Spur

A spur is a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse or other animal to move forward or laterally while riding. It is usually used to refine the riding aids (commands) and to back up the natural aids (the leg, seat, hands, and voice). The spur is used in many equestrian disciplines. Most equestrian organizations have rules in about spur design and use and penalties for using spurs in any manner that constitutes animal abuse.

Spurs cowboy crockett
Western-style cowboy spurs with rowels, chap guards and buttons for the spur straps

Etymology

This very old word derives from Anglo-Saxon spura, spora, related to spornan, spurnan, to kick, spurn; cf. Medieval High German Sporn, modern German Sporn, Dutch spoor, Frisian nilller.[1] The generalized sense of "anything that urges on, stimulus" is recorded in English from circa 1390.

Design

SpurDiagram
Parts of a simple spur

The parts of a spur include:

  • The "yoke", "branch", or "heel band", which wraps around the heel of the boot.
  • The "shank" or "neck", which extends from the back of the yoke and is the area that touches the horse.
  • The rowel, seen on some spurs, a revolving wheel or disk with radiating "points" at the end attached to the shank.
Spur
Spur straps on an English "Prince of Wales" spur

Spurs are usually held on by a leather or leather-like spur strap that goes over the arch of the foot and under the sole in front of the boot heel. Some western designs have a leather strap that goes only over the top, with a heel chain or a rubber "tiedown" instead of a strap under the boot. Also, some styles have no straps, where the heel band is simply very tight and slips on wedged between the sole and heel of the boot. Some spur designs have a slot for running the spur strap through, others have "buttons", sometimes on the heel band itself and sometimes attached to the heel band by hinges that allow a strap with buttonholes to be attached.

When used in military ranks, senior officers, and officers of all ranks in cavalry and other formerly mounted units of some armies, wear a form of spur in certain orders of dress which is known as the box spur, having no spur strap, but a long metal prong opposite the neck, extending between the arms of the heel band, which is inserted into a specially fitted recess or "box" in the base of the boot heel. Due to the prong, such spurs can only be worn with appropriately equipped boots. This construction is shown in the photos of the swan neck and Waterford spurs below.

Spurs seen in western riding may also have small curved-up hooks on the shank in front of the rowel, called "chap guards", that were originally used to prevent the rider's chaps from interfering with the rowels of the spur. The shank angle from the yoke can vary from "full" to "one half" to "one quarter" to "straight". Some cowboys also added small metal pajados, also known as jingo bobs or jingle bobs, near the rowel, to create a jingling sound whenever the foot moved. Rowels can vary in size and number of points.

In the history of veterinary science, the word "rowel" described a small disk of leather or other material that was used as a seton stitch.

History

Rowel Spur MET DT760
"Rowel spur", circa 1400 Metropolitan Museum of Art
Spur rowel detail
Western spur rowel with jingo bobs

The spur was used by the Celts during the La Tène period (which began in the fifth century BC), and is also mentioned by Xenophon (circa 430 - 354 BC.)[2][3] Iron or bronze spurs were also used throughout the Roman Empire.[4] The spur also existed in the medieval Arab world.[5] Early spurs had a neck that ended in a point, called a prick, riveted to the heel band. Prick spurs had straight necks in the 11th century and bent ones in the 12th. The earliest form of the spur armed the heel with a single prick. In England, the rowel spur is shown upon the first seal of Henry III and on monuments of the 13th century, but it did not come into general use until the 14th century. The earliest rowels probably did not revolve, but were fixed.

The spurs of medieval knights were gilt and those of squires were silvered. To "win his spurs" meant to gain knighthood, as gilded spurs were reckoned the badge of knighthood. In the rare cases of ceremonious degradation, the spurs were hacked from the disgraced knight's heels with the cook's chopper. After the battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, where the French chivalry suffered a humbling defeat, the victors hung up bushels of knights' gilt spurs in the churches of Kortrijk as trophies of what is still remembered by the Flemings as the Guldensporenslag (the battle of the golden spurs). The English named the French rout from Thérouanne as the Battle of the Spurs, due to the rapidity of the French cavalry's flight.

