Square Enix Limited (formerly Domark Limited and Eidos Interactive Limited), doing business as Square Enix Europe, is a British video game publisher, acting as the European subsidiary of Square Enix. The company was founded as Domark in 1984, named after the founders Mark Strachan and Dominic Wheatley. In 1995, the company was acquired by Eidos and was merged with two other studios and renamed Eidos Interactive the following year. Eidos was in turn acquired by SCi in 2005, and Eidos Interactive was sold to Square Enix in 2009. On 9 November 2009, Square Enix completed the merger of its existing European branch with Eidos Interactive, renaming the resulting company Square Enix Europe.
|Square Enix Limited|
|Square Enix Europe|
|Industry||Video game industry|
|Founded||1984 in Putney, London, England|
In 1984, Mark Douglas Ashley Strachan and Dominic Marius Dennis Anthony Wheatley founded Domark as a video game publisher. Its first title was 1984's Eureka!, written by Ian Livingstone. Livingstone would go on to become deputy chairman of the company a few years later, and would stay in various roles at the company, until his departure from the company in 2013. Located within London's Putney district, the company held its own development team, The Kremlin, in the publisher's headquarters basement. Domark was primarily remembered as the publisher for Championship Manager and Hard Drivin'.
On 25 September 1995, publicly traded Eidos Public Limited Company acquired Domark, alongside Simis and Big Red Software, for a total of GB£12.9 million. On 31 May 1996, Simis and Big Red Software were merged into Domark to create Eidos Interactive. Eidos Interactive acquired CentreGold in April 1996 for GB£17.6 million. CentreGold consisted of distributor CentreSoft and publisher U.S. Gold, which also included developers Core Design and Silicon Dreams Studio, though the latter would be re-acquired by its founder, Geoff Brown, through his newly founded Geoff Brown Holdings, on 16 December that year. The Eidos Interactive acquisition was months prior to the release of Tomb Raider by Core Design, which CentreGold had acquired two years prior.
In March 2005, Eidos admitted that cash reserves had dwindled to GB£11.9 million during the second half of 2004, and pre-tax losses had grown to GB£29 million.
On 21 March 2005, Eidos received a takeover bid from Elevation Partners, the private equity firm owned by former Electronic Arts president John Riccitiello and with a number of notable partners, including U2's lead singer Bono. This takeover valued the company at GB£71 million, and would inject GB£23 million in order to keep the company from bankruptcy in the short term.
The following day, Eidos received a second takeover bid from the British games manufacturer SCi. The company offered GB£74 million, and tabled a restructuring plan to cut GB£14 million from annual costs. To fund this takeover, SCi proposed to sell GB£60 million worth of stock. Eventually, in late April, Elevation Partners formally withdrew its offer, leaving the way clear for SCi. The takeover was finalized on 16 May 2005, with SCi merging itself into Eidos Interactive's parent, renaming it SCi Entertainment Group Limited.
In May 2006, Eidos announced that independent developer Rebellion Developments had acquired Core Designs' assets and staff, while the Core brand and intellectual property, including Tomb Raider, remained in Eidos' possession.
Since the SCi purchase, the vast majority of the old Eidos Interactive management were let go. SCi left its Battersea Office and moved into the old Eidos Interactive office on the second floor of Wimbledon Bridge House, 1 Hartfield Road, Wimbledon. Eidos Interactive announced on 15 February 2007 that it would open a new studio in Montreal, Quebec, Canada responsible for "new undisclosed next-generation projects". Eidos Montréal started developing a new game in the Deus Ex franchise.
In February 2007, Eidos Interactive acquired Rockpool Games, along with its two sister companies Ironstone Partners and SoGoPlay, and proceeded to close Rockpool Games in 2009.
On 4 September 2007, the board of SCi Entertainment confirmed recent speculation that the company has been approached with a view to making an offer. On 10 January 2008, SCi announced take over and/or merger talks had been halted. As a result, the share price dropped by over 50%. Major investors called for the resignation of key personnel, including chief executive officer (CEO) Jane Cavanagh, over this issue as well as delays to key titles. On 18 January 2008, Jane Cavanagh, Bill Ennis and Rob Murphy left the company.
