Squamscott River

The Squamscott River is a 6-mile-long (9.7 km) tidal river in Rockingham County, southeastern New Hampshire, in the United States.[1] It rises at Exeter, fed by the Exeter River. The Squamscott runs north between Newfields and Stratham to Great Bay, a tidal estuary, which is connected to the Piscataqua River, a tidal inlet of the Atlantic Ocean.

More specifically, after rising at the Great Bridge (actually a very modest Works Progress Administration project) adjacent to the former "Loaf & Ladle" restaurant in downtown Exeter, the Squamscott River passes the "Wooden Wave" (an interesting architectural statement next to the Phillips Exeter Academy boathouse), then tends north alongside the Swasey Parkway, through the haymarshes, passing by the town's water purification plant and then under State Route 101, a major east-west arterial road in New Hampshire. The river next passes under Route 108 at the site of the former "Singing Bridge", a metal bridge which was recently replaced. The river then debouches into Great Bay, a broad and shallow tidal estuary, just south of the mouth of the Lamprey River, arriving at the bay from Newmarket.

The Squamscott, also spelled Swampscott and Swamscott, gets its name from the Squamscott Indians who called it Msquam-s-kook (or Msquamskek) translated as 'at the salmon place' or 'big water place.' Plentiful game, the marshes and lush river-fed vegetation, and an abundance of fish supported the northeast Native American Indians who were present in the region for thousands of years until English settlers displaced them in the early 17th century. The Native American tribes of New Hampshire were most likely from the Abenaki nation, but independent of the Maine-based tribes. The name “Abenaki” and its derivatives originated from a Montagnais (Algonquin) word meaning "people of the dawn" or "easterners". In the eastern part of New Hampshire were the Pequaquaukes (or Pequakets), the Ossipees, the Minnecometts, the Piscataquas and the Squamscotts (Msquamskek).

The Phillips Exeter Academy crew team holds its practices on the Squamscott River in Exeter.

Squamscott River, Exeter, NH
Squamscott River in 1908, Exeter, New Hampshire
Squamscott River Newfields NH
Squamscott River in fall 2005, Route 108, Newfields, New Hampshire

See also


  1. ^ New Hampshire GRANIT state geographic information system Archived 2013-08-03 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Coordinates: 43°03′43″N 70°54′25″W / 43.06194°N 70.90694°W

Evidence of common descent

Evidence of common descent of living organisms has been discovered by scientists researching in a variety of disciplines over many decades, demonstrating that all life on Earth comes from a single ancestor. This forms an important part of the evidence on which evolutionary theory rests, demonstrates that evolution does occur, and illustrates the processes that created Earth's biodiversity. It supports the modern evolutionary synthesis—the current scientific theory that explains how and why life changes over time. Evolutionary biologists document evidence of common descent, all the way back to the last universal common ancestor, by developing testable predictions, testing hypotheses, and constructing theories that illustrate and describe its causes.

Comparison of the DNA genetic sequences of organisms has revealed that organisms that are phylogenetically close have a higher degree of DNA sequence similarity than organisms that are phylogenetically distant. Genetic fragments such as pseudogenes, regions of DNA that are orthologous to a gene in a related organism, but are no longer active and appear to be undergoing a steady process of degeneration from cumulative mutations support common descent alongside the universal biochemical organization and molecular variance patterns found in all organisms. Additional genetic information conclusively supports the relatedness of life and has allowed scientists (since the discovery of DNA) to develop phylogenetic trees: a construction of organisms evolutionary relatedness. It has also led to the development of molecular clock techniques to date taxon divergence times and to calibrate these with the fossil record.

Fossils are important for estimating when various lineages developed in geologic time. As fossilization is an uncommon occurrence, usually requiring hard body parts and death near a site where sediments are being deposited, the fossil record only provides sparse and intermittent information about the evolution of life. Evidence of organisms prior to the development of hard body parts such as shells, bones and teeth is especially scarce, but exists in the form of ancient microfossils, as well as impressions of various soft-bodied organisms. The comparative study of the anatomy of groups of animals shows structural features that are fundamentally similar (homologous), demonstrating phylogenetic and ancestral relationships with other organisms, most especially when compared with fossils of ancient extinct organisms. Vestigial structures and comparisons in embryonic development are largely a contributing factor in anatomical resemblance in concordance with common descent. Since metabolic processes do not leave fossils, research into the evolution of the basic cellular processes is done largely by comparison of existing organisms' physiology and biochemistry. Many lineages diverged at different stages of development, so it is possible to determine when certain metabolic processes appeared by comparing the traits of the descendants of a common ancestor.