Prick spurs were the standard form until the 14th century, when the rowel began to become more common. The prick design never died out entirely, but instead became a thicker, shorter neck with a dulled end, such as the modern "Prince of Wales" design commonly seen in English riding.

Victorias stövel med sporre - Livrustkammaren - 6630
Boot with spur, 19th century

Though often decorated throughout history, in the 15th century, spurs became an art form in both decoration and design, with elaborate engraving, very long shanks, and large rowels. Though sometimes it has been claimed that the design changes were used because of barding, the use of barding had fallen out of fashion by the time the most elaborate spur designs were created. More likely, the elaborate designs reflected the increased abundance of precious metals, particularly silver, that followed the European exploration of the Americas that began in 1492. Spur designs in Spain and colonial Mexico were particularly elaborate. For example, the spurs of the Spanish conquistadores were sometimes called espuela grande, the "grand spur", and could have rowels as large as 6 inches around.[6]

In northern Europe, the spur became less elaborate after the 16th century, particularly following the Stuart Restoration, but elaborate spur designs persisted, particularly in the Americas, descendants of which are still seen today, particularly in Mexico and the western United States, where the spur has become an integral part of the vaquero and cowboy traditions. The spur as an art form, as well as a tool, is still seen in western riding, where spurs with engraving and other artistic elements, often handmade and using silver or other precious metals, are still worn.

Collecting of particularly beautiful antique spurs is a popular pastime for some individuals, particularly aficionados of western history and cowboy culture.

Spurs as modern honours

Just as a medieval knight was said to have "earned his spurs", the awarding of spurs has continued in the modern era as an honour bestowed upon individuals in organizations with military heritages, and among motorcycle riders. Members of the Papal Orders of Knighthood receive gilt spurs directly from the hands of the pope; members of the British Order of the Garter similarly receive gilt spurs from the monarch. Inductees into the American Order of the Spur receive gold-coloured (usually brass) spurs if they have earned their membership through combat, or silver-coloured (usually nickel) spurs if they have not seen combat, but complete a rite of passage.

Basic designs and wear

Spurs are worn with the tip of the neck pointed downward, sitting on the spur rest of the riding boot, if there is one, with the buckle of the spur strap worn on the outside of the foot.

Spur styles differ between disciplines. Spurs for western riding tend to be heavier, often decorated, and have rowels that rotate. The neck of western spurs is usually longer and the rowel wide in diameter, to accommodate the leg position of the western-style rider, where the stirrup is adjusted long, and the heavy leather used for the saddle's fenders and stirrups places the rider's leg a bit farther from the horse.

Spur2
English riding spur

Spurs in English riding tend to be very sleek, slim, and conservative in design, with a shorter neck, as the saddle and leg position is closer to the horse. They usually have a rounded or blunt end. Rowels are not as popular as the plain blunt end, although some types include a rowel or smooth disk on the end. When used in sports requiring finesse, such as dressage, the spur's purpose is not to speed up the horse, but to give accurate and precise aids in lateral and complex movements, such as pirouettes, travers, and renvers, and the airs above the ground. Dressage riders tend to ride in Waterford- style spurs with a rounded knob at the end. Conversely, show hunter and jumper riders may use a flatter end to encourage forward movement, such as the Prince of Wales design.

Motorcycle spurs
Motorcycle spurs from Loop Spurs

Another type of modern spur is those used on motorcycles. They are characterized by rowels worn as foot jewelry, hung off of boots. They can be similar in appearance to spurs worn by equestrians. Their bright material attracts motor vehicle drivers to the presence of motorcyclists, especially to their feet where riders are most vulnerable when stopped in traffic. Their owners may further customize them by adding miniature strobing LED lights. They are also awarded by motorcycle clubs.