When SCi revealed its 2008 financial report, losses were at GB£100 million, but new CEO Phil Rogers claimed this was only due to the reconstructing plans. On 19 September 2008, Eidos Interactive opened a Shanghai-based studio, Eidos Shanghai, consisting of a small team to build up relations in Asia.
In January 2009, Eidos closed its Manchester studio.
In February 2009, Square Enix reached an agreement to purchase Eidos Interactive for GB£84.3 million, pending shareholder approval, with an initial aim of fully buying Eidos Interactive on 6 May 2009. The date was brought forward, and Square Enix officially took over Eidos Interactive on 22 April 2009.
Square Enix initially stated that it would let Eidos Interactive remain structured as it was at the time of its takeover. It subsequently announced in July 2009 that it would merge Eidos with its own pre-existing European subsidiary, Square Enix Limited (itself established on December 1998). The merger would create a new entity, tentatively titled Square Enix Europe. The merger was completed on 9 November 2009 with the Square Enix Europe name being permanently retained as the resulting company name. The Eidos name was however retained for the development studios Eidos Montreal and Eidos Shanghai.
Beautiful Game Studios is a British video game developer based within the Wimbledon district of London, England. Founded in 2003, the studio was announced on 30 January 2004, as internal development team of Eidos Interactive (later renamed Square Enix Europe), that would focus on the development of Championship Manager, after the original developer of the series, Sports Interactive, departed from Eidos Interactive in 2003.On 25 November 2009, after Eidos Interactive was acquired by Square Enix and renamed Square Enix Europe, the company announced that Beautiful Game Studios would undergo restructuring "to build a successful commercial future for the Championship Manager brand". Within that restructuring, around 80% of jobs were cut or relocated to Eidos Shanghai in a cost-cutting exercise, while Roy Meredith was kept as general manager.On 7 September 2010, Beautiful Game Studios announced that they had entered into a strategic partnership with Chinese publisher Shanda Games, which granted them distribution of upcoming Championship Manager games in China. The partnership grew largely from the then-enlarged Eidos Shanghai studio's previous work with Shanda Games, as well as long-term communications between Beautiful Game Studios, Eidos Shanghai and Shanda Games. The resulting project, Championship Manager: World of Football, was announced on 19 July 2011. The game was set to be a free-to-play massively multiplayer online game, however the game was never released, making Championship Manager 2010, released on 11 September 2009, the latest game to be developed by Beautiful Game Studios.Carmageddon
Carmageddon is a vehicular combat video game released for personal computers in 1997. It was later ported to other platforms, and spawned a series of follow up titles. The game was produced by Stainless Games and published by Interplay Productions and Sales Curve Interactive.
In 2011, Stainless Games obtained the rights to Carmageddon from former company Square Enix Europe. In June 2012, it was announced that a new port of the game would be released for iOS and certain Android mobile devices. The game was released as both a free demo and paid game in 2013. In December 2018, THQ Nordic acquired the rights to the Carmageddon series from Stainless Games.Championship Manager
The Championship Manager is a series of football-management simulation video games, the first of which was released in 1992.
The Championship Manager brand and game was conceived by brothers Paul and Oliver Collyer. In a scenario typical of many self-made game programming teams in the early days of the industry, the original Championship Manager game was written from their bedroom in Shropshire, England. The brothers subsequently founded a development company to take the game further, Sports Interactive, and moved to Islington, North London. Championship Manager became the most popular football management sim of the later 1990s and early 2000s, regularly setting sales records.In 2003, Sports Interactive split with Eidos, the publishers of Championship Manager. Sports Interactive retained the game's database and match engine, producing a new game based on these titled Football Manager. Eidos retained the name and interface, with BGS taking over the development of Championship Manager. Although the two series initially ran alongside one another, the sales of Championship Manager began to fall below those of Football Manager. The most recent full version of Championship Manager was Championship Manager 2010, with an iOS mobile game in 2011 the latest game to date released by Eidos.