Evidence from animal coloration was gathered by some of Darwin's contemporaries; camouflage, mimicry, and warning coloration are all readily explained by natural selection. Special cases like the seasonal changes in the plumage of the ptarmigan, camouflaging it against snow in winter and against brown moorland in summer provide compelling evidence that selection is at work. Further evidence comes from the field of biogeography because evolution with common descent provides the best and most thorough explanation for a variety of facts concerning the geographical distribution of plants and animals across the world. This is especially obvious in the field of insular biogeography. Combined with the well-established geological theory of plate tectonics, common descent provides a way to combine facts about the current distribution of species with evidence from the fossil record to provide a logically consistent explanation of how the distribution of living organisms has changed over time.

The development and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria provides evidence that evolution due to natural selection is an ongoing process in the natural world. Natural selection is ubiquitous in all research pertaining to evolution, taking note of the fact that all of the following examples in each section of the article document the process. Alongside this are observed instances of the separation of populations of species into sets of new species (speciation). Speciation has been observed in the lab and in nature. Multiple forms of such have been described and documented as examples for individual modes of speciation. Furthermore, evidence of common descent extends from direct laboratory experimentation with the selective breeding of organisms—historically and currently—and other controlled experiments involving many of the topics in the article. This article summarizes the varying disciplines that provide the evidence for evolution and the common descent of all life on Earth, accompanied by numerous and specialized examples, indicating a compelling consilience of evidence.


Exeter ( (listen)) is a cathedral city in Devon, England, with a population of 129,800 (mid-2016 EST). The city is located on the River Exe approximately 36 miles (58 km) northeast of Plymouth and 65 miles (105 km) southwest of Bristol. It is the county town of Devon, and the base of Devon County Council. Also situated in Exeter are two campuses of the University of Exeter - Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus.

In Roman Britain, Exeter was established as the base of Legio II Augusta under the personal command of Vespasian. Exeter became a religious centre during the Middle Ages and into the Tudor times: Exeter Cathedral, founded in the mid 11th century, became Anglican during the 16th-century English Reformation. During the late 19th century, Exeter became an affluent centre for the wool trade, although by the First World War the city was in decline. After the Second World War, much of the city centre was rebuilt and is now considered to be a centre for modern business and tourism in Devon and Cornwall.

The administrative area of Exeter has the status of a non-metropolitan district under the administration of the County Council; a plan to grant the city unitary authority status was scrapped under the 2010 coalition government.

Exeter, New Hampshire

Exeter is a town in New Hampshire, United States, on the Exeter River, which feeds the tidal Squamscott River.

With an estimated population of 15,317 in 2018, the town is home to Phillips Exeter Academy, a private university-preparatory school.

Exeter (CDP), New Hampshire

Exeter is a census-designated place (CDP) and the main village in the town of Exeter in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population of the CDP was 9,242 at the 2010 census, out of 14,306 people in the entire town of Exeter.

Exeter River

The Exeter River is a 40.5-mile-long (65.2 km) river located in Rockingham County in southeastern New Hampshire, United States.

It rises in the town of Chester, 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Manchester. It follows a winding course east and northeast to Exeter, where it becomes the Squamscott River, a tidal river leading north to Great Bay. There are falls and small dams at several locations along the river. A significant dam (Great Dam) that had long existed at the river's termination in Exeter was removed in the summer of 2016, restoring the river's flow to its natural state where it meets the Squamscott River.The Exeter River drainage basin encompasses an area of 126 square miles (330 km2). The upper 33.3 miles (53.6 km) of the river, from its headwaters to its confluence with Great Brook in Exeter, were designated into the NH Rivers Management and Protection Program in August 1995.

Exeter Waterfront Commercial Historic District

The Exeter Waterfront Commercial Historic District encompasses the historic commercial and residential waterfront areas of Exeter, New Hampshire. The district extends along the north side of Water Street, roughly from Main Street to Front Street, and then along both sides of Water and High streets to the latter's junction with Portsmouth Street. It also includes properties on Chestnut Street on the north side of the Squamscott River. This area was where the early settlement of Exeter took place in 1638, and soon developed as a shipbuilding center. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. It was enlarged in 1986 to include the mill complex of the Exeter Manufacturing Company on Chestnut Street.

Front Street Historic District (Exeter, New Hampshire)

The Front Street Historic District in Exeter, New Hampshire, encompasses a portion of the town's historic center. The district extends from Swasey Pavilion, at the junction of Front and Water streets, southwesterly along Front Street to Gale Park, about five blocks. Front Street is one of Exeter's oldest roads, and is lined with a series of 18th and 19th-century civic, religious, and residential structures, many of which are well preserved. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1973.

List of rivers of New Hampshire

This is a list of rivers and significant streams in the U.S. state of New Hampshire.