Equestrian use

The spur is a refined tool, designed to allow the rider to transmit very subtle signals to the horse that are nearly invisible to any other observer. No matter the discipline, it is important that a rider has a correct position before using spurs, with a deep seat, legs lengthened to the extent allowed by the stirrups, heels down, with knees and thighs rolled in so that the rider has a solid base of support. A swinging or unstable leg may inadvertently jab the horse with the spur as the rider sits, thus irritating, harming, and frightening the horse, and chronic misuse may deaden it to the leg aids. Improper use may also provoke dangerous or undesirable behaviors such as bucking or running away.

Spurs are rarely used in sports such as horse racing, where the rider's leg is not significantly in contact with the horse.

Most spurs are activated by the rider flexing the heel slightly up and in. A roweled spur permits an additional type of action; a rider can roll the spur lightly against the side of the horse rather than being limited to simply pressing inward.

Rodeo spurring

Barrel racing spur pair
A pair of barrel-racing spurs with unique nonrowel design

The exception to the use of spurs in a subtle fashion is in the rodeo events of bull riding and saddle bronc and bareback riding, where the rider is required to spur in an elaborate, stylized fashion, touching the horse or bull at every stride. This requirement is designed to resemble the behavior of old-time horse-breakers, who would deliberately provoke a horse to buck. In modern times, riders are required to use spurs in a manner that is merely encouraging a horse that is already predisposed to buck; they are not to produce pain. Spur design and use is strictly defined by rodeo rules, spurs are dull, and rowels must turn freely. In fact, the way spurs are to be used in bucking events generally makes it harder for the rider to stay on; in bareback bronc competition, the spurs must be above the point of the horse's shoulder at the first jump and remain forward at all times, deliberately creating a very awkward position for the rider that requires both strength and coordination to stay on the horse. In saddle-bronc competition, the rider must make a full sweep with the spurs from shoulder to flank with each jump, requiring great concentration, and any error in balance puts the rider in a position to be quickly unseated. Bull riders are allowed a position that is the closest to that of classic riding, they are not required to spur the bull, but if they choose to spur, may do so with their legs down in a style that resembles a normal riding position.

Types

Ep gdgalle
Prince of Wales
Ep molettelisse
Disc
Klack- eller skruvsporre, Nordisk familjebok
Swan neck, rowels
Danssporre, Nordisk familjebok
Waterford spur

Spurs are divided into men's, women's, and children's, according to width (which must fit on the heel of the rider's boot). Spurs are further divided according to the length of the neck, with 14 in (0.6 cm) being relatively small (and a common size in children's spurs), with some being 2–3 in (5–7.5 cm) long. Many competition rules limit the length of the neck.

  • Round end: The end is a metal ball about the size of a small marble, making it one of the milder spurs.
  • Knob end: The end of the spur is squared off, but blunted at the edges.
  • Prince of Wales: This style has a flat end, making it slightly sharper. It is a popular spur style.
  • Rowelled spur: The end of the spur has a toothed wheel which spins. This is the most common western-style spur, although it is seen on some English-style spurs. Teeth are dulled at the points. A rowel with many small teeth is milder than one with only a few, larger teeth. Most rowels have at least eight teeth on each wheel. Other variations, more common in English riding, include:
    • Disc: The end has a small rowel-like rolling disc without teeth, which allows the spur to roll on the horse's side when applied, decreasing chance of spur marks. Popular in dressage, its severity depends on the thickness of the disc.
    • Roller spur: The end of the neck has a plastic "roller," which moves as the horse's side is touched. This spur tends to reduce spur-rubs on sensitive horses. It is considered very mild.
  • Swan neck: The neck of the spur goes upward at an angle, before leveling off, looking similar to the neck of a swan. This is commonly seen in dressage.
  • Waterford: The end of the neck has a large, round, metal ball, making the spur softer and less likely to cause spur rubs.
  • Le spur (English) or barrel-racing spur (western): The spur has small "teeth" or ridges on the inside of the heel band, instead of a neck. For use, the rider does not have to turn in the heel. A quicker and more subtle design, it is also more apt to be accidentally used when not intended.
  • Half-mounted: The spur is decorated on one side only with silver, copper, or bronze decals, logos, or coverings.
  • Full-mounted or double-mounted: The spur is decorated on both sides (in and out) with precious metals, images, and designs.

