World Rankings, of December 2017[33]
Rank Player Tournaments Points Average
1  Nour El Sherbini (EGY) 8 12,605 1,576
2  Raneem El Weleily (EGY) 8 9,730 1,216
3  Camille Serme (FRA) 8 8,470 1,059
4  Laura Massaro (ENG) 9 8,390 1,049
5  Nouran Gohar (EGY) 8 6,340 793
6  Nicol David (MAS) 9 6,275 738
7  Sarah-Jane Perry (ENG) 9 5,890 713
8  Nour El Tayeb (EGY) 10 5,650 656
9  Joelle King (NZL) 10 4,950 571
10  Alison Waters (ENG) 10 4,250 492

Current champions

Competition Men Women
Edition Title holder Edition Title holder
World Championship 2017 Egypt Mohamed El Shorbagy 2017 Egypt Raneem El Weleily
WSF World Team Championships 2017  Egypt 2017  Egypt
World Games 2017 Germany Simon Rösner 2017 France Camille Serme
WSF World Junior Championships 2016 Egypt Mostafa Asal 2016 Egypt Rowan Reda Araby
WSF World Junior Team Championships 2016 Egypt Egypt 2015 Egypt Egypt
World University 2016 Hong Kong Tsz Fung Yip 2016 Malaysia Low Wee Wern
World Masters (Over 35) 2018 Netherlands Laurens-Jan Anjema 2018 United States Natalie Grainger

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Zug, James. "History of Squash". US Squash. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Grays of Cambridge: History" Archived 2011-07-06 at the Wayback Machine - makers of rackets and founded in 1855 by Henry John Gray, the Champion rackets Player of England. "In those days, the rackets were made from one piece English ash, with a suede leather grip and natural gut. ... The 1980s witnessed a period of re-structuring and consolidation. The Cambridge rackets factory was forced to close in face of the move to graphite rackets, and production was moved to the Far East."
  3. ^ "Squash Balls". Squashplayer.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-06-03.
  4. ^ "Sports, For Parents, Teachers and Coaches, National Eye Institute [NEI]". Nei.nih.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-04-27. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  5. ^ "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Squash Open". YouTube. 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  6. ^ "Squash : Nick Matthew v James Wilstrop : 2011 Delaware Investments U.S. Open Squash". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  7. ^ "Squash Court Construction: "How to build a Court?" - ASB SquashCourt". asbsquash.com. Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  8. ^ "Frequently asked questions on squash - general squash tips". squashclub.org.
  9. ^ "New Scoring System". www.squashplayer.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  10. ^ Gilmour, Rod (2012-06-13). "Squash scoring changes will 'kill essence of the game', say top British veterans". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  11. ^ Gilmour, Rod (2012-06-13). "Squash scoring changes will 'kill essence of the game', say top British veterans". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  12. ^ Gilmour, Rod (2012-06-13). "Squash scoring changes will 'kill essence of the game', say top British veterans". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  13. ^ Gilmour, Rod (2012-06-13). "Squash scoring changes will 'kill essence of the game', say top British veterans". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  14. ^ "Will's World The Referees' Call | Squash Magazine". squashmagazine.ussquash.com. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
  15. ^ "Agility Training: Improving Sporting Reaction Times". Pponline.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-05-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  16. ^ Strategies, Jonathon Power Exposed DVD 2.
  17. ^ Commentary by Jonathon Power and Martin Heath, TOC, 2005
  18. ^ a b "Santelmann, N. 2003. Ten Healthiest Sports". Forbes.com. 2003-09-30. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
  19. ^ "Heart rate and metabolic response to competitive squash in veteran players: identification of risk factors for sudden cardiac death", European Heart Journal, Volume 10, Number 11, Pp. 1029–1035, abstract
  20. ^ "Dan Ackman, "Egyptians Have Cornered the Squash Racket"". The Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2007. 3 October 2007.
  21. ^ "Professional Squash Tour". Prosquashtour.net. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
  22. ^ "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC.co.uk. October 9, 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  23. ^ "Squash Leads on 'Innovation' in Bid Presentation". World Squash Federation.
  24. ^ "Buenos Aires 2018 take Youth Olympic Games to the next level with Squash". World Squash Federation. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  25. ^ "Squash Favourite for 2024 Olympic Games inclusion". squash.org.au. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  26. ^ "Greatest player". Squashsite. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
  27. ^ Jahangir injury hastens final exit, The Independent, 24 September 1992
  28. ^ Jahangir Khan hopes for squash's 2016 Olympic debut, Webindia123.com, 26 August 2008
  29. ^ a b "Championship records". Allam British Open Squash.
  30. ^ "Squash NSW History". Squash Australia. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
  31. ^ Slater, Matt (2007-03-23). "Squash 'deserves Olympic place', BBC article". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
  32. ^ "Current PSA World Rankings". psaworldtour.com. PSA World Tour, Inc.
  33. ^ "Current PSA World Rankings". psaworldtour.com. WSA World Tour, Inc.

Sources

  • Bellamy, Rex (1978). The Story of Squash. Cassell Ltd, London. ISBN 0-304-29766-6.
  • Palmer, Michael (1984). Guinness Book of Squash. Guinness Superlatives Ltd, London. ISBN 0-85112-270-1.
  • "Rules of Squash". ussquash.com. US Squash. 25 September 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2018.

Further reading

External links

2011 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2011.

2012 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2012.

2013 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2013.

2014 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2014.