All watercourses named "River" (freshwater or tidal) are listed here, as well as other streams which are either subject to the New Hampshire Comprehensive Shoreland Protection Act or are more than 10 miles (16 km) long. New Hampshire rivers and streams qualify for state shoreland protection (and are listed here in bold) if they are fourth-order or larger water bodies, based on the Strahler method of stream order classification.

Moses Leavitt

Moses Leavitt (1650–1730) was an early settler of Exeter, New Hampshire, where he worked as a surveyor. Later he became a large landowner, and served as selectman, and as a Deputy and later Moderator of the New Hampshire General Court from Exeter. He was the ancestor of several notable Leavitt descendants, including the well-known Meredith, New Hampshire, teacher and almanac maker Dudley Leavitt.

Leavitt was born at Hingham, Massachusetts, on August 12, 1650, the son of John Leavitt, a Puritan tailor who left England and settled in Dorchester (part of today's Boston), before moving on several years later to Hingham, several miles south of Boston, where he married as his second wife Sarah Gilman, daughter of Edward Gilman Sr., a fellow Hingham settler who eventually moved on to Exeter. Although granted land at Exeter, John Leavitt never chose to move north. Instead, his son Samuel by his first wife, and son Moses (by his wife Sarah Gilman) eventually moved to Exeter, where they settled as early as 1677, and the two half-brothers first appeared on the town's tax roll in 1680. Earlier, both brothers had taken 'ye oath of Allegiance to his majestie & fidelitie to ye contrey" at Exeter on November 30, 1677. New Hampshire records show that "Moses Levett" and "Samuel Levett" received credit in 1676 in Exeter for their service in King Philip's War.Moses Leavitt was a surveyor by trade, and early became one of Exeter's leading citizens. When he was thirty-one years old, he married Dorothy Dudley, daughter of Rev. Samuel Dudley, Exeter's minister and the son of Governor Thomas Dudley of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By the time of his marriage on October 26, 1681, Leavitt was already deeply involved in town affairs, and in surveying and purchasing local land. In 1682 Leavitt first served as an Exeter selectman, an office he held several times during his lifetime. Leavitt was an early signer of an appeal to the King in England to arbitrate the claims of the Masonian proprietors, who were asserting ownership rights to lands claimed by early settlers. Like many legislators, Leavitt concerned himself with matters big and small. In 1700 delegate Leavitt brought a vote from the House of Representatives to the Council of New Hampshire concerning Richard Hilton's ferry on the Squamscott River and his proposed charges on passengers – both man and horse.A subsequent communiqué in July 1708, signed by Leavitt – and on file at London's Whitehall – was addressed to Her Majesty the Queen from the "Justices, Officers of the Militia, Merchants, etc. of New Hampshire" and was directed "in favour of Governor Dudley."Leavitt first served as Deputy to the colony's General Court in 1692, a position he filled several times over subsequent years. For seven years he held the office of Moderator of the province's General Court, and he also served as a State Senator. Leavitt was appointed in 1698 to a committee of Exeter's First Church to handle the vexing question of where congregants should be seated in the sanctuary – seating being determined by social rank. Deacon Leavitt and Kinsley Hall were first given the choice pews, allowing other congregants to then be accommodated.Leavitt and the former Dorothy Dudley had twelve children, including sons John and Dudley, and daughter Dorothy. Two of Moses Leavitt's children married Gilman cousins – daughter Hannah, married twice, both times to Gilmans; and Joseph, married to Sarah Gilman. Moses Leavitt died on June 17, 1730, "being aged and feeble", as he noted in his will. (His half-brother Lieut. Samuel Leavitt predeceased him, having died at Exeter in 1707). Moses's family continued to live in the Exeter area for many subsequent generations; his descendants include the noted New Hampshire almanac maker Dudley Leavitt, and the early Salem, Massachusetts, minister Rev. Dudley Leavitt, for whom Salem's Leavitt Street was named.

Following the death of Rev. Samuel Dudley, the early Exeter minister's third wife lived at the home of her son-in-law Moses Leavitt – a courtesy for which the Dudley family bequeathed Leavitt a 50-acre (200,000 m2) plot of land in Exeter. The 1702 conveyance of Dudley land to Leavitt was the last known mention of Rev. Samuel Dudley's third wife, the former Elizabeth Smith. Leavitt's descendants continued to live on the former Dudley family tract for many years, as well as on the extensive grants of land Moses received. The Leavitt family of Exeter played a prominent role in New Hampshire history for many years following the death of its first two New Hampshire representatives. Descendants of both Moses and Samuel Leavitt dispersed throughout New Hampshire in subsequent centuries.

New Hampshire Route 85

New Hampshire Route 85 (abbreviated NH Route 85 or NH 85) is a 4.854-mile-long (7.812 km) north–south state highway in Rockingham County in southeastern New Hampshire. It runs from Exeter to Newfields.