References

  1. ^ "spur - Search Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
  2. ^ p. 115, An early history of horsemanship, Augusto Azzaroli, Brill, 1985, ISBN 90-04-07233-0.
  3. ^ "La Tène", entry, p. 353, A dictionary of archaeology, Ian Shaw and Robert Jameson, 6th illustrated ed., Wiley-Blackwell, 2002, ISBN 0-631-23583-3.
  4. ^ p. 82, Handbook to life in ancient Rome, Roy A. Adkins, reprint ed., Oxford University Press US, 1998, ISBN 0-19-512332-8.
  5. ^ Metin Boşnak, Cem Ceyhan (Fall 2003), "Riding the Horse, Writing the Cultural Myth: The European Knight and the American Cowboy as Equestrian Heroes", Turkish Journal of International Relations, 2 (1): 157–181 [175]
  6. ^ Overton, Joice. "Collecting Cowboy Spurs" New England Antiques Journal. Web page accessed October 12, 2007
Branch line

A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a main line. A very short branch line may be called a spur line. David Blyth Hanna, the first president of the Canadian National Railway, said that although most branch lines cannot pay for themselves, they are essential to make main lines pay.

Broad Street Line

The Broad Street Line (BSL)—also known as the Broad Street Subway (BSS), Orange Line, or Broad Line—is a subway line owned by the city of Philadelphia and operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA). The line runs primarily north-south from the Fern Rock Transportation Center in North Philadelphia to Pattison Avenue in South Philadelphia; the latter station provides access to the stadiums and arenas for the city's major professional sports teams, about a quarter mile away. It is named for Broad Street, the street under which it runs for almost its entire length. The line, which is entirely underground except for the northern terminus at Fern Rock, has four tracks in a local/express configuration from Fern Rock to Walnut-Locust and two tracks from Lombard-South to the southern terminus at NRG station. It is one of only two rapid transit lines in the SEPTA system overall alongside the Market–Frankford Line, although downtown Philadelphia is also served by four stations of the PATCO Speedline rapid transit line which runs between downtown Philadelphia through Camden, New Jersey to Lindenwold, New Jersey.

The line and its trains were leased to SEPTA in 1968 after it assumed operation of the city transit systems from the former Philadelphia Transportation Company (PTC). Broad Street Line subway cars bear both the SEPTA logo and the seal of the City of Philadelphia to reflect the split ownership-operation arrangement.

Business route

A business route (occasionally business loop or city route) in the United States is a short special route connected to a parent numbered highway at its beginning, then routed through the central business district of a nearby city or town, and finally reconnecting with the same parent numbered highway again at its end.

Exostosis

An exostosis (pronounced ek·sow·stow·suhs and derived from ex- meaning outside and osteon- meaning bone), also known as bone spur, is the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone. Exostoses can cause chronic pain ranging from mild to debilitatingly severe, depending on the shape, size, and location of the lesion. It is most commonly found in places like the ribs, where small bone growths form, but sometimes larger growths can grow on places like the ankles, knees, shoulders, elbows and hips. Very rarely are they on the skull.

Exostoses are sometimes shaped like spurs, such as calcaneal spurs.

Osteomyelitis, a bone infection, may leave the adjacent bone with exostosis formation. Charcot foot, the neuropathic breakdown of the feet seen primarily in diabetics, can also leave bone spurs that may then become symptomatic.

They normally form on the bones of joints, and can grow upwards. For example, if an extra bone formed on the ankle, it might grow up to the shin.