Square Enix Europe, owners of the brand after purchasing Eidos, revived Championship Manager under the title of Champ Man in 2013. They have released five games for iOS and Android handheld systems and mobile phones since then.Eidos
Eidos may refer to
Eidos a Greek term meaning "form" "essence", "type" or "species". See Plato's theory of Forms and Aristotle's theory of universals
Eidos Interactive, a former name of British video game publisher Square Enix Europe
Eidos Hungary, a defunct Hungarian development studio formerly of Eidos Interactive
Eidos Montréal, an active Canadian development studio of Square Enix Europe
Eidos Shanghai, an active Chinese development studio of Square Enix Europe
EidosMedia, an Italian software house
Eidos, an Italian menswear brand owned by Isaia.Eidos Hungary
Eidos Hungary Kft.v.a. (formerly Mithis Entertainment Kft.) was a Hungarian video game developer based in Budapest, Hungary. The company was founded as Mithis Entertainment, by Róbert Sugár on 20 November 2002. Between 2002 and 2006, the studio produced Nexus: The Jupiter Incident (2004), a strategy video game, and Creature Conflict: The Clan Wars (2005), a shooter game. In 2006, British video game publisher Eidos Interactive acquired Mithis Entertainment and renamed it Eidos Hungary. Following the acquisition, Eidos Hungary went on to work on real-time tactics games Battlestations: Midway (2007) and Battlestations: Pacific (2009).
On 19 April 2010, Square Enix Europe confirmed that they had shut down Eidos Hungary in October 2009, due to the discontinuation of the Battlestations franchise.Eidos Montréal
Eidos Montréal is a Canadian video game developer based in Montreal, Quebec. The studio is owned by Square Enix Europe (formerly Eidos Interactive), a subsidiary of Square Enix.IO Interactive
IO Interactive A/S (often shortened as IOI) is a Danish video game developer based in Copenhagen, best known for creating and developing the Hitman franchise. IO Interactive employs 170 people as of October 2016, and operates a Malmö-based studio, IOI Malmö, since January 2019.
The company was founded in September 1998 as a joint venture between Reto-Moto, a seven-man development team, and Nordisk Film, a film studio. The company was acquired by publisher Eidos Interactive for GB£23 million in March 2004, which saw itself acquired by Square Enix and renamed as Square Enix Europe in 2009. In May 2017, Square Enix ceased funding for IO Interactive and started seeking a buyer for the studio. IO Interactive performed a management buyout in June 2017, becoming independent and regaining the rights to their Hitman and Freedom Fighters franchises. IO Interactive's most recent game is Hitman 2, which was released in November 2018.Legacy of Kain
Legacy of Kain is a series of action-adventure video games primarily developed by Crystal Dynamics and published by Square Enix Europe (formerly Eidos Interactive). The first title, Blood Omen: Legacy of Kain, was created by Silicon Knights in association with Crystal Dynamics, but, after a legal battle, Crystal Dynamics retained the rights to the game's intellectual property, and continued its story with four sequels. To date, five games comprise the series, all initially developed for video game consoles and later ported to Microsoft Windows. Focusing on the eponymous character of Kain, a vampire antihero, each title features action, exploration and puzzle-solving, with some role-playing game elements.
The series takes place in the fictional land of Nosgoth—a gothic fantasy setting—and revolves around Kain's quest to defy his fate and restore balance to the world. Legacy of Kain: Soul Reaver introduced another antihero protagonist, Raziel; the adventures of both characters culminate in Legacy of Kain: Defiance. Themes of destiny, free will, morality, redemption and the hero's journey recur in the storyline, which was inspired by ancient literature, horror fiction, Shakespeare's plays and Gnosticism. The Legacy of Kain games have enjoyed critical success, particularly receiving praise for high-quality voice acting, narrative, and visuals, and, as a whole, had sold over 3.5 million copies as of 2007. In 2015, a sequel has been confirmed as "50/50".List of Eidos Interactive games
This is a comprehensive list of video games developed or published by Eidos Interactive (now renamed Square Enix Europe).List of Square Enix Europe games
Square Enix Europe is a British video game publisher which is wholly owned by Square Enix, a Japanese video game company. Square Enix acquired game publisher Eidos Interactive on 22 April 2009, which was then merged with Square Enix's European publishing wing and reorganized as Square Enix Europe. This list includes retail, downloadable, and mobile games published by Square Enix Europe since its formation in April 2009. Prior to its purchase, Eidos plc was the holding company for the Eidos group of companies, including publisher Eidos Interactive and development studios such as Crystal Dynamics, IO Interactive, Beautiful Game Studios, and Eidos Montréal. The majority of the titles published by Square Enix Europe have been developed by those former subsidiaries or by newer Square Enix subsidiaries such as Square Enix Montréal. Additionally, most of the titles belong to franchises previously published by Eidos, such as the Tomb Raider, Hitman, Deus Ex, and Championship Manager franchises.