The southern terminus of NH 85 is in downtown Exeter at New Hampshire Route 27 and New Hampshire Route 111A. The northern terminus is in Newfields at New Hampshire Route 108.

It runs along the west side of the Squamscott River for its entire length, opposite to NH 108, which runs east of the river.

New Hampshire Route 87

New Hampshire Route 87 is a 6.317-mile-long (10.166 km) east–west highway in Rockingham County in southeastern New Hampshire connecting Newfields to Epping. The eastern terminus of NH 87 is in Newfields at its junction with New Hampshire Route 85. The western terminus is in Epping at its junction with New Hampshire Route 125.

Newfields, New Hampshire

Newfields is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,680 at the 2010 census. The primary village in town, where 301 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Newfields census-designated place (CDP), and is located along New Hampshire Route 85 and the Squamscott River. It is a quaint village of handsome old houses.

Newfields (CDP), New Hampshire

Newfields is a census-designated place (CDP) and the main village within the town of Newfields in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population of the CDP was 301 at the 2010 census, out of 1,680 people in the entire town of Newfields.

Phillips Exeter Academy

Phillips Exeter Academy (often called Exeter or PEA) is a coeducational independent school for boarding and day students in grades 9 through 12, and offers a postgraduate program. Located in Exeter, New Hampshire, it is one of the oldest secondary schools in the United States. Exeter is based on the Harkness education system, a conference format of student interaction with minimal teacher involvement. It has the largest endowment of any New England boarding school, which as of June 30, 2017, was valued at $1.25 billion. On January 25, 2019, William K. Rawson was appointed by the Academy's trustees as the 16th Principal Instructor. He is the 4th alumnus of Exeter to serve as Principal Instructor, after Gideon Lane Soule (1838–1873), Harlan Amen (1895 –1913), and William Saltonstall (1946–1963).

Phillips Exeter Academy has educated several generations of the New England establishment and prominent American politicians, but has introduced many programs to diversify the student population, including free tuition for families whose income is $75,000 or less. In 2015–2016, over 45% of students received financial aid from grants totaling over $19 million. The school has been historically highly selective, with an acceptance rate of 15% for the 2019–2020 school year, and many graduates attend the Ivy League universities among others.Management of the school's financial and physical resources is overseen by trustees drawn from alumni. Day-to-day operations are headed by a principal, who is appointed by the trustees. The faculty of the school are responsible for governing matters relating to student life, both in and out of the classroom.The school's first enrolled class counted 56 boys; in 1970, when the decision was made to implement co-education, there were 700 boys. The 2018 Academic Year saw enrollment at 1,095 students with 884 boarding students and 211 day students. The students comprise roughly equal numbers of males and females, who are housed in 25 single-sex and 2 mixed-sex dormitories. Each residence is supervised by a dormitory head selected from the faculty.

Stratham, New Hampshire

Stratham is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The town had a population of 7,255 at the 2010 census, and an estimated population of 7,280 in 2013. It is bounded on the west by the Squamscott River. The town is the home of the only U.S. Lindt & Sprüngli factory and the headquarters of the Timberland Corporation.

The Devon School

The Devon School is a fictional school created by author John Knowles in the novels A Separate Peace and Peace Breaks Out. It is based on Knowles' alma mater, Phillips Exeter Academy. Like Phillips Exeter during World War II, Devon is a boys' boarding school in New Hampshire. Knowles places the school in a town that bears its name, specifically at the head of a quaint residential street called Gilman Street. The school "emerged naturally from the town which had produced it." A Separate Peace covers the summer of 1942 and the Winter Session of 1942-1943. The senior year students are being prepared for the war. The timeframe in Peace Breaks Out is 1946-1947. In both of these books, Devon is portrayed as a boys' preparatory school, just as Phillips Exeter was at the time; although Phillips Exeter is today a co-educational school. The Devon School is one of the most prominent fictional examples of a total institution.

Thomas Wiggin

Captain Thomas Wiggin (1601-1666)), often known as Governor Thomas Wiggin, was the first governor of the Upper Plantation of New Hampshire, a settlement that later became part of the Province of New Hampshire in 1679. He was the founder of Stratham, Rockingham, New Hampshire, which celebrated its 300th anniversary of incorporation in 2016. The son of a vicar in the Church of England with family ties to important and influential families of the era. A highly respected man in his own right who would leave his stamp on what would become American values.

Three of his children survived: Andrew, Mary and Thomas. His son Andrew married the daughter of Governor Simon Bradstreet of the Massachusetts Colony; his son Thomas' daughter Sarah Wiggin married into the family of John Sherburne of Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

William Badger (shipbuilder)

William Badger (May 26, 1752 – February 22, 1830) was a master shipbuilder operating in Kittery, Maine, United States who built more than 100 vessels.

Gulf of Maine
Long Island Sound


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