When used in the phrases "cartilaginous exostosis" or "osteocartilaginous exostosis", the term is considered synonymous with osteochondroma. Some sources consider the two terms to mean the same thing even without qualifiers, but this interpretation is not universal.

Gear

A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth (called cogs), which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation.

The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed, belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage.

When two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds, and the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion to their diameters.

In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles, motorcycles, and cars—the term "gear" as in "first gear" refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear. The term describes similar devices, even when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.

K2

K2 (Urdu: کے ٹو‎, Kai Ṭū), also known as Mount Godwin-Austen or Chhogori (Balti and Urdu: چھوغوری‎, Chinese: 乔戈里峰 Qiáogēlǐ fēng), at 8,611 metres (28,251 ft) above sea level, is the second highest mountain in the world, after Mount Everest at 8,848 metres (29,029 ft). It is located on the China–Pakistan border between Baltistan in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, and the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County of Xinjiang, China. K2 is the highest point of the Karakoram range and the highest point in both Pakistan and Xinjiang.

K2 is known as the Savage Mountain after George Bell, a climber on the 1953 American Expedition, told reporters "It's a savage mountain that tries to kill you." Of the five highest mountains in the world, K2 is the deadliest where approximately one person dies on the mountain for every four who reach the summit. Other names for K2 are The King of Mountains and The Mountaineers' Mountain., as well as The Mountain of Mountains after climber Reinhold Messner titled his book about K2 the same. K2 is the only eight thousand meter peak that has never been climbed during winter or from its East Face. Ascents have almost always been made in July and August, the warmest times of year; K2's more northern location makes it more susceptible to inclement and colder weather.The peak has now been climbed by almost all of its ridges. Although the summit of Everest is at a higher altitude, K2 is a more difficult and dangerous climb, due in part to its more inclement weather and comparatively greater height from base to peak. As of June 2018, only 367 people have completed the ascent. 86 people have died attempting the climb according to the list maintained on the List of deaths on eight-thousanders.

The summit was reached for the first time by the Italian climbers Lino Lacedelli and Achille Compagnoni, on the 1954 Italian Karakoram expedition led by Ardito Desio.

List of Nebraska Connecting Link, Spur, and Recreation Highways

Nebraska Connecting Link, Nebraska Spur, and Nebraska Recreation Road highways are a secondary part of the Nebraska highway system. They connect small towns and state parks to the primary Nebraska highway system. All of these highways are maintained by the Nebraska Department of Roads.

A connecting link, or simply a link, highway connects two primary highways. A spur highway is a highway which goes from a primary highway to a city or state park not on any other highway. A recreation road is a road in a state park, which is designated as such by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, though maintained by NDOR.

Highways are generally marked in the format of S-x-Y or L-x-Y, where S or L indicates whether it is a spur or a link, x is the county the highway is in, with ranking in alphabetical order (1 is Adams County, while 93 is York County), and Y is the letter which "numbers" the highway. Recreation Roads are typically unsigned.

List of business routes of the Interstate Highway System

The Interstate Highway System of the United States, in addition to being a network of freeways, also includes a number of Business Routes assigned by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. The routes are signed with green shields resembling the Interstate Highway shield. The word BUSINESS is used instead of INTERSTATE, and, above the number, where the state name is sometimes included, the word LOOP or SPUR appears. A business loop has both ends as its "parent", while a business spur has a "dangling end", sometimes running from the end of the Interstate to the downtown area.

As the main purpose of a Business Interstate is to serve a downtown area, it is typically routed on surface roads. Thus Business Interstates do not meet Interstate Highway standards. AASHTO does, however, apply similar standards as to new U.S. Routes, requiring a new Business Interstate to meet certain design standards. Business Interstates are also sometimes routed onto freeways that were once designated as mainline Interstates themselves (such as Interstate 40 Business in Winston-Salem, North Carolina and Interstate 80 Business in Sacramento, California).