2015 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2015.

2016 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2016.

January 2 – December 3: 2016 World Squash Federation Schedule

2017 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2017.

2018 in squash sport

This article lists the results for the sport of Squash in 2018.

Hardball squash

Hardball squash is a format of the indoor racquet sport squash which was first developed in North America in the late 19th century and early 20th century. It is sometimes referred to as being the "American version" of the sport. Compared to the "British version" of the game – which today is usually referred to as being the "international" version, or "softball" squash – the hardball game is played using a harder rubber ball which plays faster, and usually on a smaller court for singles play, or a much larger court for the doubles game.

Records of squash being played in Canada go back to the early 1880s. There it was found that the softer squash balls being used in Britain were not ideally suited to playing in the extremely cold conditions of the Canadian winter, and so a harder rubber ball was developed. It was quickly discovered that this ball was better suited to playing on slightly narrower courts than were used in the British version of the game. As the popularity of the game spread around Canada, the United States and Mexico, court specifications were codified. In 1924, it was decided to standardize the court width for the hardball games at 18 1⁄2 feet (5.6 m), with a 'tin' at the bottom of the front wall which was 17 inches (430 mm) high – whereas the British version of the game was played on a 21-foot-wide court (6.4 m), with a 19-inch 'tin' (480 mm). By 1929, official court plans were being sold by the United States Squash Racquets Association (USSRA) (now called U.S. Squash), and the hardball game was brought into controlled growth.Hardball squash was largely the only form of the game played in North America until the 1980s. Growing exposure to the international version of the game then led to many clubs in North America building 21-foot-wide courts (6.4 m), and the "soft" ball being used on wide and narrow courts. Additionally, the USSRA recognised a 20-foot width (6.1 m) as being acceptable for playing the international version (this width being derived from an increasing trend of converting racquetball courts for squash play). By the mid-1990s, the vast majority of squash players in North America had switched to playing the international version of the game. In 1996, 80% of squash ball sales in the United States were of the international-format balls.Though hardball squash is no longer a very popular game for singles play, the hardball doubles game continues to thrive. Hardball doubles is played on a court measuring 45 ft long (14 m) and 25 ft wide (7.6 m). Hardball doubles differs from singles in that the game is played up to 15 points and you do not have to win by 2 points. The strategy in hardball doubles differs from singles as well; where in singles squash the strategy is to keep the ball on the side wall, hardball doubles strategy is based on hitting attacking cross-court shots to move your 2 opponents around the court to create an opening to score.

Official Men's Squash World Ranking

The Official Men's Squash World Ranking is the official world ranking for men's squash. The ranking is to rate the performance level of male professional squash player. It is also a merit-based method used for determining entry and seeding in men's squash tournaments. The rankings are produced monthly. The current world number one is Mohamed El Shorbagy of Egypt.

Official Women's Squash World Ranking

The Official Women's Squash World Ranking is the official world ranking for women's squash. The ranking is to rate the performance level of female professional squash player. It is also a merit-based method used for determining entry and seeding in women's squash tournaments. The rankings are produced monthly. The current world number one is Nour El Sherbini of Egypt, who replaced Laura Massaro in May 2016.

PSA Awards

The PSA Awards are presented annually by the Professional Squash Association, the organization which organizes the men's world squash circuit.

Squash TV

Squash TV is the official live and video-on-demand website of online service exclusively for squash developed by the Professional Squash Association, the most important governing body for the men's and women's professional squash circuit.

The website was launched in 2009 by the PSA during the last World Series event of this year, the Saudi International 2009. The website covers all the best tournament in the world, including the PSA World Series and several of the prestigious PSA International tournaments.

The iconic commentator of this channel is Joey Barrington supplemented by the former world number 4, Paul Johnson both of England, and in a few tournaments by Simon Parke, Chris Gordon or Lee Drew.

Squash tennis

Squash tennis is an American variant of squash, but played with a ball and racquets that are closer to the equipment used for lawn tennis, and with somewhat different rules. For younger players the game offers the complexity of squash and the speed of racquetball. It also has exercise and recreational potential for older players.

Stringing machine

A stringing machine is a tool used to install strings into a racquet through a process called racquet stringing. These machines vary in features, accuracy and price.

Tin (disambiguation)

Tin is a metallic chemical element with symbol Sn and atomic number 50.

Tin may also refer to:

Tinplate, tin coated steel

Tin can, a tinplate container

Tin box, a boxlike tinplate container

Tinning, coating a metal for soldering

Tin (newsreader)

Tin, a member of the Metal Men

Titanium nitride (TiN)

Tin, Iran (disambiguation), places

At-Tin, the 95th sura of the Qur'an

A wall in squash (sport)

Corrugated galvanised iron, informal term

Triangulated irregular network, a digital data structure.

Tubulo-interstitial nephritis

WSA Awards

The WSA Awards (formerly WISPA Awards) are presented annually by the Women's Squash Association, the organization which organizes the women's world squash circuit.

Women's squash

Women's squash is the participation of women in the sport of squash. The women's championship started in 1922 as an amateur event and it remained so until 1974. The greatest player in the history of this discipline is the Australian Heather McKay, who won the championship 16 consecutive times from 1962 to 1977.

ASOIF (32)
Summer Olympics Federations
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Winter Olympics Federations
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Others recognised by IOC
Others in GAISF (21)
GAISF observer members (9)
Others (20)
National members of the World Squash Federation
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