The Championship Manager series has seen the greatest number of releases by Square Enix Europe, at nine games on four platforms, followed by the Tomb Raider series at six games across eleven platforms. Several of the franchises published by Square Enix Europe have sold millions of copies both before and after its founding: the Tomb Raider franchise has the highest lifetime sales with over 45 million copies since 1996, followed by Hitman with over 15 million copies sold since 2000. Several other series, including Deus Ex, Championship Manager, and Just Cause, have also sold several million copies over their lifetimes.List of Square Enix mobile games
Square Enix is a Japanese video game development and publishing company formed from the merger on April 1, 2003 of video game developer Square and publisher Enix. The company is best known for its role-playing video game franchises, which include the Final Fantasy series, the Dragon Quest series, and the action-RPG Kingdom Hearts series. Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise is the best-selling, with a total worldwide sales of over 100 million units. The Dragon Quest series has shipped over 57 million units worldwide and is one of the most popular video game series in Japan, while the Kingdom Hearts series has shipped over 12 million copies worldwide. Since its inception, the company has developed or published hundreds of titles in various video game franchises on numerous gaming systems.
Square Enix has owned Taito Corporation, which continues to publish its own video games, since September 2005, and acquired game publisher Eidos Interactive in April 2009, which has been merged with Square Enix's European publishing wing and renamed as Square Enix Europe. This list includes games developed or published by Square Enix after its formation and released for mobile platforms such as non-smartphone mobile phones, mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android, or the GREE service, rather than as retail games. This list does not include games published by Taito, but does include games published by Square Enix Europe. As not all games have been made available by Square Enix for sale or download worldwide, this list denotes if a game has been released in Japan, North America, and the PAL region.List of Square Enix video game franchises
Square Enix is a Japanese video game development and publishing company formed from the merger of video game publisher Enix absorbing developer Square on April 1, 2003. The company is best known for its role-playing video game franchises, which include the Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts series. Since its inception, the company has developed or published hundreds of titles in various video game franchises on numerous gaming systems. Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise is the best-selling, with a total worldwide sales of over 130 million units. The Dragon Quest series has shipped over 71 million units worldwide and is one of the most popular video game series in Japan, while the Kingdom Hearts series has shipped over 24 million copies worldwide.Square Enix has owned Taito, which continues to publish its own video games, since September 2005, and acquired game publisher Eidos Interactive in April 2009, which was merged with Square Enix's European publishing wing and renamed as Square Enix Europe. This list includes franchises in which Square Enix, or its original components Enix and Square, or its subsidiaries, were the primary developer or publisher, even if the series was begun prior to the subsidiary's acquisition. Franchises are defined as any set of interconnected media consisting of more than one release, and video game franchises are defined as franchises which were initially created as a video game or series of video games.
For a list of all individual games developed or published by Square Enix, see the list of Square Enix video games and mobile games. For games released before the merger, see the Square and Enix video games. For games released by Taito, both before and after the acquisition, see the list of Taito games, and for games published by Eidos prior to acquisition see the List of Eidos Interactive games.List of Square Enix video games
Square Enix is a Japanese video game development and publishing company formed from the merger on April 1, 2003 of video game developer Square and publisher Enix. The company is best known for its role-playing video game franchises, which include the Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts series. Of its properties, the Final Fantasy franchise is the best-selling, with total worldwide sales of over 130 million units. The Dragon Quest series has sold over 71 million units worldwide and is one of the most popular video game series in Japan, while the Kingdom Hearts series has sold over 24 million copies worldwide. Since its inception, the company has developed or published hundreds of titles in various video game franchises on numerous gaming systems.