Unlike auxiliary Interstate Highways, business Interstates can be repeated in several locations in the same state.

List of motorways in the United Kingdom

The list of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom. Note that the numbering scheme used for Great Britain does not include roads in Northern Ireland, which are allocated numbers on an ad hoc basis.

List of state highway spurs in Texas

This is a list of state highways in the U.S. state of Texas with Spur designations.

Orion Arm

The Orion Arm is a minor spiral arm of the Milky Way galaxy that is 3,500 light-years (1,100 parsecs) across and approximately 10,000 light-years (3,100 parsecs) in length, containing the Solar System, including the Earth. It is also referred to by its full name, the Orion–Cygnus Arm, as well as Local Arm, Orion Bridge, and formerly, the Local Spur and Orion Spur.

The arm is named for the Orion constellation, which is one of the most prominent constellations of Northern Hemisphere winter (Southern Hemisphere summer). Some of the brightest stars and most famous celestial objects of the constellation (e.g. Betelgeuse, Rigel, the three stars of Orion's Belt, the Orion Nebula) are within it as shown on the interactive map below.

The arm is between the Carina–Sagittarius Arm (the local portions of which are toward the Galactic Center) and the Perseus Arm (the local portion of which is the main outer-most arm and one of two major arms of the galaxy).

Long thought to be a minor structure, namely a "spur" between the two arms mentioned, evidence was presented in mid 2013 that the Orion Arm might be a branch of the Perseus Arm, or possibly an independent arm segment.Within the arm, the Solar System is close to its inner rim, in a relative cavity in the arm's Interstellar Medium known as the Local Bubble, about halfway along the arm's length, approximately 8,000 parsecs (26,000 light-years) from the Galactic Center.

Pitcher plant

Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid. The traps of what are considered to be "true" pitcher plants are formed by specialized leaves. The plants attract and drown their prey with nectar.

Plantar fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin. The pain typically comes on gradually, and it affects both feet in about one third of cases.The causes of plantar fasciitis are not entirely clear. Risk factors include overuse such as from long periods of standing, an increase in exercise, and obesity. It is also associated with inward rolling of the foot, a tight Achilles tendon, and a lifestyle that involves little exercise. While heel spurs are frequently found it is unclear if they have a role in causing the condition. Plantar fasciitis is a disorder of the insertion site of the ligament on the bone characterized by micro tears, breakdown of collagen, and scarring. Since inflammation plays either a lesser or no role, a review proposed it be renamed plantar fasciosis. The diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms; ultrasound is sometimes useful. Other conditions with similar symptoms include osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, heel pad syndrome, and reactive arthritis.Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. For the first few weeks, those affected are usually advised to rest, change their activities, take pain medications, and stretch. If this is not sufficient, physiotherapy, orthotics, splinting, or steroid injections may be options. If these measures are not effective, extracorporeal shockwave therapy or surgery may be tried.Between 4% and 7% of the general population has heel pain at any given time: about 80% of these are due to plantar fasciitis. Approximately 10% of people have the disorder at some point during their life. It becomes more common with age. It is unclear if one sex is more affected than the other.

Red Delicious

The Red Delicious is a clone of apple cultigen, now comprising more than 50 cultivars, first recognized in Madison County, Iowa, in 1880. According to the US Apple Association website, it is one of the fifteen most popular apple cultivars in the United States.

Shoot

In botany, shoots consist of stems including their appendages, the leaves and lateral buds, flowering stems and flower buds. The new growth from seed germination that grows upward is a shoot where leaves will develop. In the spring, perennial plant shoots are the new growth that grows from the ground in herbaceous plants or the new stem or flower growth that grows on woody plants.

In everyday speech, shoots are often synonymous with stems. Stems, which are an integral component of shoots, provide an axis for buds, fruits, and leaves.

Young shoots are often eaten by animals because the fibres in the new growth have not yet completed secondary cell wall development, making the young shoots softer and easier to chew and digest. As shoots grow and age, the cells develop secondary cell walls that have a hard and tough structure. Some plants (e.g. bracken) produce toxins that make their shoots inedible or less palatable.

Spur castle

A spur castle is a type of medieval fortification that uses its location as a defensive feature. The name refers to the location on a spur projecting from a hill. Ideally, a spur castle would be defended on three sides by steep hillsides, with the only vulnerable side the one where the spur joins the next hill.

Depending on the local topography, a spur castle may depend mostly on its inaccessible location, or combine it with defensive features such as walls and towers. A typical feature is a neck ditch cutting off the spur from the rest of the hill. When the spur is long and narrow, the term ridge castle is sometimes used as well.

A long spur castle is sometimes, but not always, subdivided into a lower ward and a more strongly defended upper ward (or even a succession of three or more wards).

Spur and hilltop castles were introduced by the Franks in order to hinder the deployment of the increasing use of the counterweight trebuchet. In the case of spur castles, heavy siege machinery could only be deployed on the uphill side enabling defensive works and forces to be concentrated there.

Spur route

A spur route is a short road forming a branch from a longer, more important road such as a freeway, Interstate Highway, or motorway. A bypass or beltway should not be considered a true spur route as it typically reconnects with another or the same major road.

Texas State Highway Loop 1

Loop 1 is a freeway which provides access to the west side of Austin in the U.S. state of Texas. It is named Mopac Expressway (or, according to some highway signs, Mopac Boulevard) after the Missouri Pacific Railroad (or "MoPac"). Local residents will invariably use the name "MoPac" rather than calling the road by its number which can cause much confusion as few signs along the road use this name. Adding to the confusion, the road goes in a mostly straight line rather than a loop.

The original section of the highway was built in the 1970s along the right-of-way of the Missouri Pacific Railroad (now owned by Union Pacific), with the railroad tracks running in the highway median between West 8th Street and Northland Drive. To the north, the tracks run along the east side of newer sections of the highway from Northland Drive to Braker Lane.

Vine training

The use of vine training systems in viticulture is aimed primarily to assist in canopy management with finding the balance in enough foliage to facilitate photosynthesis without excessive shading that could impede grape ripening or promote grape diseases. Additional benefits of utilizing particular training systems could be to control potential yields and to facilitate mechanization of certain vineyard tasks such as pruning, irrigation, applying pesticide or fertilizing sprays as well as harvesting the grapes.In deciding on what type of vine training system to use, growers will also consider the climate conditions of the vineyard where the amount of sunlight, humidity and wind could have a large impact on the exact benefits the training system offers. For instance, while having a large spread out canopy (such as what the Geneva Double Curtain offers) can promote a favorable leaf to fruit ratio for photosynthesis, it offers very little wind protection. In places such as the Châteauneuf-du-Pape, strong prevailing winds such as le mistral can take the fruit right off the vine so a more condensed, protective vine training system is desirable for vineyards there.While closely related, the terms trellising, pruning and vine training are often used interchangeably even though they refer to different things. Technically speaking, the trellis refers to the actual stakes, posts, wires or other structures that the grapevine is attached to. Some vines are allowed to grow free standing without any attachment to a trellising structure. Part of the confusion between trellising and vine training systems stems from the fact that vine training systems will often take on the name of the particular type of trellising involved. Pruning refers to the cutting and shaping of the cordon or "arms" of the grapevine in winter which will determine the number of buds that are allowed to become grape clusters. In some wine regions, such as France, the exact number of buds is outlined by Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) regulations. During the summer growing season, pruning can involve removing young plant shoots or excess bunches of grapes with green harvesting. Vine training systems utilize the practice of trellising and pruning in order to dictate and control a grape vine's canopy which will influence not only the potential yield of that year's crop but also the quality of the grapes due to the access of air and sunlight needed for the grapes to ripen fully and for preventing various grape diseases.

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