Square Enix has owned Taito Corporation, which continues to publish its own video games, since September 2005, and acquired game publisher Eidos Interactive in April 2009, which has been merged with Square Enix's European publishing wing and renamed as Square Enix Europe. This list includes some retail games developed or published by Square Enix after its formation. It does not include games published by Taito, but does include games published by Square Enix Europe. For games released before the merger, see List of Square video games and List of Enix games. For mobile games released by the company, see List of Square Enix mobile games. For games released by Taito, both before and after the acquisition, see List of Taito games, and see List of Eidos Interactive games for games published by Eidos prior to acquisition, and List of Square Enix Europe games for games published afterwards.Nosgoth
Nosgoth was a free-to-play multiplayer action game, developed by Psyonix and published by Square Enix for Microsoft Windows through digital distribution. It was a spin-off from the Legacy of Kain series of action-adventure games, and took place in its eponymous fictional universe. Nosgoth employed a player versus player system in which each match consisted of two rounds. Teams were composed of characters assigned to one of two races: vampires, designed around hack and slash combat; and humans, whose gameplay was styled after third-person shooters. Between rounds, teams would switch to control the opposing race, and the team which accumulated the most points by fighting their counterparts won the match.
Initially announced in June 2013 following internet leaks, Nosgoth was the first Legacy of Kain-associated game to debut in almost ten years, preceded by 2003's Legacy of Kain: Defiance. Though once intended for release as part of a single-player project, Legacy of Kain: Dead Sun, it was reconceptualized and continued development as a standalone title following Dead Sun's cancellation. When officially revealed in September 2013, Nosgoth attracted negative reception for its conceptual departure from the traditional single-player and story-driven Legacy of Kain formula. The game's open beta began in January 2015 and ended in May 2016.
On April 8, 2016 Square Enix Europe announced that Nosgoth's servers would shut down on May 31, 2016. Nosgoth's official forums also shut down on June 14, 2016.Rocksteady Studios
Rocksteady Studios Limited is a British video game developer based in Kentish Town, London. Founded on 13 December 2004, they are best known for their work in the Batman: Arkham series. The company is a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment.Square Enix
Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd. is a Japanese video game developer, publisher, and distribution company known for its Final Fantasy, Dragon Quest, and Kingdom Hearts role-playing video game franchises, among numerous others. Several of them have sold over 10 million copies worldwide, with the Final Fantasy franchise alone selling over 115 million. The Square Enix headquarters are in the Shinjuku Eastside Square Building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The company employs over 4300 employees worldwide.
The original Square Enix Co., Ltd. was formed as the result of a merger between Enix Corporation and Square Co., Ltd. in April 2003, with Enix as the surviving company. Each share of Square's common stock was exchanged for 0.85 shares of Enix's common stock. At the time, 80% of Square Enix staff were made up of former Square employees. As part of the merger, former Square president Yoichi Wada was appointed president of the new corporation, while former Enix president Keiji Honda was named its vice president, and the founder of Enix, Yasuhiro Fukushima, the largest shareholder of the combined corporation, became its honorary chairman.
In October 2008, Square Enix conducted a company split between its corporate business and video game operations. Square Enix re-branded itself as Square Enix Holdings Co., Ltd., a holding company, while its internally domestic video game operations were formed as a new subsidiary called Square Enix Co., Ltd. During the 2014 fiscal year, the company made over ¥150 billion in revenue (US$1.36 billion).In addition to its flagship subsidiary, Square Enix Holdings owns the arcade gaming corporation Taito, known for games such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble, and Darius. Square Enix also owned British game publisher Eidos Interactive, which was absorbed into Square Enix Europe in order to publish Eidos Interactive titles such as Tomb Raider, Deus Ex and Hitman under the Square Enix brand.